City Centre Points of Interest:
Additional Points of Interest in the Vicinity:
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Historical Cities-Dublin, Ireland is based on numerous historic travel guides dating from the 19th century. Our goal at Caddo Publications USA is to bring that wealth of information to today’s traveler. Using those travel tomes from the period, and today’s numerous historical preservation databases, we have created a historical travel guide that strives to be an entertaining, educational, and thorough guide to the rich history of the city of Dublin.
Historical Cities-Dublin, Ireland provides information about the historic sites and landmarks within the city centre of Dublin and in the surrounding vicinity. It is not our desire to dramatize the history or expand on it in any way. We believe that the character and culture of the city can speak for itself. The guide has been created, not for just travelers new to the city, but for current residents who may not realize what lies just around the corner in their own neighborhood. This is not intended to be an exhaustive guide to all sites, as the individual traveler will find their own historical treasures amongst the landmarks we present.
Edited from Historical Guide to the City of Dublin, by G.N. Wright, printed in 1825.
The City of Dublin anciently stood on the south side of the river Anna Liffey, an inconsiderable stream, and not far from Dublin Bay. The name Dublin is derived from Dub-leana, "the place of the black harbour;" and the name of the river from Auin Louifta, “the swift river," being merely a mountain torrent. Mac Turkill, the Dane, erected a residence on the northern side of the river, which was called after the invaders Eastmantown, since corrupted into Oxmantown; but he afterwards removed to the southern side. In 1172 and 1173, Henry II erected a temporary palace near the site of St. Andrew's Church, where he entertained the Irish princes, and received their promise of submission to be governed by the laws of England, and held a parliament at the same time. Thirty-seven years after, when King John arrived in
Dublin, and governed the kingdom in person, he received here the homage of many Irish princes, established courts of justice, and directed the Bishop of Norwich to reduce the coin of Ireland to the English standard. In 1216, Henry III granted Magna Charta to the inhabitants of Dublin, and the following year gave the city to the citizens, in fee, for 200 marks per annum. The civil government of Dublin was formerly committed to a Provost and Bailiffs. In 1409, Thomas, Duke of Lancaster, the King's son, being Lord Lieutenant, the title of the chief magistrate was changed to that of Mayor. Charles II granted a company of foot soldiers to attend the Mayor, changed the title to Lord Mayor. The first who bore the title of Lord Mayor was Sir Daniel Bellingham. Arthur, Earl of Essex, considerably improved the civil establishment of Dublin, and George II regulated the corporation.
James II held a parliament in Dublin, for the purpose of repealing all the Acts of Settlement; and with great cruelty and dishonour, forced upon the inhabitants the basest coin that ever was put into circulation; he caused all the useless brass and pewter in the ordnance stores to be melted down, cast, and stamped, and the value of each piece was to be estimated by the impress marked upon it, not by its real value. His treatment of the University exceeded, if possible, the baseness of his other acts; he directed them to receive an inefficient person to fill one of their senior fellowships, which they, with becoming dignity, resisted, upon which a military force was led against them, and many of the members cast into prison; they were, however, after some time, released from confinement, on the express condition, that if they re-assembled, they should be punished with death. The general opinion is that James intended to convert the University into a college of Jesuits. He, however, bestowed the Provostship upon Moor, a Popish prelate, a man possessed of a great love of letters, and who succeeded in preserving the books and manuscripts from the hands of the soldiery. About two years after, the insulted heads of the University had a powerful proof of the just punishment that awaits the sinner even in this world, in the overthrow of James at the battle of the Boyne, and his precipitate flight into France. On this occasion, Robert Fitz-Gerald, ancestor of the Duke of Leinster, seized on the city in the name of King William, and after expelling all the followers of the misguided James, restored the University and civil magistracy into the hands of Protestants.
After the accession of William, Ireland enjoyed almost perfect tranquility for nearly a century. In 1729, an attempt was made, to supersede the necessity of holding a parliament in Ireland, by procuring the supplies for the succeeding twenty-one years. Fortunately, this attempt was frustrated, and the motion lost by a majority of one. Parliament then sat in the Blue-coat Hospital in Oxmantown Green; but in that year the first stone was laid of the Parliament House in College Green (later the Bank of Ireland), when John Lord Carteret was Lord Lieutenant. In 1768, Dr. Lucas, representative of the City, framed an Act, limiting the duration of parliament to eight years. In 1798, when Lord Camden was chief governor, rebellion broke out in the counties of Kildare, Wexford, and Wicklow, which extended over the principal part of the kingdom before it was suppressed, and during which period many persons were executed.
After a lapse of two years, the rebellion completely subsided, but in 1800 the city was thrown into great confusion and disorder, by the introduction of the Act of Union between Great Britain and Ireland. This measure seriously changed the appearance of Dublin: with the removal of its parliament the nobility of Ireland withdrew to England, and left their palaces in Dublin either to fall to decay, or be converted into public offices, hotels, or charitable institutions. The residence of the Duke of Leinster, the most splendid in Dublin, became the Dublin-Society's House. The Stamp-office was kept in the mansion of the Powerscourt family. That of the late countess of Moira was fitted up for Mendicants, by the Association. Aldborough house was converted into a classical school. The Marquis of Drogheda's was been purchased by the Bible Society, and part of it transformed into a book-shop. And the Marquis of Sligo's became a hotel.
While the public mind was still inflamed at the Act of Union having passed, it was not likely to be calmed by the emigration of the nobles; some of whom having disposed of their estates in Ireland, set sail with the intention of never re-visiting their native land. In this situation of affairs, Robert Emmet, a man to whom nature had given the means of arriving at the highest honours in the state, placed himself at the head of a body of insurgents, who rose on the 23rd of July, 1803, in Thomas-street, so unexpectedly, that the first intimation of the insurrection received at the castle, was given by the Hon. Miss Wolfe, whose father, Lord Kilwarden, had been dragged from his carriage, and murdered in the streets. The insurgents were first met by Mr. Wilson, a magistrate, with a small body of men, and afterwards by Lieutenant Brady of the 21st regiment, who with a party of 40 soldiers, succeeded in totally dispersing the mob, five of whom were killed and many taken prisoners. The insurgents then withdrew, after having merely succeeded in alarming the government. Immediately after, Emmet and his accomplices were arrested, tried, condemned and executed.
As the upper and middle classes gradually deserted Dublin in favour of London, the city was subjected to a huge influx of starving and destitute people with the onset of the Great Famine in 1845. Unlike Belfast, Dublin had largely missed out on the opportunities of the Industrial Revolution and with the exception of the Guinness Brewery and Jacob’s biscuit factory, it was largely devoid of major industry. By 1900, Dublin had become the second city of Ireland, with Belfast surpassing it in both in both population and wealth. Dublin’s economic viability was further hampered by the ‘Lockout’ of 1913 which was the most bitter trade dispute ever seen in either Britain or Ireland. Six months of vicious rioting and strikes had left three people dead and the city’s economy in ruins. Further upheaval would hit the city three years later when almost one and half thousand rebels captured many of the cities key buildings, most notably the General Post Office. Seven days of bitter fighting saw almost four hundred people killed and the destruction of many of the city’s most important buildings. The subsequent mass executions of rebels would swing popular support in favour of the revolution. Four years later, on the day popularly known as Bloody Sunday, British soldiers stormed the Croke Park sports ground killing 14 spectators and wounding a further 65. Despite this and other atrocities, the rebels managed to win Independence for the 26 of the 32 counties of Ireland in 1921. Dublin, however, had not seen the last of the fighting, as it would become a major battle ground of the Irish Civil War when in 1923, anti-Treaty soldiers captured and garrisoned the Four Courts for two days. Although Ireland’s neutrality allowed Dublin to remain relatively unscathed by the Second World War, the city was accidentally bombed by the Nazis four times. The most serious of these bombings occurred on May 31st, 1941, killing 34 civilians. Dublin did not escape the economic costs of the war either. The city endured heavy rationing during the war which would continue over the following decades.
The 1960’s and 1970’s was a period of significant renovation for the city of Dublin during which the tenement housing which had come to dominate the inner-city was torn down. Although efforts to move housing and industry into the suburbs had many positive effects, it did threaten the destruction of much of the city’s most beloved architecture. However, the foundation of organizations such as the ‘Friends of Medieval Dublin’ and the ‘Irish Georgian Society’ has provided for the preservation and restoration of much of Dublin’s trademark buildings. Dublin would be at the heart the unprecedented economic growth experienced in Ireland between 1990 and 2007. The so-called ‘Celtic Tiger’, saw huge inward investment into Dublin with multi-national firms choosing Dublin as the location of their European headquarters. The effects on Dublin would not be purely economic. The period also saw significant immigration to the city from Asia, Eastern Europe and Africa, adding to the cultural diversity of the city.[i]
Of the ancient city, which was walled in by the Danes in the 9th century, the walls, which may still be traced, did not exceed one mile in length. From the north tower of the castle they were continued over Cork Hill, near which was an entrance called Dame's-gate, looking towards Hoggin's (now College) green. Near Essex Bridge stood another entrance, called Essex-gate, erected on the site of Isod's Tower. The wall then extended north-northwest along the river, to the end of Fishamble-street. Here stood Fyan's Castle, which was sometimes used as a state prison. It then proceeded along Wood Quay to the end of Wine-tavern-street, where was another tower, and continuing still by the river, joined a castle, through which was one of the principal entrances into the city, opposite Bridge-street. The next traces are to be found on the west side of Bridge-street in New-row, thence it stretched up the hill to Cut-Purse-row, at the end of which stood Newgate, where criminals of the worst description were imprisoned: some of the towers are still to be seen at the rear of the houses in Cut-Purse-row and Corn-market. From Corn-market, it ran at the rear of Back-lane to Nicholas-gate; thence it passed between Ross-lane and Bride's-alley to Pool-gate, or as it was afterwards called Welburgh's-gate; from thence it proceeded in a straight line until it united with the castle at Birmingham Tower.
In 1669, the population of Dublin amounted to 8,159. Dublin is situated immediately opposite the coast of North Wales. It is not more than one mile from the bay of that name, which is a large semi-circular basin about eight miles in diameter, into which the Liffey empties itself, after running through the city, which it divides into two equal parts, in a direction from west to east. This large bay was rendered peculiarly dangerous by the breakers and shallows caused by two large sand banks, called the North and South Bulls. The perils of a midnight approach to the city were greatly diminished by the erection of a mole of 30 feet in breadth, and 8,560 yards in length, extending into the bay, on the extremity of which stands a light-house of a circular form, and particularly light and elegant construction. The difficulty of erecting a building of three stories in height, in such a situation was very great, and may fairly be compared to those attending the erection of the Eddistone or Tuscard Light-houses, as it is in never-ending conflict with winds and waves. The north side of the harbour is sheltered by the hill of Howth, a peninsula of considerable extent; on the most prominent point of which, called the Bailey, another light-house is erected, corresponding to the one in the centre of the bay, thus rendering the entrance of the harbour perfectly distinct at all seasons. Under the north-west side of this mountain, an extensive pier has been built, and a spacious harbour enclosed, where the Holyhead packets put in. Another pier was completed, at the south side of the bay, to afford shelter for shipping when they cannot make the pier of Howth; this wall, which has several turns to avoid the accumulation of sand, was built of mountain-granite, drawn from the hills of Killiney, and is called the King's-town pier.
The bay of Dublin has long been celebrated for its picturesque beauty. Howth, from its height and situation, has been considered not unlike Vesuvius on the bay of Naples, and the majestic amphitheater of mountains encompassing Dublin, forms a most sublime and perfect back-ground to the scene. The mouth of the river was guarded by a strong fortress on the south wall, called the Pigeon-house, where a corps of artillery was stationed. From Ringsend point, where the Liffey discharges its waters into the bay, the stone quays of Dublin commence, and continue on both sides of the river for the space of three mile; and the advantages derived from the embanking of an Unwholesome stream, by granite walls, of such extent and workmanship as are not exceeded by any city in Europe, were not dearly purchased at the expense of a trifling yearly tribute.
1) College Green (College Street, Dame Street, and Grafton Street)
College-green, where it stands, was formerly Hoggin Green, so called from the village Hogges, which was near this place. In 1146, Dermod Mac Murrough, King of Leinster, founded a nunnery in the vicinity of this green, which, with the village, is supposed to take its name from the Irish word hoige, the genitive case of of a virgin, and would seem to imply the place of virgins. Hoggin Green extended from where Exchequer Street now stands to the south, to the Liffey, and was the common place for the execution of criminals. Part of this green took the name of College Green, after the erection of the University in its vicinity. The citizens formerly exercised themselves on this green at archery. [ii]
2) Trinity College (College Green)
It is stated by some writers, that seminaries were established in Ireland, even in Pagan times, in a colony of Grecians; and that the Druids had schools for the instruction of youth in the principles of their religion. All the ancient Irish historians, however, agree that in the year A. M. 3236 (Anno Mundi (Latin: "in the year of the world") (approximately 465 B.C.), Ollamh Fodlah, King of Ireland, erected at Tarah a college for learned men, which he called Alur-Ollamhan, the walls of the Bards. In the sixth and seventh centuries, after the introduction of Christianity, many eminent schools were established in Ireland, to which youths from various parts of Europe resorted for instruction, as we have already stated, yet few traces of the literary exertions of the ancient inhabitants remain. About the year 1311, a bull was procured by the Archbishop of Dublin, from Pope Clement V for the foundation of a University, but his death prevented the project from being carried into execution. In 1320, Archbishop De Bicknor procured a confirmation of the bull, and erected, in Saint Patrick's Church, a University, but it soon fell into decay. In 1591, Henry Ussher, afterwards Archbishop of Armagh, obtained a royal charter, and mortmain licence, from Queen Elizabeth, for the site of the dissolved Monastery of All Saints, granted by the city, on which the present University was founded, and called the “College of the Holy and undivided Trinity, near Dublin." The charter further appointed that there should be a Provost, three Fellows, and three Scholars. The first stone of Trinity College was laid on the 13th of March, 1591, and students were admitted on the 9th of January, 1593. Archbishop Loftus was appointed the first Provost; Henry Ussher, A.M., Luke Chaloner, A. M., and Launcelot Moyne, A.B. the three first Fellows; and Henry Lee, William Daniel, and Stephen White, the three first Scholars. The original charter empowered the surviving Fellows to elect to a vacant Provostship, but this was altered by a subsequent charter, with a new code of statutes in 1637, which vested the right in the English crown.
The present Trinity College is justly considered one of the most noble structures of the kind in Europe. The front, which was erected in 1759, extends about one hundred yards, and is built of Portland stone. The depth is about two hundred yards, and is divided into two quadrangles, called the Parliament Square, and the Library Square. The front is decorated with an angular pediment supported by Corinthian columns, and terminates in pavilions on the north and south, ornamented with coupled pilasters of the same order, supporting an attic story. In the centre of the vestibule is an entrance into the Museum, which is open to the public from one to two o'clock daily. It contains a collection of Irish fossils, minerals, and various curiosities, among which are the harp of Brian Boru, an old painting of the Spanish army besieged in Kinsale in 1601, the skeleton of an antediluvian moose deer, and two Egyptian mummies.
The Parliament Square, which takes its name from its having been chiefly built by Parliamentary grants amounting to upwards of £40,000, is entirely built of hewn stone, and besides numerous apartments for the fellows and students, contains the chapel, the theatre or examination hall, and the refectory. On the north side of the square stands the chapel, a very fine building, and the interior is fitted up in a superior style. In 1787, Parliament granted £12,000 for its erection, but it cost more. On the same side is the refectory, with an Ionic pediment in front, supported by pilasters. This hall is capable of accommodating three hundred persons at dinner.
The theatre stands on the south side, the front of which is decorated by a fine pediment supported by four Corinthian columns. The interior measures eighty feet by forty, and has a rich Mosaic ceiling in groined arches, supported by composite columns. The walls are ornamented with portraits, and on the west side is a fine monument to the memory of Dr. Baldwin, who bequeathed £80,000 to the University.
The Library forms the south side of the square to which it gives name, and was built of hewn stone in 1732. It consists of an extensive centre, and two advanced pavillions, with a rich Corinthian entablature, crowned with a balustrade. The room which is appropriated to the books is two hundred and ten feet long, forty one broad, and forty high. Between the divisions of the shelves are fluted Corinthian columns, which support a spacious gallery of varnished oak: the columns are adorned with busts of distinguished characters, executed in white marble.
To the north of the Library Square there was a third square, called Botany Bay, which was of greater dimensions than either of the other two. In a temporary building in this square was suspended the College bell, the largest and best-toned in the kingdom. The exterior of this square presented a front of hewn stone to Pearse Street (formerly known as New or Great Brunswick Street), ninety yards in length. College Park (now partially occupied by New Square and athletic fields), situated at the east side of the Library Square, contained upwards of thirteen English acres, and was planted with trees and laid out with gravel walks, for the relaxation of the students.[iii]
3) Site of King William of Orange Statue (Center Divider of College Green)
This statue was erected in 1701 by the citizens of Dublin, to commemorate the revolution in 1688. It was formerly customary to decorate it with orange ribbons, and on certain days, annually, and to fire over the statue, but the Roman Catholics having taken offence at this, the practice had been altogether discontinued. On several occasions the offended party expressed their indignation by mutilating the statue; in 1800, the sword and truncheon were torn from it, and other acts of violence committed upon it; and in 1805, on the eve of its decoration, after it had been painted, the figure was daubed over with a black greasy substance, which it was found very difficult to remove. The statue was removed in 1929 following the explosion of a bomb at its base on Armistice Day of that year. [iv]
4) Bank of Ireland (2 College Green)
This superb edifice, which is probably not surpassed in magnificence of exterior by any building in Europe, was formerly the Parliament-House, and is situated in College-Green, on the site of an old hospital. It was begun in 1729, and completed in ten years, at an expense of about forty thousand pounds; but not being sufficiently extensive to accommodate all the Lords and Commons; an eastern front, leading to the House of Lords, was erected in 1785, and two years after, a western front and entrance were added, at an additional expense of fifty thousand pounds. The centre of this edifice is a colonnade of the Ionic order occupying three sides of a courtyard, the columns rest on a flight of steps, continued entirely round the courtyard, and to the extremities of the colonnade, where are the entrances under two archways; the four central columns support a pediment, whose tympanum is ornamented by the royal arms, and on its apex you see the figure of Hibernia, with Fidelity on her right hand, and Commerce on her left. This splendid centre is connected with the east and west fronts by circular screen walls, the height of the building, enriched with niches and a rustic basement. The eastern front is a noble portico of six Corinthian columns, crowned by a pediment with a plain tympanum. The figures which you perceive over it are those of Justice, Fortitude and Liberty. The western front is a beautiful portico of four Ionic columns, surmounted by a pediment, and connected with the centre, by a circular screen wall, corresponding to that which connects the eastern to the centre. The interior fully corresponds with the majesty of its external appearance. The Cash office, formerly the House of Commons, is seventy feet in length, and fifty three in breadth. The walls are paneled with Bath stone, and decorated with fluted Ionic columns, resting on pedestals; beneath the entablature, all round, are twenty-four windows, some of which are made of looking-glass to preserve uniformity, and produce an admirable effect. The late House of Lords, which remains unaltered, is now designated the court of proprietors. It is an oblong room with a semicircular recess at one end, where the throne stood, but the throne has been removed to make room for that white marble statue of his King George III, in his parliamentary robes, with the insignia of the orders of the Bath and St. Patrick. The pedestal on which it stands is ornamented with figures of Religion and Justice. The two pieces of tapestry, which you see, were brought from Holland; the one represents the siege of Londonderry, and the other the battle of the Boyne. The bust is that of the Duke of
Wellington. In the western side of the Bank, is the Library-room, where the paid notes are preserved until the period arrives for destroying them.
On the 27th of February, 1792, while the Commons were sitting, a dreadful fire broke out and totally consumed the House of Commons; but it was shortly after fitted up, precisely in the same manner. In 1801, a fire, which broke out beneath the portico at the front, injured the columns so seriously, that large pieces were obliged to be inserted in many of them. To guard against a recurrence of such accidents, the Bank was provided with two large tanks of water, adjacent to which engines of immense power were placed, the forcing pumps of which are capable of inundating the entire building. In Foster's-place, on the west side, a very handsome guard-room had been erected, to accommodate fifty men, in a superior style of architecture. The whole of the building, including the court-yard, covers more than an acre and a half of ground, and on the roof, which is for the most part flat, a regiment of soldiers might be drawn up in time of danger.[v]
5) Thomas Moore Statue (Westmoreland Street and College Street)
Created in 1857, this memorial is dedicated to lyricist Thomas Moore (1779-1852).
6) The Palace Bar (21 Fleet Street)
The Palace Bar was first licensed in 1848. Like its London namesake, Fleet Street was a haven for the Irish literati and arts community, and The Palace became its nexus. It was, in the words of Flann O’Brien, “the main resort of newspapermen, writers, painters, and every known breed of artist and intellectual.” Certainly, many of the characters of Dublin by Lamplight would have felt at home one of its barstools. Cyril Connolly said of The Palace: “The Palace Bar is perhaps the last place of its kind in Europe, a Cafe Litteraire, where one can walk in to have an intelligent discussion with a stranger, listen to Seumas O’Sullivan on the early days of Joyce, or discuss the national problem with the giant Hemingwayesque editor of the Irish Times.” Though Connolly wrote this sometime later than 1904, the look and feel of the pub had not changed much, and, indeed, still remains much the same—the Palace Bar’s website touts itself as “internationally famous for our intellectual refreshments,” and “untarnished and unspoiled by the passage of time.” [vi]
7) Bewley’s Oriental Café (10 Westmoreland Street)
Bewley’s, a chain of Irish cafes owned by the Campbell-Bewley Group, had been a Dublin institution since its creation in 1840. In 1904, this cafe was notable for being a sort of meeting ground for Dublin’s literati; it was frequented by James Joyce, among others. This particular cafe was closed in late 2004. [vii]
8) Ballast Office (Southwest corner of Aston Quay and Westmoreland Street)
This useful establishment holds its meeting in a handsome house, built for the purpose, in Westmoreland Street, near O’Connell Bridge. The society was incorporated in 1707, under the title of "The Corporation for Preserving and Improving the Port of Dublin” and was placed under the superintendence of the Lord Mayor, Sheriffs, and some of the citizens. At this period, great improvements were made in the entrance of the harbour, which was extremely dangerous, owing to two sand-banks, called the North and South Bulls, which completely choked it up. A channel of some breadth was cleared, and a floating light established, where the Dublin Lighthouse was later been erected. About 1714, the river was embanked on both sides, a quay wall built, and a large quantity of marshy ground reclaimed; and about 1748, that extensive work, the Mole, which connects Ringsend and the Pigeon-house, was commenced, and the expense defrayed by a tonnage on shipping. Shortly after, this corporation was entrusted with fuller powers, both as to the nature of the improvements they were to undertake, and as to the election of new members to fill vacancies at their board. Their next great work was the building of the Mole and Lighthouse in Dublin Bay; but the grand conclusion of their labours was the enclosing of the Liffey within the present magnificent quay walls, which extend from Ringsend to Bloody Bridge, a distance of three English miles; which has not only deepened the channel, but greatly benefitted and improved the city. Dublin was well supplied with bridges before the incorporation of this body, but two of them were in a dilapidated condition, and one, called the Coal-Quay (or Ormond) bridge, was swept away by the floods. The Ballast Office supplied their places by Richmond and Whitworth bridges. Since the institution of this body, the coast of Ireland has been rendered safer to the mariner by the erection of lighthouses in various places. The most extraordinary in point of situation, and which was attended with many melancholy disasters during its building, is that on the Tuskard Rock on the coast of Wexford. The lighthouse erected on the Bailey at Howth was probably one of the best-situated on the coast, and lighted on very improved principles, the reflectors being ground to the parabolic form, and an oil lamp placed in the focus of each.[viii]
9) O’Connell Bridge (O’Connell Street Lower/Westmoreland Street at River Liffey)
This bridge was formerly called the Carlisle, so called in honour of Lord Carlisle, who was viceroy at the time when the bridge was opened in 1794. It is the lowermost of the eight bridges which span the river here, is built of stone, supported on three arches, and surmounted by a handsome balustrade. From the centre of this bridge is obtained one of the most interesting views within the city. Turning round, we look up Sackville (O’Connell) Street, with the Nelson column rising boldly in the middle of it, with the facade of the Post Office on the left and the corner of the Rotunda in view; on the other side the eye may run up either Westmoreland or D'Olier Street. Looking up the latter, we catch sight of Trinity College, and the ancient Parliament House and the Bank of Ireland. Then turning towards the stream, we have on the right the Four Courts, and beyond, the Wellington obelisk, situated in Phoenix Park; while on the left, in the distance, is the elegant granite-built terminus of the Great Southern & Western Railway. The only sights looking down the river are, the Custom-House on the left, and the shipping.[ix]
10) Messrs Maguire Restaurant (2 Burgh Quay)
The origin of Dublin Library Society can be traced to the meeting of a few persons at a bookseller's, 80 Dame Street, to read newspapers and new publications. Growing too numerous, they removed, in 1791, to a house in Eustace Street, and assumed the name and form of a regular society. On January 5th, 1809, the Dublin Library Society moved to this address as a gradual increase in members required a larger location. On September 18th, 1820, the society moved to a neat and elegant edifice, with a stone front, erected purposely for their use, in D'Olier Street, but a few yards from their former situation.[x]
11) Corn Exchange Building (Burgh Quay, mid-block between Hawkins Street and Corn Exchange Place)
The corn merchants of Dublin being much inconvenienced by not having any well-situated market to expose their grain for sale, associated for the purpose of providing themselves with one, and petitioned for, and obtained a Charter of Incorporation, during the government of Earl Whitworth, in 1815, under the name of "The Corn Exchange Buildings' Company.” The building was constructed during that year. Their funds were at first chiefly derived from subscriptions of £50 each, by the members of the association, and leave was given in the Charter to increase capital stock to £153,000, but a general assembly could augment stock to double that sum, on certain conditions.
This edifice presents a handsome front of mountain granite to Burgh Quay, consisting of two stories: in the lower, which is ornamented with rustic work, are two doorways, of an height quite disproportioned to that of the building itself, ornamented by pillars of Portland stone. The second story is decorated by five large windows with architraves, and pediments alternately circular and angular; and along the summit is a rich cornice. The south front, which is towards Poolbeg Street, is of brick.[xi]
12) D’Olier Chambers (D’Olier Street and Fleet Street, northeast corner)
This structure was built in 1891 by J.F Fuller for the Gallaher Tobacco Company out of yellow brick and terracotta. Cleverly used to turn the corner, the building is prominent with its decorative features, scrolled gables and tall chimneys.[xii]
13) Garda Pearse Station (Pearse Street and Townsend Street)
Designed for the Dublin Metropolitan Police (DMP) and now the main Garda Station for the south city, Pearse Street Station is a large building in the Scottish Baronial style. Built in 1915 and sited on an awkward corner with Townsend Street to the rear, the building manages to turn the corner successfully with the use of a curved bay. An unusual feature of the building is the ‘keystone cops’, corbelled heads of policemen used to support segmental arches over the doorways.[xiii]
14) Site of Westmoreland Lock Hospital (Northwest corner of Luke Street and Townsend Street)
This hospital was opened on November 20th, 1792, for the reception of venereal patients of both sexes. Under the administration of the Earl of Westmorland, it was determined to provide an hospital for this purpose, capable of containing 300 beds; for a temporary one having been previously established near Donnybrook, it was found impracticable to procure a regular attendance on the part of the medical officers, owing, no doubt, to the distance from town. Government, therefore, entered into a negotiation with the Governors of the hospital of Incurables, then occupying this site, and an exchange of premises was agreed on. The front, which was plain, was of hewn mountain-granite; the centre and wings projected a little, and the former was surmounted by a triangular pediment. The entrance for patients was on Luke Street, at the corner of which, in Townsend Street, the hospital stood on a location formerly called Lazar's Hill.[xiv]
Originally a hospital for venereal disease, it treated both sexes, but later almost exclusively women. In 1949, the crumbling hospital building was declared unsafe and the hospital was closed shortly afterwards with the building demolished.[xv]
15) O’Neill’s Victorian Pub (Pearse Street and Shaw Street)
This fine corner Victorian public house, built in 1885, has a facade with four bays to Pearse Street, and six bays to Shaw Street. The shop facade is elaborate timber design with decorative tiles and mosaics, and a glazed porch on the corner entrance.[xvi]
16) Anatomy House (East side of College Park Athletic Fields, southeast corner of courtyard in front of School of Physics)
This structure was built, at the expense of the University. It is 115 feet in length by 50 in breadth, and contains an Anatomical Lecture room, thirty feet square; an Anatomical Museum, and three private rooms. The dissecting room extends the whole length of the building, and is remarkably well arranged for the purpose. Among the curiosities contained in the museum, are some extraordinary preparations and skeletons; the most remarkable are those of the Irish giant M'Grath, whose height exceeded eight feet; and Clarke the ossified man, whose joints became bone so that they became immoveable, except those of the ankle, and wrist, in consequence of which he died in a deplorable condition. In a small building behind the old anatomy-house may be seen the celebrated wax models of the human figure, presented to the University by the Earl of Shelbourne.
17) Trinity College Provost House (Southwest corner of Trinity College grounds, Grafton Street and Nassau Street)
The Provost's house is separated from Grafton Street by a spacious court; the front is of freestone, richly embellished, and the interior is elegant and convenient.[xvii]
18) St. Andrew’s Church (St. Andrews Street and Suffolk Street)
The original site of Saint Andrew's Church and cemetery was on the south side of Dame Street, to the north of where Castle Market later stood. The present situation is about one hundred and thirty yards east of the former: here, a church was erected in 1670, but it having fallen into decay, the present edifice, in imitation of St. Mary de Rotunda, at Rome, was erected in 1793. It is in the form of an ellipsis, whose major axis is eighty feet in length, and the minor sixty. The gallery is ornamented by seven large windows; in the eastern of which there is a representation of little children coming to Christ; and in the western, is one of the flight into Egypt. On the south side of the ellipsis stand the pulpit and reading desk, over which rises the organ. The communion table in front, enclosed by a handsome semi-elliptical railing, forms one side of the oval area that occupies the centre of the church, which is beautifully floored with black and white stone.[xviii]
About 1530, when the learned John Alan (chaplain of Cardinal Wolsey, and who was murdered at Clontarf by Thomas, eldest son of the Earl of Kildare) was Archbishop of Dublin, this church was assigned to the Chapter's Vicar of St. Patrick's Cathedral. Archbishop Brown united St. Andrew's to the parish of St.Werburgh's in 1554; but this union was dissolved by act of parliament in 1660, and St. Andrew's erected into a distinct parish, the presentation to the Vicarage being vested in the Chancellor, the Archbishop of Dublin, the Vice Treasurer, the Chief Baron, the Chief Justice, and Master of the Rolls: any four to constitute a quorum, the Archbishop being always one of the four. In 1707, an act was passed constituting the parish of St. Mark's a distinct parish, which was before only part of St. Andrew's.[xix]
19) Powerscourt House (William Street South, between Coppinger Row and Wicklow Street)
Constructed in 1771, this was the former residence of Lord Powerscourt and was completed for the moderate sum of £10,000. . It was purchased by the Commissioners of Stamp Duties from his lordship, in 1811, for £15,000, and an equal sum has since been expended on building additions in the rear. It is built of mountain granite, and the front is approached by a flight of steps, which formerly led to a portico, supported on four Doric pillars. Rustic arched windows, and Doric entablature, enrich the first story. The whole is surmounted by a quadrangular building, which serves for an observatory, and commands an extensive view of the Bay and adjacent country. The business of this department was first transacted in a confined situation in Eustace Street.[xx]
20) City Assembly House (Southeast corner of William Street and Coppinger Row)
This building, constructed in 1766, is situated in William Street, formerly Hoggin Lane, at the corner of Coppinger's row. It was originally called the Exhibition Room, being erected by the artists of Dublin for the purpose of exhibiting their works. There is but one large room in this building, and in this the Commons would assemble. The board of Aldermen met in another apartment of the building, and quarter assemblies, election of city officers, and other matters relating to the corporation, were transacted here. The Court of Conscience was held in a large room under the assembly room. The Ex-Lord Mayor was president of this court, a situation which brought him a considerable emolument.[xxi]
21) South William Street
This structure appears to date to no later than 1780, according to the date on the structure. It was the former home of a fine arts house, which had operated since 1907.
22) Quaker Meeting House (6 Eustace Street)
This congregation was formed by the Reverend Samuel Winter, Provost of Trinity College, and the Reverend Samuel Mather, one of its Fellows, in 1662. Among the names of the ministers of this church who distinguished themselves is that of Doctor Leland, the able champion of Christianity, and unanswerable opponent of deistical philosophers.[xxii]
23) Merchants’ Hall (Aston Quay at south foot of Ha’penny Bridge)
Built in 1821, this structure is two stories in height and contains an office on the basement story; with the great hall and a small apartment on the upper floor. The front, which is of granite, is inclined obliquely to the line of quays, and is in other respects also an awkward structure.[xxiii]
24) Ha’penny Bridge (Ormond Quay Lower at Liffey Street Lower in north bank, Wellington Quay at Crown Alley on south bank)
The Cast-Iron Bridge (Ha’penny) which is midway between Carlisle and Essex Bridges, consists of one elliptical arch, the chord of which measures 140 feet and its springs from buttresses of rusticated masonry, projecting a short distance from the quay walls. There was a ferry formerly at this place, the property of the corporation; when Alderman Beresford and William Walsh, Esq. purchased the tolls, and erected the bridge at their private expense: it cost £3,000 and became a great ornament and convenience to the city.[xxiv]
25) St. Andrew’s Roman Catholic Chapel (Westland Row, opposite No. 13)
This chapel is a Doric building in the style of the Acropolis at Athens, designed by James Boulgar, and erected between 1832 and 1834 at an expense of £13,000. The building is in the form of a cross. On the tympanum, which is supported by two columns and four pilasters, is a fine piece of sculpture, representing the Scottish saint and cross. Over the tabernacle, in the interior, is a group, embodying the Transfiguration, from the chisel of the justly celebrated Hogan.[xxv]
26) Pearse Street Station (Westland Row, just south of Pearse Street)
Railways first came to Dublin in 1834 with the opening of the Dublin & Kingstown Railway, which ran from the present day Pearse Street Station to Salthill near the West Pier of Dun Laoghaire, then called Kingstown. In 1837, the line was extended to the modern Dun Laoghaire station, to that part of the station where only Dublin Area Rapid Transit trains arrive and depart from.[xxvi]
27) The Times Building (D’Olier Street and Fleet Street, northwest corner)
Built in 1798, the offices of The Irish Times were spread over many buildings and featured a wonderful clock rescued from a building that was been demolished on Westmoreland Street, and a very subtle corner onto Fleet Street. In 2007, the newspaper moved to modern offices on nearby Tara Street, and relocated the clock once again.[xxvii]
28) Site of Marine School (Foot of Samuel Beckett Bridge at Sir John Rogerson’s Quay)
This humane and useful institution, which was situated on Sir John Rogerson's Quay, on the north side of the Liffey, owes its origin to the united efforts of David Latouche, and several other gentlemen, who commiserating the destitute situation of those orphans whose parents devoted the most valuable years of their existence to the preservation of their country in the war of 1760, established an asylum at Ringsend for the purpose of clothing, boarding, and educating the orphans and sons of seafaring men. Into this establishment, about twenty deserving objects were admitted to the enjoyment of these advantages, about the year 1766, and the only fund for its support was derived from charitable contributions. But so useful an institution could not long remain unnoticed by a judicious government, and on June 20th, 1775, the Royal Marine School obtained a charter, appointing the Lord Lieutenant, the Primate, the Lord Chancellor, the members for the city, the Lord Mayor, the senior master of the Guild of Merchants, and the Archdeacon of Dublin governors of this charity, with whom the original founders were by act incorporated. The objects of this institution are not only to support these children, but to instruct them carefully in reading, writing, arithmetic, navigation, and the sacred writings, and afterwards apprentice them to masters of vessels, to whom they are a great acquisition.[xxviii] In 1773, a three-story structure was built on this site on the south bank of the Liffey, between Lime Street and Cardiff Lane. It was demolished in 1979.
1) St. Stephen’s Green
The area was first leveled and walled in the late seventeenth century, and was a private residential area. But, in 1880, Sir Arthur Guiness bought out the lease on the Green and had it landscaped extensively, adding gardens and a lake, and had all 22 acres of the park opened to the public. St. Stephen’s Green features many memorials and statues, including a W.B. Yeats memorial garden, a bust of James Joyce, and a memorial to the great famine of the mid-nineteenth century, located on the Merrion Row corner.[xxix]
2) Site of King George II Statue (Center of St. Stephen’s Green)
This was the first statue to be erected in St. Stephen’s Green, and was commissioned by Dublin Corporation. The statue depicted King George II in full triumphant Roman posturing. Sited in the centre of the park, it was however highly visible due to the height of its pedestal. It was the target of vandalism almost from the start, and by 1818 several attempts had been made to amputate body parts of the king. On May 13th, 1937, it was blown up.[xxx]
3) Royal College of Surgeons (123 St. Stephen’s Green)
This decorated building was erected between 1806 and 1825, the architects being E. Parkes and W. Murray. On the pediments are statues of Minerva, Hygeia, and Esculapius. The Museum is the chief attraction here. The first room of the museum contains a good osteological collection, including skeletons of elephants, deer, bears, elk, dogs, monkeys, etc. A simple group in one of the lower cases will attract attention from its singularity, and excite a little sympathy where it would least be expected. Many years ago, an Italian visited Dublin as an itinerant musician, accompanied by a greyhound and a monkey, whose performances soon became the wonder of the town. The monkey would smoke a pipe, beat a drum, or ride a steeplechase on the back of his companion. But the dog at length died, and poor jacko took it so much to heart, that he would mount no other charger, nor would he even console himself with a whiff of tobacco, but died in the course of three days after the demise of his canine friend. Both fell into the hands of the College of Surgeons, and their skeletons now form the equestrian group alluded to. A gallery of this room contains specimens only interesting to the student of comparative anatomy.[xxxi]
The Royal College of Surgeons was built on the site of a Quaker Burial Ground, which was sold to the college in 1805 for this structure’s construction.
4) Mercer’s Hospital (William Street South and Stephens Street Lower)
This Hospital, which stands at the south end of William-street, was given by Mrs. Mary Mercer in the year 1731, to be fitted up for the reception of the sick poor. At its first institution, it contained only ten beds, but the number now amounts to fifty, the funds, however, did not permit more than forty of them to be occupied. The management of the affairs of this institution, which was incorporated by an act of parliament in 1750, was entrusted to a committee of fifteen who were chosen from among the governors, who met the first and third Tuesday in each month, when two visitors were appointed.[xxxii]
5) Mansion House (Dawson Road, just north of St. Stephen’s Green)
The Mansion House has been at the heart of city government since 1715. Construction started in 1705 and it was intended as a townhouse for Joshua Dawson, the developer of Dawson Street and Nassau Street. Joshua Dawson seldom lived in the house. Ten years later and still partly unfinished, it was sold to Dublin Corporation for £3,500 (€4,444), in addition to an annual rent of 40 shillings and an agreement to provide a loaf of double refined sugar, weighing six pounds at Christmas. This was the site of the first seating of the Irish Parliament in 1919.
The brass plaques on the wall commemorate the involvement of former Lord Mayors in famine relief during the 19th century. One plaque marks the contribution of the Choctaw Nation of Oklahoma in the United States who gave generously from their meager resources to assist the Irish people during the Great Famine in 1847.[xxxiii]
6) National Library (Gallery) (Kildare Street at Molesworth Street, north side of courtyard)
The building was erected at a cost of upwards of £26,000, £5000 of which was raised by public subscription as a testimonial to Mr. William Dargan in commemoration of his spirited liberality in organizing the Dublin Exhibition of 1863. On entering the building, the visitor passes first into a very handsome room devoted to the exhibition of statuary, at the further end of which are two winding staircases leading to the upper apartment intended for the Picture Gallery. From this room the visitor may ascend by two flights to smaller rooms intended for additional picture galleries. The interior of the building is according to the design of the late Captain Fowke, R.E., architect of the London International Exhibition of 1862.[xxxiv]
7) Leinster House (Kildare Street at Molesworth Street, east side of courtyard, next to National Museum and National Library)
The Royal Dublin Society, which is the oldest of the kind in the United Kingdom, was founded in 1731 and incorporated by charter of George II in 1746. The former home of the Society, which are situate between Kildare Street and the west side of Merrion Square, were purchased in the year 1815 from the Duke of Leinster.
8) Daniel O’Connell House (58 Merrion Square South)
This house is the historic home of Daniel O’Connell, known as ‘The Liberator’ for his services to Catholic Emancipation in Ireland. It is a beautiful Georgian building built in the 1790s.[xxxv]
9) Site of Antrim House (31 Merrion Square North)
The Mornington family lived temporarily in Antrim House in 1769. Garret Wesley, first Earl of Mornington and holder of a doctorate in Music, died at Kensington on May 22nd, 1781. His most famous son, the Duke of Wellington, was born in Mornington House, Merrion Square, Dublin, on April 29th, 1769. Two years later, Lord Mornington built a new house in Merrion Street, which he renamed after himself, and where he resided until 1777. Though he resigned his Professorship of Music at Trinity College in 1774, he published his best works after that date, and gained prizes from the Catch Club in 1776 and 1777. In 1779, the Catch Club awarded him the prize medal for his glee, "Here in cool grot," which was published by Anne Lee, of Dublin, in 1780. He also composed much sacred music, including his well-known Chant in E flat, the charm of which is almost destroyed in the version in general use—differing materially from the form as traditionally sung in the Dublin cathedrals. Lady Mornington survived until September 10th, 1831. A fine edition of Lord Mornington's Glees and Madrigals was edited by Sir Henry Bishop in 1846.[xxxvi]
This house, which enjoyed magnificent views of the Dublin mountains, was demolished in 1936 to make way for Holles Street Hospital.
10) Merrion Square (Clare Street and Merrion Street Upper)
This park is the next smallest in dimensions to Stephen's Green. This spacious and elegant area, which contains about twelve acres of ground, is situated at the south side of the city, and only a few minutes walk from Stephen's Green. It laid out in 1762 by Ralph Ward, Esq., and John Elisor, the architect of Antrim House, which stood on the north side of the square.[xxxvii]
11) Sir Patrick Dun’s Hospital (Grand Canal Street Upper, between Macken Street and Clanwilliam Terrace)
This hospital owes its existence to the celebrated practitioner of physic, whose name it bears. He had bequeathed his estates, in the county of Waterford, for the establishment of a professorship or professorships in the College of Physicians; but the executors having failed in the execution of his will, the trust was vested by Chancery in the College of Physicians; in consequence of which, three professorships were appointed: Practice of Medicine, Institutes of Medicine, and Materia Medica.
Owing to considerable difficulty in procuring ground, the commissioners were obliged to fix on a site in the low, marshy grounds, extending from Mount Street to the river; and it was at first decided that this position would prove most unfavorable, but, owing to the precautions adopted in building, all inconvenience had been avoided, and the excavations have served, in conjunction with other means, to elevate the site of the house far above the level of the low grounds, and even above that of the Grand Canal, which lies near it, and would have otherwise rendered it damp and unwholesome.[xxxviii] The foundation stone was laid in 1803 and the hospital opened in 1808.
12) Birthplace of the Duke of Wellington (24 Merrion Street Upper) (Merrion Hotel)
These houses, 21 through 24, were built in the 1760's by Lord Monck (Charles Stanley Monck) for wealthy Irish merchants and nobility. He lived in No. 22, which became known as Monck House. The most important of the four houses is, however, No. 24 Upper Merrion Street. This was leased to Garrett Wellesley, Earl of Mornington, in 1769, it has since been known as Mornington House. The house is remembered historically as being the birthplace of Arthur Wellesley, the 1st Duke of Wellington.[xxxix]
13) Ely House (8 Ely Place at Hume Street)
Dublin’s Ely House was supposedly built as a townhouse in 1771 by Henry Loftus, 3rd Earl of Ely, though recent research suggests he may have bought it from developer, Gustavus Hume. It was originally built with six bays. In 1811, Nathaniel Callwell added the left entrance door to create two houses and the central entrance hall was re-planned. The house remained in private ownership until Lady Aberdeen secured the lease for use as the Women’s National Health Association headquarters circa 1908. In 1923, the present owners, the Knights of St. Columbanus, acquired the building.[xl]
14) French Huguenot Cemetery (Merrion Row, between St. Stephens Green and Merrion Court)
This cemetery was founded in 1693. The Huguenots were French Protestants, followers of Calvin, who had to flee from their country because of horrendous religious persecution. The word 'refugee' originated with them. Twenty thousand or more Calvinists fled from France, particularly during the reign of Louis XIV, after the revocation of the Edict of Nantes. It was the Duke of Ormond, James Butler, then Lord Lieutenant of Ireland, with the specific intention of improving skills and industries here, who invited the Huguenots to Ireland.[xli]
15) National Concert Hall (Earlsfort Terrace at Hatch Street Upper)
This structure was completed for the International Exhibition of 1865. The Dublin Winter Garden and Exhibition Palace Company (Limited) was 'originated by the secretary (Mr. Henry Parkinson) and some other gentlemen connected with the Royal Dublin Society's Exhibition of 1861. An international exhibition suggested itself as the fittest inauguration of the new building; and the idea was caught up with ardour, and acted on with energy. The International Exhibition of 1865 was the result, and a successful one. Over one million persons visited the building, and the receipts amounted to £45,000, leaving a balance on hand of £10,000. The plans for the building selected were those of Mr. Alfred Jones, and may shortly be described as follows: There are two distinct erections—“the winter garden, of iron and glass construction, and the main building, containing a large concert-hall to accommodate 3000 persons, the entire end of which opens into the winter garden, affording unlimited accommodation. There is also a smaller concert-hall seated for 1500 persons; a lecture hall to hold 500; a practice-room for a large orchestra; and an exhibition-hall, 168 feet long, 118 wide, 56 feet high, with gallery all round, 387 feet long, has been prepared for bazaars, public balls, and meetings. This noble room would accommodate 7,000 persons. The dining-room is 107 feet in length by 30 feet in width; and there are also extensive picture-galleries, constructed on the most improved principle. The Grand Entrance is in the centre of the building, approached from Earlsfort Terrace. The hall, of considerable size, which has its floor laid with encaustic tiles, forms a permanent sculpture court. On entering, the cascade at the end of the pleasure-gardens is seen in the distance from the hall, which, with its Caenstone columns with carved capitals, and those of the picture-gallery, form a very effective design. The corridors throughout the building are exceedingly spacious, and encircle the concert halls, affording easy access to any part. In front of the building there is a colonnade of considerable length, enabling a number of carriages to discharge and take up at the same time. There are refreshment-rooms, together with kitchen and all requisite conveniences.”[xlii]
The Exhibition Palace became part of the University of Dublin in 1908. In 1981, the structure was repurposed as the National Concert Hall.
16) Site of Pleasant’s Asylum (75 Camden Street Lower)
The charitable Mr. Pleasants bequeathed £15,000 for the purpose of establishing a female Orphan House for the daughters of respectable house holders. This asylum, which was situated on the west side of Camden Street, was opened in 1818 for twenty female orphans, solely Protestants, who were clothed, educated and maintained in a manner exceeding anything of a similar description in the British empire. When they arrived at mature age, they received a handsome portion, should they find suitable partner.[xliii]
1) Dublin Castle (Castle Street, south of Dame Street on Cork Hill)
This edifice, which was built by Henry de Loundres, Archbishop of Dublin, in 1220, was first used as a vice-regal residence in 1560, by order of Queen Elizabeth. The principal entrance is from Cork-hill, into the upper castle yard. This court, which contains the apartments of the Lord Lieutenant and suite, is in the form of a quadrangle, 280 feet by 130. The principal entrance, the eastern gate, is ornamented by a statue of Justice; and a corresponding gate, on the same side of the court, is surmounted by a statue of Fortitude, both the workmanship of Van Nost: the interval between the real and artificial gate, is occupied by a building of two stories, exhibiting Ionic columns, on rusticated arches, supporting a pediment, and from this rises a circular tower of the Corinthian order, terminating in a cupola, ball, and vane, from which the flag is hoisted on state days.
The next object of attraction is St. Patrick's Hall, where balls and assemblies are held on St. Patrick's and other nights. This, which is a truly princely apartment, 38 feet high, 82 long, and 41 broad, was laid out in its present superb style at the institution of the Order of St. Patrick in 1783. There are three excellent paintings, inlaid in the ceiling, the centre is of a circular form, the others oblong; one of the latter represents St. Patrick converting the Druids; in the corresponding piece, Henry II, receiving submission from the Kings of Ireland in 1172, appears seated under a rich canopy; and in the central painting, which is an allegorical representation of the flourishing state of the country, George III appears supported by Justice and Liberty: these subjects were designed and executed by Waldre, an artist, of considerable abilities. At one end of the Hall is a gallery for the musicians and household; and at the other, one for the public.
The Chapel, the most remarkable object about the Castle, is a building in the most beautiful order of pointed architecture, the design of Francis Johnston, Esq. who has so considerably beautified Dublin by the exertion of his talents for over 20 years. The old Chapel was taken down in the administration of the Duke of Bedford, in 1807, and the present erected on its site, is 73 feet in length, and 35 broad. Divine service was performed here, for the first time, on Christmas Day, 1814; and the total expense of the building of the Chapel is calculated at £42,000.[xliv]
The Birmingham Tower is also to be seen in this yard. Its name is derived from Sir William Birmingham, who was in 1331 confined there for treasonable offences, for which he was hanged in 1332. The Irish Records are kept in this tower. They were deposited here in 1579.[xlv]
2) City Hall (Dame Street/Lord Edward Street at Cork Hill)
The City Hall, or Royal Exchange, as it was formally called, stands at the west end of Dame Street, and close to the Castle. The principal portico has six Corinthian columns, supporting an entablature and pediment; the western portico in Castle Street consists of four columns of the same order. The interior is a rotunda formed of twelve pillars of the composite order, supporting a richly embellished entablature, over which rises an attic, with circular windows and a dome-shaped roof of elegant proportions. Here are statues of Dr. Charles Lucas, Daniel O'Connell, and Mr. Drummond, by Hogan; a bronze statue of George III, by Van Nost; and a statue of Grattan, by Chantrey. The building cost £40,000, and was designed by a London architect, Mr. Thomas Cooley.[xlvi]
3) Site of Isolde’s Tower (Opposite 10-16 Exchange Street Lower)
The early 1200’s saw massive refortification works on the northern side of the original Dublin settlement, where a large area towards the Liffey was reclaimed and enclosed by a new extension city wall. This work probably began as early as 1221 when a grant of customs was given to the citizens to ‘enclose their city for the security and defence of that city and defence of the city and adjacent parts’. By 1233, the first of a series of heavy murage grants signalled something big was about to happen. A new ditch was also dug as in 1225. Compensation was paid to the monks of St Thomas’s ‘in regard to the land occupied by the fosse thrown up around the city of Dublin’. Work had certainly begun on the new wall by 1242, as at this date, there is a reference to the ‘old city wall’ at Bothe Street (Fishamble Street) inferring that there was a new wall under construction. By the 1260’s, it is referred to in the documentary sources as the ‘new wall towards the Liffey’.
The new wall was protected by a series of mural towers and the remains of two of these towers have been located during excavations. Isolde’s Tower was the circular tower on the northeast angle of the new wall. The well-preserved foundations of the tower survived to a height of 2.5 meters beneath the cellars. The new city wall was exposed on either side of it and this measured, on average, 2 meters wide but the western side was refaced in the 14th century, probably when Edward Bruce threatened to attack the city. Excavations also revealed the very truncated remains of what is thought to represent Buttevant Tower, at the junction of Essex Street West and Lower Exchange Street.[xlvii]
4) Grattan Bridge (Parliament/Capel Street at River Liffey)
This structure was originally built in 1676 as the Essex Bridge, during the vice royalty of Arthur, Earl of Essex. The old foundation decaying, it was rebuilt in 1756. It is of cut stone, on the exact model of Westminster Bridge, and consists of five arches. It is two hundred and fifty feet long, and fifty one feet wide. The expense amounted to upwards of twenty thousand pounds.[xlviii]
After about 120 years use, it was decided that the Essex Bridge should be widened and lowered because it was considered too narrow and had approaches that were too steep. Another reason for reshaping the bridge was the planned widening of the quays to accommodate a new main drainage system that Dublin Corporation was planning. Between 1873 and 1875, the Essex Bridge was rebuilt by William J. Doherty. Upon rebuilding, the bridge it was renamed the Grattan Bridge for Henry Grattan (1746-1820), a member of parliament.[xlix]
5) O’Donovan Rossa Bridge (Winetavern Street at the Liffey and Merchants Quay)
Before the erection of this bridge, which connects Ormond Quay with the extremity of Winetavern Street, the view down the river was much disfigured by the ruins of Ormond Bridge, erected in 1683, and carried away in the great flood of 1802. A gentleman from the neighbourhood of Chapelizod was riding over at the time, and just as he arrived at the distance of ten or twelve feet from the Quay, the arch before and the whole of the part he had passed, gave way, when his horse with one spring cleared the chasm before him, and bore him to the opposite bank in safety.
Ormond Bridge was built at the instance of Sir John Davys, and succeeded a wooden bridge, erected on the same spot by Sir H. Jervis. This architect married the daughter of Colonel Lane, the faithful friend and adherent of Charles II; and was as enterprising for the public benefit, as he was unfortunate in establishing his claims with those who derived such advantages from his designs.
The first stone of the present, or Richmond Bridge, was laid August 9th, 1813, by her Grace Charlotte, the Duchess Dowager of Richmond; and it was opened to the public on St. Patrick's Day, in 1816. It is built almost entirely of Portland stone; the crown of the centre arch is not more than two feet above the level of the quays. There are three arches richly ornamented, the key stones of which are colossal heads of Plenty, the Liffey, and Industry on one side; Commerce, Hibernia and Peace on the other. It is after a design of Mr. Savage, an English artist, and cost £25,000.
In sinking the foundation of this bridge, several coins were found, some of Elizabeth, others of Philip and Mary, besides two boats, 18 feet in length, in one of which was a skeleton, with various implements; likewise a mill-stone,16 feet in diameter; all of which were much below the bed of the river. From this it would appear, that the bed of the river is greatly raised from its original level, which, with the extraordinary elevation of the surface, to be witnessed in the ruins of St. Mary's Abbey, demonstrates the fact of the gradual elevation of the soil throughout this part of Dublin.[l]
The bridge was renamed in 1923 for Jeremiah O’Donovan Rossa by the Irish Free State.
6) Father Mathew Bridge (Church Street on north bank, Bridge Street Upper on south bank)
The foundation stone for this bridge was laid by Charles Earl Whitworth, Lord Lieutenant, on October 16th, 1816. It is like O’Donovan Rossa Bridge, and the balustrade is continued along the quay wall to that bridge, and greatly contributes to the splendour of the scene in front of the Law Courts. This structure replaced the Old Bridge, so called from its being the oldest site of a bridge across the Liffey since the foundation of the city. In sinking for a foundation, the traces of two or three former bridges were observed, one of them of excellent workmanship, and supposed to have been laid in the reign of King John. This was one of the principal entrances to the city, in the reign of Elizabeth; and in the reign of Henry VIII, valuable toll was collected here, by the Dominican Friars, who built this bridge. Part of St. Mary's Abbey may be seen at the rear of the houses on the north side of the street of that name, and within a few doors of Capel Street. The Friars' Bridge replaced Dublin Bridge, which was swept away in 1385; and the present bridge succeeded the Old Bridge, which was taken down by the corporation for improving the quays of Dublin.[li]
7) Site of Marshalsea Prison (East end of Bonham Street at Tracy Bonham Lane)
This wretched mansion, built in 1775, was a mean-looking brick building, intended solely for the confinement of persons arrested for debts under £10; in general they did not exceed forty shillings. The debtors were committed by the decrees of the Lord Mayor's Court and the Court of Conscience. The interior exhibited a picture of the deepest distress and misery. Very frequently, benevolent persons sent sums of money to this prison to procure the discharge of a number of those creatures, and there cannot be a more truly charitable mode of giving relief, as a large family of infant children, was probably dependent on the poor prisoner for existence. Before the erection of this building, which was between the Sheriff's prison and the Sessions-house in Green Street, the poor debtors were confined in a wretched hovel on the merchant's quay, having a window without glazing, secured by iron bars: there one or two of them stood, holding a box with a small hole in the top, and earnestly supplicated charity from every passer-by.[lii]
Robert Emmet used the Marshalsea as an arsenal while the Dublin Militia used it as a barracks in the later 19th century. During its use as a barracks, officers’ accommodation was added near the gate. After the withdrawal of the British from Ireland in 1922, the city took over and used it as a tenement until 1970 or so. It was finally demolished in 1975. Part of the external walls still exists.[liii]
8) St. James’ Church (James Street, between Echlin Street and Bow Lane West)
On the north side of the chancel is a stone of rude appearance, bearing this inscription: “This monument was erected by Mark Rainsford, of the City of Dublin, Alderman, 1693.” The date of this monument is antecedent to the erection of this church 1707, and also to its nomination, as a distinct parish from St. Catherine's, which took place in 1710. On the south side, near the communion-table, is a tolerably well-executed piece of sculpture, to the memory of Mr. Cooke; and immediately opposite, another to the memory of the Reverend John Ellis, 34 years vicar of this parish. Beneath this latter tomb also lie the remains of William Ellis, governor of Patna, who fell in the dreadful massacre of 1767.
The cemetery is the most remarkable object connected with the church. Here are innumerable tombs, most of them placed over vaults, erected at the individual expense of the relatives of the deceased. This church-yard has long been marked out by the inhabitants of the liberties as a desirable cemetery for the interment of their friends; and during the fair of St. James, which is held in James Street, opposite the church-yard, they deck the graves with garlands and ornaments, made of white paper, disposed into fanciful forms.
In the centre of the church-yard is the monument of Theobald Butler, an Irish Barrister, who assisted in framing the articles of Limerick, in 1691, and who advocated the Catholic cause before parliament, in 1720. It consists of a high partition of plastered brick-work, with a circular heading, on the front of which are the heads of three cherubim encircling a medallion, and beneath, a tablet, bearing an inscription in gilt letters, on a black ground.[liv]
9) St. Catharine’s Church (Thomas Street and Bridgefoot Street)
The parish church of St. Catherine is situated on Thomas Street, at the south side of the river, in a very elevated situation, almost on the site of the abbey of St. Thomas. The present parish was originally united with that of St. James, and the first church erected on the present site, in 1185; but in 1710, an act was passed disuniting these parishes, the presentation to both resting in the Earl of Meath. A monument to Dr. Whitelaw, the historian of Dublin (who died February 4th, 1813), is placed near the door of the vestry-room, and there is also another tablet to his memory in the interior of the church.[lv]
10) Iveagh Markets (Francis Street and Dean Swift Square)
Dating from 1902, the brick and stone facade hides a large functional cast-iron galleried market hall. In operation until the 1990s its future use is now uncertain. The estimated cost of construction was about £45,000 but the actual cost finished at around £60,000.[lvi]
11) Section of Dublin City Wall (Lamb Alley, between John Dillon Street and Corn Market)
At Lamb Alley, the recently conserved section (14 meters long, up to 6 meters high, and over 2 meters wide) appears to be entirely of the Anglo-Norman date and it has also been refaced in places. Also, some of the fabric of the industrial building leading towards the junction of Lamb Alley and Dean Swift Square incorporates fabric that is almost certainly that of the City Wall.[lvii]
12) Tailors’ Hall (Back Lane, between Nicholas Street and Corn Market)
The Corporation of Tailors claim the honour of precedence of all other Guilds, on the ground of antiquity: this right, however, was later ceded to the Guild of Merchants as a matter of courtesy. Their hall is in Back Lane, in the neighbourhood of Christ-Church Cathedral, upon which site they have had one for several centuries, but the present structure was built in 1710, John Shudell, being Master of the Corporation.
13) St. Audoen’s Church (Schoolhouse Lane West, between High Street and Cook Street)
This ancient church is situated in a narrow passage, leading from High Street (Corn Market) to Cook Street, on the south side of the river. As early as 1213, Henry de Loundres, Archbishop of Dublin, is mentioned as having, by charter, appropriated this church to the treasurer of St. Patrick's; and in 1467, it was erected into a distinct Prebend. The church originally consisted of the choir, and of one aisle parallel to it, built by Lord Portlester: at the end of this aisle is a steeple, with a ring of bells. The present church is only the western end of the ancient one. For a time, about three-fourths of this venerable edifice was in complete ruins. The eastern extremity of the choir still exhibited a beautiful specimen of the pointed style of architecture; there being to be seen here, three arches of the most light and elegant construction. On one of the pillars, from which these arches sprang, is a tablet, the inscription on which could not be readily deciphered: it was erected to the memory of a female of the St. Leger family, whose effigy was placed at full length at the foot of the pillar. In the vestibule of the church is buried Dr. Parry, Bishop of Killaloe, and two of his sons, who were successively Bishops of Ossory. They died of the plague in Dublin in 1650. Near this is a large stone, to the memory of the Breretons, bearing date May 10th, 1610. Adjacent to this, another marks the burying place of Sir Matthew Terrell, Knight, who died in 1649; and under the east window is the tomb of Robert Maple, Esq. who died January 8th, 1618. At the south side of the eastern window are the recumbent figures of a knight, in armour, and his lady, both remarkably perfect. This tomb was erected by Rowland Fitz Eustace, Baron Portlester, 1455, in the aisle which he built at his own expense. Lord Portlester, whose title is now extinct, was buried at New Abbey, in the County Kildare, in 1496. Sir Capel Molyneux had a monument against the northern wall of the choir, which has been removed, though the family continue to be interred in the vaults of this church.[lviii]
14) St. Michael’s Church (High Street and Winetavern Street)
Now housing the Dublinia Exhibition, this present beautiful little edifice was erected in 1815. In 1554, Archbishop Browne erected three Prebends in Christ-church, St. Michael's, St. Michan's, and St. John's; from which date the Roman Catholic service was never performed in those churches, for they were so erected after Archbishop Browne had embraced the reformed religion, he being the first who did so in Ireland; and his principal object was, to have chapels where the service of the Church of England could be performed without interruption. The chapel of St. Michael is situated in High Street, at the corner of Winetavern Street, immediately opposite the western end of Christ Church Cathedral. Until the late 1700’s, it was in ruins, the steeple only standing. The site of St. Michael's has long been that of a religious establishment, and a chapel was erected on this precise spot by Donat in 1076, which was converted into a parish church by Archbishop Talbot in 1417- The second church erected here was in 1676 to accomplish which, a petition was presented by the parishioners to the Earl of Arran, requesting him to raise a subscription in his regiment, for the repair of their church.[lix]
15) Christ Church Cathedral (High Street and Winetavern Street)
Christ Church Cathedral stands in High Street, near the castle. It was originally erected in 1038 and 1039, by Sitric, a Danish king, with the assistance of Bishop Douat, the then occupant of the see of Dublin. In the twelfth century, a larger edifice was built on the site, by the English, after their successful invasion of this part of Ireland, under Strongbow. Various additions and alterations were made to the cathedral in the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries; but it subsequently fell into decay, and throughout the whole of the seventeenth century it remained in an almost ruinous condition. In later years, it was somewhat better cared for, but at the time of the disestablishment of the Irish Church there was some talk of handing it over to the Catholic body, when Mr. Roe, the eminent distiller of Dublin, came forward, and munificently offered to restore it at his own expense. This work, entrusted to Mr. Street, has been carried out with great care and with good taste. An examination proved that the lines of the original choir and of the chapels attached to it, as indicated by those of the crypts below, showed a peculiar ground plan-a short, apsidal choir or presbytery projected eastward from the central tower. An aisle or procession path passed round this apse, and opened eastward into a square-ended chapel, north and south, with a larger chapel, also square-ended, projecting somewhat beyond them in the centre. The restorations had necessitated the re-building of the Church, and the original plan had been closely adhered to. Irish marbles have been used as much as possible. The windows are filled with stained glass, and the floor is paved with tiles designed in imitation of various examples found in the ancient flooring of the church. The pulpit and the reredos are both of various sorts of marble, and the altar is of oak and ebony. The old Lady Chapel has been replaced by a building of two storeys, which is to serve as the choir schools. In the tower is a fine set of thirteen bells, attached to a carillon, which plays twenty-eight tunes automatically, and has besides a key-board, upon which any air can be played by a musician. A very picturesque covered bridge crosses the street at the south-west end of the nave, and leads to the Synod House, also built by Mr. Roe, which contains a grand central hall-the hall of convocation of the Irish Church galleries for divisions, apartments for the bishops and clergy, refreshment rooms, and every imaginable accommodation.
The chief object of interest in the interior is the black marble tomb of the renowned English chieftain, Strongbow, with the recumbent figure of the knight in armour. He died, according to the best authorities, in 1177, having previously erected a priory of Knights Templars at Kilmainham, later rebuilt and converted—like Chelsea Hospital—into a Royal Hospital for the maintenance of old and deserving soldiers. The tomb was much injured by the falling of the church roof in 1562. It is near the southern wall of the church. The small figure on his left is supposed to represent Strongbow's wife.[lx]
16) Site of St. John’s Church (Fishamble Street, on north side of Christ Church Cathedral, now occupied by Government Offices)
This church, situated in Fishamble Street, at the corner of John's Lane (now pathway along north side of Christ Church), and beside the courtyard in front of the old Deanery, was erected a Prebend by Archbishop Browne, in 1544. The front consisted of four columns of the Doric order, supporting a pediment: a broad flight of steps conducted up to this front, in which there were three entrances; a gate in the centre leading to the great aisle, and a door-way, leading to the galleries, on each side. The structure was originally built in 1681, and rebuilt between 1767 and 1773. The church which occupied this site before the building mentioned above was erected was raised about the year 1500 by Arnold Usher; and this succeeded a chapel built in the eleventh century. This parish consisted of persons in the middle ranks of trade, although some over-grown fortunes had been accumulated by the inhabitants of Fishamble Street.[lxi] The church closed in 1873 and was demolished in 1884.
17) St. Werburgh’s Church (Werburgh Street, just south of Castle Street)
This church, situated in the street of the same name, is dedicated to St. Werburgh, daughter of Wulherus, King of Mercia, who is entombed in the cathedral of Chester. The old church of St. Werburgh, built by the inhabitants of Bristol, in the reign of Henry II, was destroyed by fire, with a great part of the city, in 1300, only thirteen years after the destruction of Christ Church Cathedral by the same element. In 1754, it was burnt down a second time, and rebuilt in a very handsome style, in 1759, the same year in which the grand front of Trinity College was finished. The front of this church consists of several stories, which, though frequently altered, owing to the repeated accidents that have happened to this building, still preserve considerable beauty and consistency. A spire which once existed was, perhaps, the lightest and most elegant in Ireland, the upper part of which, terminated by a gilt ball, was supported by eight rusticated pillars, but, either from the perishable nature of the stone, or a defect in the building, it appeared inclined from its perpendicularity; and though Mr. Francis Johnston, undertook to secure it, such was the alarm of the inhabitants, that they insisted upon its being immediately taken down, which was accordingly done in 1810. The removal of this spire was a considerable loss to a city which could boast of only two, at St. Patrick's and St. Werburgh's; the former of which, from its situation, is only visible in particular positions; but the ingenious architect who undertook to support the spire of St. Werburgh's, later supplied its loss by the erection of St. George's, a more beautiful edifice, and more advantageously situated. The interior of the church is venerable and elegant: the pews are of oak, and the front of the gallery is also of oak, carved and paneled. In the south gallery are two handsome monuments to Mrs. Arthur and Mrs. Benjamin Guinness. On the south side of the church, in the passage leading to the church-yard, there are several figures of very ancient date: next the door are eight in pontifical habits; to the east of these are two whole-length figures of a knight in armour and his lady lying beside him, both much effaced. There are four other figures not far from these, also placed in the wall, evidently scriptural characters. In the vaults of this church lie the remains of Lord Edward Fitzgerald, brother to the Duke of Leinster, who died in Newgate Gaol in 1798, of the wounds he received in resisting the officers who arrested him.[lxii]
18) Site of St. Bridget’s Church (Southwest corner of Bride Road and Bride Street)
In 1181, John Comyn, Archbishop of Dublin, granted this church to the cathedral of St. Patrick; but, before that time, it belonged to that of the Holy Trinity or Christ-church. This parish consisted of a union of three smaller parishes, the ancient St. Bride's, St. Stephen's, and St.. Michael de la Pole; of the latter no traces remain; but on the same site a school house was built, where the poor children of Bride's parish were clothed and educated, and twenty of them boarded and lodged. There was a small space of ground adjoining the school house which was used as a burying-place. The entrance was through a narrow passage in Great Ship Street, marked by a stone placed over the door-way directing to the school of St. Michael de la Pole.
In the north gallery was a monument to the memory of Mrs. Pleasants, wife of Thomas Pleasants, Esquire, so justly celebrated in the annals of Dublin, for the extent and number of his charitable donations. Amongst his excellent donations was a sum of £12,000 upwards, for the erection of a stovehouse or tenter-house in the liberty; £8,000 for the building of Meath Hospital, and £500 for building a splendid entrance to the Botanic Gardens at Clasnevin; and a yearly income for the support of 30 Protestant female children, who were to be clothed, educated, and portioned in marriage. This latter institution was conducted according to the most sanguine expectations of the founder, at No. 67 in Camden Street.[lxiii]
19) Site of Molineux Asylum (In car park on south side of Peter Street, between Bride Street and Peter Row)
This institution was opened in 1815, in the family mansion of Sir C. Molineux, Bart., which first fell into the hands of Astley, when it was converted into a Circus, and was subsequently held by Mr. H. Johnstone, after whose departure from Dublin it was taken by the subscribers to the Asylum for Blind Females. It was supplemental to the Richmond Institution and Simpson's Hospital, for as these establishments confined their benefits to males, so the Molineux was for the accommodation of females solely; and, as of the former institutions, one served as an asylum for the old, and the other as a seminary for the instruction of the young, the Molineux combined within itself both objects. The house, which was of brick, is large and commodious, and the expenses defrayed by the profits of a chapel, charity sermon, and private subscriptions. The family, whose name it bears, contributed handsomely. There were a patron, patroness, guardian (Lady Molineux), treasurer, sub-treasurer, secretary, chaplain, physician, surgeon, and apothecary. On the site of the Circus was a neat and convenient chapel, where service was performed agreeably to the forms and canons of the established church.
Blind females, above the age of fifty, had here a permanent asylum; and those below that age enjoyed the benefits of lodging, clothing, diet, and instruction in such employments as will enable them afterwards to obtain a livelihood.[lxiv]
20) Site of Parish Church of St. Peter’s (West side of Aungier Street at Aungier Place)
The Parish Church of St. Peter's, the largest in Dublin, was situated on the west side of Aungier Street. It was built in 1867 and demolished in 1983. In the south gallery there was a slab to the memory of Lieutenant-General Archibald Hamilton, who fought at the siege of Londonderry.
21) Archbishop Marsh’s Library (St. Patrick’s Close, east of St. Patrick’s Cathedral)
In 1694, Dr. Narcissus Marsh, Archbishop of Dublin, established a public library in the vicinity of St. Patrick's Cathedral, for which purpose he purchased Dr. Stillingfleet's collection of books. The library-room consists of two galleries, meeting at a right angle; and in this angle is the librarian's room, who, consequently, has a view of the entire library at once. The Stillingfleet collection is in one of the galleries; and donations, and modern productions, in the other. Amongst the collection are twelve volumes illustrative of the History of Ireland, the Repertorium Viride, the Liber Niger of Archbishop Alan.[lxv]
22) St. Patrick’s Cathedral (Patrick Street and St. Patrick’s Close)
This ancient and historical cathedral was erected in 1190, the year in which a great fire occurred in Dublin and devastated a large portion of the city. The edifice was raised on the site of an older church by Archbishop Comyn, who in the same year caused extensive repairs to be carried on in Christ Church. In the fifteenth century the cathedral fell into decay, and is stated to have been turned to other and secular purposes which greatly injured it. It is said that the old church, on the site of which the present cathedral was built, was erected by Sir Patrick himself as early as the fifth century; but this, like many other traditions of the Irish apostle, is somewhat apocryphal. The celebrated Dean Swift will ever be associated with the edifice in the mind of the student-as from his house, in its precincts, issued some of his famous writings and anecdotes of his no less famous witticisms; and here he died in 1745, in his seventy-eighth year, having founded in his old age an excellent hospital for lunatics, to be met with to the westward, near to the Kingsbridge railway terminus. The most remarkable modem feature in the history of St. Patrick's Cathedral is its renovation, in 1864 and 1865, by the late Sir Benjamin Lee Guinness, Bart., the eminent brewer, at a cost of about £60,000. A handsome spire, seen from various directions around Dublin, rises about 220 feet above the edifice, the nave and aisles of which are extensive and architecturally imposing.[lxvi]
23) Site of Weavers’ Hall (The Coombe and St. Luke’s Avenue, north side of intersection)
This hall was situated on the Coombe, in the Earl of Meath's Liberties, and was a venerable-looking brick building, having its front decorated by a handsome gilt statue of George II. In the principal room, which was 50 feet by 21, was a portrait of one of the Latouches, who came into this kingdom with the French refugees, and greatly encouraged the art of Weaving.[lxvii]
The original structure had been built by the Guild in 1682 and by 1745, when the building of a new hall was necessary, it was a Huguenot, David Digges La Touche, who advanced the £200 needed.[lxviii]
24) Ruins of St. Luke’s Church (Southside of St. Luke’s Avenue, just west of The Coombe)
In the year 1708, an act of parliament was passed, for dividing the parish of St. Nicholas Without, and giving part of it the denomination of St. Luke's; in conformity to which act, a Glebe House was erected on the Coombe, for the Vicar, who is nominated by the Chapter of the Cathedral, and the church of St. Luke erected not far from the Glebe. The approach was through a long vista of elm trees, which gave more the idea of a village church, than a parish church in a large city. Behind the church is a small cemetery. The only person of consequence interred here, is Mr. Justice Hellen, second Judge of the Court of Common Pleas in Ireland, who died in 1793, and was interred near the entrance, in the north side of the church.[lxix] The church was closed in 1975. It was burned by an arsonist in 1986. It is in the ownership of Dublin City Council and is listed for conservation.
25) Site of Skinner’s Alley (100 feet west of St. Luke’s Church on St. Luke’s Avenue)
This alley is now a walkway between apartment blocks. It was cut in half with the construction of St. Luke’s Avenue, the northern portion beyond the brick wall referred to on some maps as Newmarket Street.
In 1688, James II obliged the Protestant part of the Dublin Corporation to retire from office, and remain in concealment, until more auspicious times; and the place of their retreat was Skinner's-alley, in the Earl of Meath's Liberties: at length, the memorable Battle of the Boyne restored the Protestant religion to the country, and the corporation to its rights. The reinstated corporators, impressed with the truth of this motto "Hsec olim meminisse juvabit," retained the name of the Aldermen of Skinner's-alley.[lxx]
The motto translates as “A joy it will be one day, perhaps, to remember even this.” This passage was taken from Book I, Line 203 of Vergil’s Aeneid.
26) Stove Tenter House (Brickfield Lane, between Cork Street and Brown Street South)
What one great and good man can effect, towards ameliorating the condition of his fellow creatures, is strikingly proved by the following sketch of the Stove Tenter House, erected by Thomas Pleasants, Esq. in 1815, for £12,964. In the space of twelve months, 1018 pieces of cloth were tentered, 1588 chains or warps were sized and dried, and 1450 stones of wool were dyed, beneath the shelter of this truly charitable asylum.
Before the erection of this building, the poor weavers in the liberty were wholly destitute of employment in rainy weather, or else endeavored to tenter their cloths before the ale-house fire; and hence exposed to great distress, and not infrequently reduced either to the hospital or the gaol. After the building of the Tenter House, during the season of extreme and general distress, in 1816, not one woolen weaver was found imploring relief, or within the walls of a prison; need we wonder then at the extravagant blessings and prayers bestowed by thirty thousand persons on one of the noblest characters, in point of pure benevolence and patriotism, that ever adorned this country. The stranger will learn with gladness that Mr. Pleasants lived to witness the matured success of this truly-benevolent design.
The building, which is situated between Cork and Brown streets, a little to the east of the Fever Hospital, is a brick edifice 275 feet in length, and three stories high.[lxxi]
27) Hardwick Fever Hospital (Cork Street at Donore Avenue)
The Hardwick Fever Hospital—or House of Recovery—the most extensive institution of the kind in Ireland, was founded chiefly by the exertions of a committee of mercantile gentlemen, principally of the Society of Friends, who urged the adoption of hospitals for the reception of persons afflicted with fever alone. The subject having attracted the notice of government in 1802, on the recommendation of the Earl of Hardwicke, then Lord Lieutenant, a sum of £1,000 was voted towards erecting a building, and £500 towards the annual support of an establishment for the reception of fever patients residing in that part of the city which comprises the liberties on the south side of the Liffey. The first stone was laid on April 24th, 1802, and the house was opened May 14th, 1804, for the reception of eighteen patients. It was most advantageously situated, being near the district for whose relief it was established, and possessing good air and abundance of water; and stands on the south side of Cork Street, in a space of nearly three acres.
The hospital when first erected consisted of two parallel buildings, 89 feet by 30 feet, three stories high, running north and south, and connected by a colonnade of 116 feet. The eastern building is used for fever, the western for convalescent patients.[lxxii]
1) Four Courts (Chancery Place and Inn Quay)
The Four Courts, or Courts of Law, are situated on King's Inns Quay, on the northern bank of the Liffey, which runs in front of the chief entrance and courtyard. They were erected in the year 1786, partly from the design of Mr. Cooler., and partly from those of Mr. Gandon, the former dying before the building had been completed. The hall of the Four Courts is a perfect circle of sixty-four feet in diameter; the various entrances to the Exchequer, Queen's Bench, Chancery, and Common Pleas Courts, lead from it. It is adorned by statues of Truth, Chief Baron Joy, Sir Michael O'Laghlen, and the great Lord Plunket. A grand dome rises above this circular hall, and busts of legal celebrities ornament the place—entablatures representing several historical events in bas-relief, and statues of colossal dimensions, making up the general and very imposing effect of the whole. Police, Bankruptcy, and other courts were later built near the Four Courts.[lxxiii]
2) Site of Charitable Infirmary (Jervis Street, between Abbey Street Upper and Mary Street, now occupied by Jervis Street Shopping Centre)
The Charitable Infirmary, which was instituted at the commencement of the 18th century, was the first institution of the kind in Dublin, and owed its existence (like many other valuable establishments) solely to the benevolent exertions of a few medical men. In the year 1728, a house was opened in Cook Street, for the purposes of the charity, and, from the flourishing state of the funds, the directors were soon enabled to transfer their establishment to a more appropriate situation on the King's Inns' Quay, which they vacated in 1792, in order to remove to the this site in Jervis Street. Soon after this, the governors procured a charter, appointing subscribers of two guineas governors for the year, and those of twenty pounds governors for life. By some accident, the original charter was forfeited and a new one since obtained, depriving the medical officers of the right they formerly exercised of being ex officio governors, but still recognizing their power of becoming such, on subscribing the sums above mentioned.
The immediate conduct of the hospital was vested in the hands of a managing committee of fifteen governors, who acted under the control of the general board, all elections for medical officers and apothecaries being in the hands of the latter. The building, which was erected in 1803, was of the plainest description, possessing a simple brick front, having a double flight of granite steps furnished with a high iron railing, the house retired a few feet from the line of the adjoining ones.[lxxiv]
3) St. Mary’s Church (Mary Street, between Jervis Street and Wolfe Tone Street)
The interior, which measures 80 feet by 55, is in a heavy style of decoration; and although it has the appearance of antiquity, this is attributable to the tasteless style in which it was originally erected, the date of its foundation being only 1697. Yet, though not elegant, this church is extremely comfortable; a gallery extends quite round (with the exception of the eastern end, in which is a large window with a circular head), and is supported by large oak pillars, which assume the Ionic order after they reach the gallery, whence they are continued to the ceiling. There are many monuments in this church, placed against the side walls. At the south side of the communion table is a tablet, to the memory of Edward Tenison, Bishop of Ossory, who died on September 29th, 1735; and on the other side is one to the memory of Richard Nulty, November 10th, 1729. In the north gallery is a tablet to Mrs. Newcome, a member of the Doyley family, who died December 30th, 1769. In the same gallery, and next to the monument of Mrs. Newcome, is that of Dr. Law (who died June 11th, 1789), which was erected at the public expense, as a tribute of public esteem.
In the south gallery is a large marble slab, enclosed in a frame of black marble, bearing a very long inscription, to the memory of Mrs. Chevenin (daughter of Colonel Dives, of Bedfordshire, and wife of the Bishop of Waterford and Lismore) who was the friend of the Princess of Orange and the Countess of Chesterfield: she died in 1752. In the same gallery are two small tablets, to Gorges Edmond Howard, and Dean Fletcher. In the aisle, at the south side of the church, is a handsome monument to Mr. William Watson (who died May 26th, 1805), the workmanship of Edward Smyth, erected at the public expense. It exhibits a white slab on a grey ground, surmounted by an opened Bible and a funeral urn.
The burying-ground attached to this church is of considerable dimensions, though too small for the extent of the parish. Among the numerous tombs which crowd this cemetery, are those of Baroness Maydell, who died in 1818; Dr. Marlay, Bishop of Waterford, uncle to Henry Grattan; Mrs. Mercer, the founder of Mercer's Hospital; and Mr. Simpson, who endowed the hospital for the blind and for those labouring with the gout.[lxxv] The church closed in 1986 and was converted into a retail structure in 2007.
4) General Post Office (O’Connell Street Upper and Princes Street North)
France may, perhaps, be considered as being the first nation that established a regular and systematic mode of transferring letters; and England, of course, quickly adopted so obviously important an advantage. Edward VI prescribed a certain rate per mile, to be charged for post horses, and a post was established between London and Edinburgh; and between Chester and Dublin, by way of Holyhead. Cromwell also extended this establishment, and with the aid of parliament took the management into the hands of government. At this time, packets sailed between Dublin and Parkgate or Chester, and between Milford and Waterford. The first director of the Post-office, appointed by government, was John Manley, who was obliged to make uniform charges for the conveyance of letters, at the rate of two pence for eighty miles. A Postmaster General for the British Dominions was appointed in 1711, and a separate establishment opened in Ireland, under the direction of two Postmasters General, in 1784. From this date, the facility of communication through the kingdom rapidly increased, and the number of post towns in Ireland, at which this office advertised to deliver letters, amounts to above 400. The Penny-Post-office was opened in 1770, and was conducted in an expeditious manner, there being four collections and four deliveries of letters through the city every day, Sunday excepted; and in the neighbourhood of Dublin there were two collections and deliveries daily; but all letters delivered beyond the circular road paid two pence postage.
The next feature of importance was the establishment of mail-coaches, a measure fraught with much advantage to the general interests of Ireland. Parts of this kingdom, hitherto unknown, were now in a state of civilization, owing to the intercourse they enjoy with more cultivated society. Mail-coaches were first established in England in 1784 and in Ireland in 1790. Mr. Anderson, of Fermoy, first contracted to run a coach, carrying the mail-bags between Dublin and Cork, and Mr. Grier, between Dublin and Newry. The Road Act was shortly after passed, which opened every part of Ireland to the traveler, with convenience and safety; and a chain of communication was kept up throughout the kingdom, by means of a very ingenious management of the coaches, for wherever the direct mail from Dublin to any town stops, a light coach is in waiting to proceed by cross roads. Coaches left the General Post-office every evening at eight o'clock precisely. The English mail was dispatched every morning at seven o'clock, in a mail cart, to Howth Harbour, whence it is conveyed by government steam-packets, of great power, to Holyhead. All letters for Scotland and the north of England were sent by way of Donaghadee and Port Patrick, and to the South, by way of Waterford and Milford Haven.
The General Post Office was at first held in a small building on the site of the Commercial Buildings, and was afterwards removed to a larger house, opposite the Bank on College-green (later converted into the Royal Arcade). On January 6th, 1818, the new Post-office in Sackville Street was opened for business. The foundation-stone of this magnificent edifice, which is built after a design of Francis Johnston, Esq., was laid by his Excellency Charles, Earl Whitworth, on August 12th, 1814, and the structure was completed in the short space of three years, for the moderate sum of £50,000. The site on which the new Post-office is erected, was previously occupied by a range of houses corresponding with those in the same street, near Carlisle Bridge, and used for some time as a temporary barrack. They were so badly built, and so shaken by their numerous inmates, that while occupied by the military, they fell down, the soldiers and their families having scarcely time to escape.
5) Site of Nelson’s Pillar (O’Connell Street and Henry Street/Earl Street North)
Nelson’s Pillar, or Monument, was a tall fluted column, 121 feet high (exclusive of the statue), completed in 1809. The whole erection cost the sum of £6856, raised by public subscription among the Irish admirers of the Trafalgar hero. The statue, which stood thirteen feet in height, was a beautiful specimen of art, and was from the studio of a native sculptor, Thomas Kirk. On a fine clear day, the visitor would do well to ascend to the safely-railed summit of the monument, from which a most extensive and delightful prospect may be obtained, embracing a panoramic view of the city and surrounding country, from the Mourne Mountains in the county Down on the north, to the Wicklow Mountains on the south; the plains of Meath and Kildare on the west, parted by the Dublin Hills and Dublin Bay, and a wide expanse of sea to the eastward. It was destroyed in 1966 by a bomb. [lxxvi]
6) Rotunda Hospital (Parnell Street at O’Connell Street)
The hospital is named for the peculiar-looking building situated at the corner of what was once known as Rutland Square (now Parnell), which stretches away behind it, and consists of a series of rooms used for public exhibitions or meetings, with a suite of assembly-rooms, and all profits went to support the adjoining Lying-in Hospital. This institution, the noblest of the kind in the United Kingdom, was erected between 1751 and 1757 by Dr. Bartholomew Mosse, and afforded relief to upwards of 2000 patients yearly.[lxxvii]
7) Site of Rutland Square (Garden of Remembrance, Parnell Square North, opposite Charlemont House)
The Rotunda Gardens (Rutland Square) were at the rear of the Lying-in-Hospital, and were opened by Dr. Mosse, the founder of the hospital, for the purpose of holding Sunday evening promenades, for the benefit of that establishment. These entertainments were continued for many years, to the great advantage of the funds of the hospital, until the Association for discountenancing Vice petitioned the governors of the charity to suppress them.[lxxviii]
8) Charlemont House (Parnell Street North, formerly Palace Row)
Charlemont House, the home of Dublin City Gallery The Hugh Lane, was commissioned by James Caulfield (1728-1799), 4th Viscount Charlemont and 1st Earl of Charlemont and built in 1765. In 1746, aged 18, Charlemont went on the grand tour of Europe which was favoured by the aristocracy in the eighteenth century, thus developing his lifelong interest in the Classical arts. A fluent Latin, Italian and French speaker, Charlemont was the first president of the Royal Irish Academy. In 1763, Charlemont commissioned the young Scottish born architect William Chambers (1723-1796), whom he had met in Rome, to design his new town house at the top of Parnell Square, formerly Rutland Square. Because of the smaller scale of investment in Dublin, the squares and streets lacked the uniformity of design found in the grand squares in English cities. However, the design for Charlemont House was unique in that it provided a majestic centrepiece for the streetscape and was unrivalled in Irish Georgian squares.[lxxix]
In 1933, Charlemont House opened as the permanent location of the Municipal Gallery of Modern Art. The original Hugh Lane collection, donated by the Gallery's founder Sir Hugh Lane in 1908, has now grown to include over 2000 artworks, ranging from the Impressionist masterpieces of Manet, Monet, Renoir and Degas to works by leading national and international contemporary artists.[lxxx]
9) 9 Henrietta Street (Behind The King’s Inns on Henrietta Street)
Built in 1720, the interior of No. 9 Henrietta Street has an excellent staircase and hall and can be seen through the courtesy of the Sisters of Charity in the afternoons from April to September.[lxxxi]
10) 10 Henrietta Street (Behind The King’s Inns on Henrietta Street)
This structure was built circa 1730 by Luke Gardiner as his own residence. The design of the original building has been attributed to Sir Edward Lovett Pearce. The building is a three storey, eight bay over basement house with a Venetian window between the second and third bays at first floor level. Two major interiors of the 1730′s survive, the upper part of the original main stair hall and a rear room on the ground floor. The first floor reception rooms were embellished with Rococo plasterwork circa 1760. Luke Gardiner was succeeded on his death in 1755 by his son, the Right Honourable Charles Gardiner PC, MP, Surveyor General of Customs and Ranger of the Phoenix Park. Following his death in 1769, his son, the right honorable Luke Gardiner MP succeeded. He was created Baron Mountjoy in 1779, Viscount in 1795 and killed in the Battle of New Ross, County Wexford in 1798. He was succeeded by his son Charles John Gardiner, Second Viscount Mountjoy, created Earl of Blessington in 1816.
The Earl died in 1829 without male heirs and the house was leased to a succession of lawyers becoming the Queen’s Inn Chambers in the late 19th century. It was acquired in the early 20th century by the French Order of Daughters of Charity of St Vincent de Paul to provide relief to distressed females. The work of the order continues today and the building is actively used for a variety of community and social services projects.[lxxxii]
11) The King’s Inns (Church Street Upper at Broadstone on Constitution Hill)
The front of this structure is composed of a centre and two wings; a pediment bears the royal arms. An octagonal cupola surmounts the whole. The dining-hall is well worthy of notice, being ornamented with several statues and paintings, among which are portraits of Lord Avonmore and Lord Chancellor Manners. The building contains various courts and offices. The library was erected in 1827, at a cost of £20,000.[lxxxiii]
The Honorable Society of King’s Inns is the oldest institution of legal education in Ireland. It was founded in 1541 during the reign of Henry VIII when the king granted the Society the lands and properties on which the Four Courts now stand but which were then occupied by a Dominican monastery. When the Four Courts were built in the 1790s, King's Inns moved to Constitution Hill and the benchers commissioned James Gandon to design their present property, and construction began in 1800. This structure became the headquarters of the Benchers and the School of Law. The primary focus of the school is the training of barristers.[lxxxiv]
12) Site of Simpson’s Hospital (North side of Parnell Street at Jervis Street)
This asylum was established by George Simpson, Esq., a merchant of this city, who himself laboured under a disorder of the eyes, and was a complete martyr to the gout: it was natural enough, therefore, that his own sufferings should have directed his attention to the melancholy situation of many, who, like himself, sustained the tortures of the gout, or a partial or even total blindness, while they were not possessed of pecuniary means to render their situation supportable. He accordingly bequeathed his estate, in 1778, for the foundation of this hospital for blind and gouty men, in reduced circumstances, which was opened in 1781, and the governors incorporated 1799. The hospital is situated was on Great Britain Street (now Parnell), and formed a good termination to Jervis Street. It was of mountain-granite, and perfectly plain, and in the rear is a small garden with accommodations for the exercise of the patients. There were twenty-four wards, which contained about seventy beds, and an additional one was later built over the dining-room, so that, were the funds sufficient, the house could accommodate one hundred patients.[lxxxv]
13) Site of Newgate (St. Michan’s Park, Green Street and Little Britain Street)
Newgate Gaol was the scene of poor Lord Fitzgerald's death in 1798, where in the same year the barristers Henry and John Sheares, with John M'Cann, secretary to the Leinster Committee of United Irishmen, and W. M. Byrne, were all executed for high treason.[lxxxvi]
Newgate was the largest prison in Dublin. In 1767, it had accommodation for 80, but the average number of inmates was 170. In 1770, a decision was made to rebuild both the city Marshalsea and Newgate. Nevertheless, although it was by far the biggest gaol in Ireland, Newgate was soon overcrowded. In 1784, the Lord Chancellor, Lord Lifford, complained that it was almost impossible to visit Newgate without being robbed, and that the same was true for all the gaols in the kingdom. The condition of the gaols was mirrored in the caliber of the gaolers, who were corrupt and depraved to such a degree that they appear to have differed little from some of their charges. Indeed, in some prisons they were 'trusties' or criminals elevated to the role of gaolers. The office of gaoler was one of profit because of the legitimate, and more often illegitimate, fees that he could demand from the prisoners. In 1726 parliament passed an act forbidding, under a penalty of £500, anyone to 'buy, sell, let or take to farm the office of gaoler'. Previously the office had been openly farmed to the highest bidder. However, three years later the House of Commons discovered that Ashenhurst Isaack, Keeper of Dublin's Newgate Prison, had given £245 to the Lord Mayor and Sheriffs, who had the disposal of the gaol; his successor, John Hawkins, had done likewise with an additional £100 to the Mayor and Sheriffs for their support. Hawkins had not made a bad bargain, as it transpired that he was getting £1,163 from room rents, fees and perquisites, in addition to other extortions 'not to be computed or valued'. Isaack, his predecessor, had allowed several notorious robbers to escape.[lxxxvii]
Newgate was only used as a prison until 1839 but during its sixty-year history it had a large number of escapes and an even larger number of attempted escapes, many of which were undertaking by women prisoners.[lxxxviii]
14) St. Michan’s Catholic Church (Halston Street, between Balls Lane and Cuckoo Lane)
This church, located to the west of St. Michan’s Park, dates to between 1811 and 1814. It is not to be confused with the older St. Michan’s Church (Church of Ireland) further to the west.
15) Site of the Linen Hall (Coleraine Street and Church Street Upper)
The Linen Hall was an extensive range of buildings, where, when the linen trade flourished in Ireland, crowds of purchasers flocked from every corner of Europe. The cotton trade of Manchester had materially injured this branch of Irish industry, though some hopes of its ultimate revival had been entertained. The building consisted of six spacious courts, with store-houses, the total number of apartments being 557.[lxxxix]
16) Broadstone Railway Station (Broadstone at Church Street Upper)
The Midland Great Western Railway (MGWR) was the third largest railway company in Ireland. The MGWR lines linked Dublin to both Galway and Sligo. The service eventually served thirteen counties.
In July of 1845 The Midland Great Western Company of Ireland’s Act of Incorporation came into law.[xc]
The building is composed of granite, and is a combination of the Grecian and Egyptian styles of architecture. The view of the city from this point is very fine, especially in a clear day, when the Wicklow Mountains are distinctly seen in the distance.[xci] The station was opened in 1847, closed to passenger traffic in 1937, and closed completely in 1961.
17) Whitworth Hospital (Irish Nursing Organization, Morning Star Lane, north of Brunswick Street North)
This hospital, which was erected in 1818 under the sanction, and at the desire of Lord Whitworth, when Lord Lieutenant, for the accommodation of chronic medical patients, is a plain stone building of two stories, independently of the basement. The front has a northern aspect, and faced the House of Industry at a distance of about 200 yards: it has a plain triangular pediment over the centre, below which the name of the hospital and the date of its foundation are inscribed on the frieze beneath a plain stone cornice.[xcii]
18) Richmond Lunatic Asylum (North end of Morning Star Lane, north of Brunswick Street North)
The Richmond District Lunatic Asylum, which was erected in 1830 into a district asylum for the county and city of Dublin, the counties of Meath, Wicklow, and Louth, and the town of Drogheda, occupied a rectangular area of 420 feet by 372, on the western side of the House of Industry. The building originally formed a hollow square of three stories: the inmates were arranged in four classes of each sex, each under the charge of a keeper, whose apartment commands a view of the gallery in which the patients are confined: there are separate airing-grounds for every class. The total number of patients on the 1st of January, 1836, was 277, of whom 130 were males and 147 females; the expenditure for the same year was £4180.[xciii] Only the south block of the asylum is still standing.
19) St. Paul’s Church (King Street North, west of Queen Street at Blackhall Parade)
The church, situated in North King-street, was rebuilt in 1824, and is now a neat edifice in the Gothic style, with a small but elegant spire. Against the south wall is placed a small tablet to the memory of Lieutenant Colonel Lyde Brown, of the 21st Regiment, Royal N. B. Fusileers, who was killed on the 23rd of July, 1803, by the insurgents, under Robert Emmet. The church-yard is tolerably spacious, and not crowded, as most burying places in Dublin are: it is almost completely occupied by tomb-stones dedicated to military men, who are interred here, from its vicinity to the Royal Barracks. A tablet is affixed to the exterior south wall of the church, to the memory of three soldiers of the 21st Royal Fusileers, who were killed by the rebels in the insurrection of 1803. This monument was erected at the expense of the non-commissioned officers and privates of the 21st Regiment. Near the centre of the church-yard is Colonel Ormsby's mausoleum, a structure of granite stone, one story in height, entered by a door-way in the western side, and having the arms of the family affixed to the opposite side. It is from a design of A. Baker, Esq., and is a square building, with a plain entablature and pilasters of the Tuscan order at the angles. Here also the ancestors of the great senator, Henry Flood, are buried, beneath a plain grey stone enclosed by an iron balustrade.[xciv]
20) Blue Coat Hospital (Blackhall Place and Blackhall Street)
The noblest charitable institution in Dublin was the Old Blue-Coat Hospital (originally in Queen-street), established at the expense of the corporation of Dublin, to whom Charles II granted a charter for that purpose in 1670. The original plan was of a most extensive, and, indeed, impracticable nature, its object being to give shelter to all the poor of the city; but this extravagant project was relinquished for one more rational and feasible, namely, to educate and maintain the sons of freemen who had been unsuccessful in trade. The building, although of mean appearance in front, covered a considerable space, and previously to the erection of the Parliament House in 1729, the Parliament sat in this hospital. The present edifice, the foundation stone of which was laid in 1773, by Earl Harcourt, then Lord Lieutenant, stands opposite the extremity of Blackhall Street, on Oxmantown Green. The architect was Thomas Ivory, who also built Lord Newcomen's Bank in Castle Street.[xcv] The structure later has become the home of Blackhall Place College.
21) Site of Bloody Bridge (Rory O’More Bridge) (Ellis Quay on north bank, Watling Street on south bank)
Opened in 1859, Rory O’More Bridge is named after one of the ringleaders of a plot to capture Dublin in October of 1641. Previously the bridge was known as Queen Victoria Bridge. Prior to the bridge being built, an earlier structure named Barrack Bridge stood here. Barrack Bridge was a wooden structure built in 1674 and the second bridge across the river Liffey. During its construction, a number of men attempted to destroy it on several occasions because of the financial damage it would cause to ferry owners in the vicinity. Twenty were arrested and taken to Dublin Castle. During a transfer to the Bridewell Prison, they were rescued with four dying in the process. Largely because of this, Barrack Bridge became known as Bloody Bridge.[xcvi]
22) Queen Bridge (Queen Street on north bank, Bridgefoot Street on south bank)
In 1683, a bridge was built over the Liffey, opposite to Queen Street, called after the Lord Lieutenant, Arran Bridge, which was swept away by the floods of 1763, and rebuilt in 1764. It is of granite stone, consists of three arches, is ornamented with a light metal balustrade, and is 140 feet in length by 40 inches breadth.[xcvii]
Completed in 1768, it was originally known as Queens Bridge after Charlotte of Mecklenburg, wife of George III. It was renamed after the legendary Queen Maeve of Connaught who invaded Ulster, at a meeting of the City Council on January 2nd, 1922. The bridge replaced an earlier structure named Bridewell Bridge built in 1683. At almost 250 years old, Mellow’s Bridge remains the oldest of all Dublin city bridges still in use, although the parapets were replaced with cast iron balustrades and stone copings between 1816 and 1818. The bridge was renamed again in 1942 to its current name, after Lieutenant General Liam Mellows of the Irish Republican army who was executed during the Irish Civil War.[xcviii]
23) O’Connell Bridge (O’Connell Street Lower/Westmoreland Street at River Liffey)
This bridge was formerly called the Carlisle, so called in honour of Lord Carlisle, who was viceroy at the time when the bridge was opened in 1794. It is the lowermost of the eight bridges which span the river here, is built of stone, supported on three arches, and surmounted by a handsome balustrade. From the centre of this bridge is obtained one of the most interesting views within the city. Turning round, we look up Sackville (O’Connell) Street, with the Nelson column rising boldly in the middle of it, with the facade of the Post Office on the left and the corner of the Rotunda in view; on the other side the eye may run up either Westmoreland or D'Olier Street. Looking up the latter, we catch sight of Trinity College, and the ancient Parliament House and the Bank of Ireland. Then turning towards the stream, we have on the right the Four Courts, and beyond, the Wellington obelisk, situated in Phoenix Park; while on the left, in the distance, is the elegant granite-built terminus of the Great Southern & Western Railway. The only sights looking down the river are, the Custom-House on the left, and the shipping.[xcix]
24) Green Street Courthouse (Green Street next to St. Michan’s Park)
Green Street Courthouse is home to the Irish Special Criminal Court which deals with high security cases involving terrorism or organised crime. The courthouse was designed by Whitmore Davis and constructed in 1797. It also has a façade on Halstone Street. The structure was the scene of many trials including those of Wolfe Tone, Robert Emmet and other Fenian leaders. Lord Edward Fitzgerald died here from the injuries incurred during his arrest by Major Sirr. The stone cylindrical volume to the right of the Green Street façade is all that remains of the old Newgate Gaol which was on this site. The public park covers the remainder of the prison’s foundation.[c]
25) Site of the Broadstone Branch of the Royal Canal (Broadstone Park, Royal Canal Bank and Geraldine Street)
In 1802 the Broadstone section of the canal opened starting with a limited service to Newcastle near Enfield, 30 kilometers south west of Dublin. By 1817, the Royal Canal, which was constructed from east to west, reached the Shannon River and Broadstone was then the major harbour for connections between the city and the midlands. Very quickly it faced competition of sorts as the 1820’s saw the development of Ireland’s first regular transport service by road—Bianconi Stage Coaches. These threatened the market for the canal boat passengers. The Royal Canal Company countered this through the development of what were known as fly boat services—a daily barge that travelled from Dublin as far west as Mullingar.
While the canal was costly and labour intensive to construct, it quickly became outdated as a form of public transport. In 1845, a new railway company, The Midland and Great Western Railway Company, purchased the entire royal canal and its harbours. They had little interest in the canal itself—they wanted to use the harbours and flat land beside the canal to construct a railway to the west of Ireland. The Midland and Great Western Railway Company identified the harbour site at Broadstone as a major station site. In 1848, the MGWR had carved a new train line from the harbour running north along the western edge of Phibsboro running under the North Circular road. Once this line opened in 1848 carrying a train service from Broadstone to Mullingar, the canal could not compete for passenger traffic. With a maximum speed of only ten miles an hour the demand for canal passenger boats collapsed overnight.
In 1878, MGWR partially filled in the canal dock at the railway station. They also constructed a then private road—Western Way (this only became a public road in the 1930’s). Western Way accessed the train station across the Aqueduct, which after the canal harbour was filled in, was converted into a road bridge. With the closure of the docks at Broadstone the entire Broadstone section of the canal fell out of use as it served no purpose.[ci]
1) Custom House (Custom House Quay, between Beresford Place and Amiens Street)
The Custom House is a conspicuous object, as seen from Carlisle Bridge, through the forests of masts marking the position of the Liffey seaward. It presents to view four fronts, the whole surmounted by a graceful dome. It is 375 feet in length, and about 200 in depth. It has on all sides handsome facades and porticoes, and various allegorical statues, emblematical of the four quarters of the globe, one piece representing Industry, Plenty, and Neptune driving Famine away, and a second, allegorical of Irish and English unity, being prominent. The interior of the Custom House consists of two spacious and principal halls on the basement story, and above, various offices, connected with the excise and stamp distribution.
The Poor Law Commissioners and the Commissioners of the Board of Public Works, too, have very extensive ranges of offices within the building. In connection with the Custom House, the spacious docks and notably the splendid basin were opened in 1873 by the Lord Lieutenant Earl Spencer.[cii]
2) Site of Dublin Mechanics’ Institute (Abbey Street Lower and Marlborough Street)
The Dublin Mechanics’ Institute was established in 1824 and later there were 28 mechanics’ institutes in Ireland, notably in Dublin, Belfast and the Bianconi-sponsored one in Clonmel. After an initial boom period, some fizzled out by the 1830’s, to be followed by a revival in many places by the 1840’s. Their final demise was heralded by the opening of Kevin Street Technical School in 1887, followed by the Department of Agriculture and Technical Instruction Act of 1900 which led to the establishment of a technical school in every local authority area in the country. Some of the old mechanics’ institutes were converted into technical schools and libraries or became social clubs.[ciii]
In 1904, Annie Horniman funded the acquisition of the old Mechanics Institute of Dublin as a permanent home for the Irish National Theatre Society, on the advice of Willie Fay with regards to choice of site. It was renamed “for no other reason it appears than that its shabby Georgian façade was on Abbey Street”. The Mechanics Institute had been used as a playing space before by various amateur theatre organizations, including Young Ireland groups and later the Fenians, earning it the nickname ‘People’s Music Hall.’. Over the course of the renovations supervised by Fay, the Mechanics Institute was combined with a neighboring building on Marlborough Street. [civ]
Despite losing its original building to a fire in 1951, the theatre was rebuilt to a design by Michael Scott and reopened in 1966. After the demolition of the Mechanics’ Hall facades, the stonework was rescued by Dublin architect, Daithi Hanley, who intended to preserve it.[cv]
3) Site of Royal Hibernian Academy (30 Abbey Street Lower)
This was a plain Doric structure, erected in 1824 for the promotion of the fine arts. In 1823, the academy had received a royal charter for the study of painting, sculpture, and architecture. The exhibition usually opened in May, and closed in the latter end of July, the charge being one shilling. In 1853, however, it was open so late as the end of October, at a charge of sixpence through the day; and in the evening, for the benefit of the working classes, at one penny.[cvi]
Francis Johnston, in his retirement, funded and designed this building for the Royal Hibernian Academy. The building had keystones on the ground floor by John Smyth representing Palladio, Michaelangelo and Raphael. It was destroyed by fire during the Easter Rising in 1916.[cvii]
4) Tyrone House (Marlborough Street, opposite Cathedral Street)
The first private edifice of stone erected in Dublin was built in 1740 by the Earl of Tyrone after a design of Mr. Cassels, architect of the Bank of Ireland and Leinster House. The residence became better known by the denomination of Waterford House, the illustrious family being raised to a Marquisate.[cviii]
5) Original Site of St. Thomas Church (West side of Marlborough Street at Sean MacDermott Street Lower)
St Thomas's Church was built between 1758 and 1762 in Marlborough Street when the parish of St. Mary's was divided to cope with increased population. The architect of this church (and of St. Catherine's in Thomas Street) was Mr. John Smith. The design is from one by Palladio. £2000 was granted by Parliament for the building of the church, and later another thousand pounds to finish it off. At the time, it was considered to have the most beautiful facade of any church in the city.[cix] The Church was gutted by fire which destroyed most of Upper Sackville Street (now O'Connell Street) in the Civil War in July of 1922.
6) Trinity Church (50 Gardiner Street Lower at Beresford Lane)
Trinity Church, Lower Gardiner Street was built in 1838 and is still a landmark close to the railway bridge. However, the life of the building as a church was short lived and it was closed in 1916.[cx]
7) Site of Custom House Dock (Car park on east side of Custom House at Memorial Road and Custom House Quay)
To the east of the Custom House was a wet dock 400 feet in length by 200 feet in breadth, faced with limestone, and of "depth sufficient to float any vessel that can enter the river.” The Spitfire, a twenty-gun ship, which was driven up the river by the severity of the weather, took shelter here. This dock, which communicated with the river, and was kept of sufficient depth to float large vessels, by means of a sea-lock, was opened in 1796, and cost about £80,000 which, added to different items for furnishing the interior, makes the total expense of opening the Custom House and Dock, above £300,000.[cxi]
8) Jeanie Johnston Tallship and Famine Museum (North Wall Quay, between Commons Street and Excise Walk)
The original Jeanie Johnston was built in 1847 on the banks of the St. Lawrence River in Quebec City, Canada. Its architect was the Scottish-born shipbuilder and master craftsman John Munn. The 408-ton cargo ship was purchased in Liverpool by John Donovan and Sons of Tralee, County Kerry. As the famine gripped Ireland, the company ran a successful trade bringing emigrants from Ireland to North America and returning with timbers bound for the ports of Europe.
The Jeanie Johnston made her maiden voyage on April 24th, 1848, from Blennerville, Co. Kerry to Quebec with 193 passengers on board. Over the next seven years, the ship made 16 voyages to North America carrying over 2,500 emigrants safely to the New World. Despite the seven week journey in very cramped and difficult conditions, no life was ever lost on board the ship—a remarkable achievement which is generally attributed to the ship's captain, Castletownshend-born James Attridge and the experienced Ship's Doctor, Dr. Richard Blennerhassett.
This replica ship was designed by Fred Walker, former Chief Naval Architect with the Maritime Museum in Greenwich, England. The recreation was modeled closely on that of the 17th century Dutch East India ship, the Batavia. Work began in 1993 and was completed in 2002. The ship is built with larch planks on oak frames, however to comply with international maritime regulations some concessions to modernity had to be made. She has two Caterpillar engines, two Caterpillar generators, an emergency generator located above the waterline in the forward deckhouse. steel water-tight bulkheads, down-flooding valves and fire-fighting equipment.[cxii]
9) Connolly Station (Talbot Street and Amiens Street)
Designed by William Deane Butler and built in an Italinate style out of Wicklow granite, this railway station was opened as the head office of the Dublin & Drogheda Railroad in 1846. The centrepiece of this is the tower straddling the entrance, originally intended as a lookout tower. At the foot of this are two shields, one either side of the tower. That on the right bears the Dublin City shield of three castles while that on the left bears the shield of Drogheda. The station crosses Sherriff Street on 22 Cast iron Pillars. The red brick section of the building was added in 1879.[cxiii]
10) Aldborough House (Portland Row and Killarney Street)
This residence was originally constructed for Edward Augustus, 2nd Earl of Aldborough, in 1798. Since then, it has accommodated various uses ranging from a school, barracks, and a post office depot. Its grounds were appropriated in the 1940’s for public housing.[cxiv]
11) St. George’s Church (Hardwicke Place, Hardwicke Street, and Temple Street North)
This permanent monument of the ability and taste of the architect, Francis Johnston, Esq., is 200 feet in height, and consists of five stories above the roof, and a spire. Built in 1802, its was sold to private interests in 1991.[cxv]
Ballsbridge (Ball’s Bridge) (Pembroke/Merrion Road at River Dodder)
A distinguished Dublin gentleman named Ball lived in an elegant little house beside an old wooden bridge over the river Dodder. In 1791 a new, more substantial bridge was erected and named after Mr Ball as Ball’s Bridge. This area, including the vast expanse as far as Ringsend, became known as Ballsbridge and had its own local authority, the Pembroke Council from 1863 to 1930, when it was subsumed into the Dublin City Council. At the heart of the district, the Royal Dublin Society was central and remains so to this day. The nuclei of many societies had their origins here, including the National Botanical Gardens at Glasnevin. [cxvi]
Site of Trinity College Botanical Garden (Pembroke Road, Lansdowne Road, and Northumberland Road, front of Jury Doyle Hotel)
In 1806, Trinity College leased land for 175 years at a rate of 15 guineas per acre per annum. For 160 years the Ballsbridge Trinity College Botanical Gardens flourished. Budding botanists from far and wide researched and studied here. The plant collections were highly regarded by botanists from similar institutions around the world, while Trinity’s own botanists travelled far to collect and add to these unique lists. Botanist, Thomas Coulter discovered the Romneya plant in Mexico and he managed to establish it in Ireland. He was honoured by the name Romneya Coulteri being given as the official international name of this rare plant.
In 1892 Todea Barbara was found in a ravine near Port William in Australia. Transported in a bamboo cage, it survived and flourished in Ballsbridge until 1967, when the gardens finally ended.
However, the demise of the Trinity Gardens did not end for the Todea transferred to the National Botanical Gardens in Glasnevin and a thriving re-propagated specimen of it is on display in the Fern House labelled the oldest plant in the gardens. Frederick F. Burbidge successfully bred a Calceolaria later called calceolaria burbighei in his honour. This hybrid is growing in the replaced Trinity College botanical gardens off the Dartry Road in Rathgar and one of the parents of the cross grows freely in the grounds of the RDS.
The demise of the gardens at Ballsbridge started in 1942 when part was sold for an extension of the Veterinary College. This was followed some years later by the sale of a five acre plot where Jury Doyle Hotel now stands. The redwood, Sequdia Gigantea, located at the hotel entrance, is a mere infant in comparison with those in California. Nevertheless, its girth is now three metres at its base while its height reaches above the seven-storey bedroom block nearby. While this specimen is not rare, many fine ones were lost with the breakup of the land estates around Dublin.[cxvii]
Royal Hospital-Donnybrook (Hospital of Incurables) (West end of Bloomfield Avenue, west of Morehampton Road)
In 1744, a society of musical persons, formed by the exertions of Lord Mornington, with the view of procuring contributions towards the support of the poor, afflicted with incurable complaints, opened a house in Fleet Street for that purpose and were so successful, that, in a short time, they were able to extend their scheme; Calculating on their success, they built an hospital on Lazar's Hill, for 100 patients, a number which their income was by no means adequate to support. Their funds were thus unnecessarily expended, and in a short time they were unable to support more than a dozen patients. They then agreed to permit the governors of the House of Industry to send to their hospital 100 of such of the inmates of the former establishment as were incurable. In 1790, £4,000 was bequeathed by Theobald Wolfe, Esq., which so far relieved them, that, in two years afterwards, government offered, in exchange for this establishment, Buckingham Hospital, near Donnybrook (originally designed for the small-pox, but then used for venereal patients), together with the land belonging to it.
Dunfillan House and Conservatory (59 Orwell Road at Zion Road)
This conservatory was built at the home of David Drummond, Esq. in Rathgar and was referred to as a “Gentleman’s Crystal Palace.” Drummond was one of the Commissioners of Rathmines and Rathgar Township. Inspired by the popularity of glasshouses in the nineteenth century and his association with the Exhibition Palace and Winter Garden in Coburg Gardens, Drummond’s secondary purpose for the conservatory was to create a recreational space. The structure was most likely designed by Richard Turner or someone inspired by his work.[cxviii]
The residence dates prior to 1865, when there is documented evidence of alterations and additions being made for Drummond by architect Millard.[cxix]
Portobello Barracks (Grove Road and Windsor Terrace)
Cathal Brugha Barracks used to be known as “Portobello Barracks” as it was built in a part of Rathmines called Portobello. The building of Portobello Barracks began in 1810 and was finished in 1815. The barracks was designed as a cavalry barracks, which means it was designed for small army units which would use horses or some form of transport. More land was purchased and a Church was added in 1842, and a canteen in 1868. In 1888, the cavalry left for McKee Barracks in Cabra.
In 1817, William Windham Saddler made a successful flight in a hot air balloon from the barracks ground to Holyhead in Wales. On March 17th, 1916, the Countess of Limerick gave shamrock to the troops in Portobello Barracks. During the 1916 Rising and the Irish War of Independence British troops from the barracks were involved in actions around Dublin. The worst of these was when three people were shot without trial in the barracks guardroom. They were Mr. Dickinson, Mr. McIntyre and Mr. Sheehy Skeffington. Captain Colthurt who ordered the shooting was judged to be insane at his trial. He spent eighteen months in Broadmore Prison in England. On May 18th, 1922, Irish Troops took over Portobello barracks.
It became the National Army’s Headquarters under Michael Collins. The barracks hospital became Michael Collins’ home. On August 12th, 1922, he left the barracks for the last time to tour the South of Ireland. He was killed on August 22nd, 1922. On May 9th, 1952, Portobello Barracks had its name changed to Cathal Brugha Barracks. It was named after Cathal Brugha, who was a leader during the 1916 Rising, and was Minister for Defence in the First Dáil. He lived nearby for a time. Cathal Brugha Barracks is still a working barracks today. It now has a military archive about the defence forces in Ireland. An archive is a collection of records and information.[cxx]
Wellington Testimonial (Wellington Road, south of Chesterfield Avenue)
The Wellington Testimonial was erected in 1817 by his fellow-townsmen of Dublin to testify their great esteem for him as a military commander. The cost of it was £20,000. The form is a quadrangular truncated obelisk, and the substance is Wicklow granite. Sunken panels are on each side of the pedestal, containing reliefs in metal, representing military pieces, and on the south side the hero himself, being crowned with laurel. Up the four sides of the obelisk are inscribed the battles of the Iron Duke.
Commencing with the west side, we have Coyangeel, Poonah, Amednagur, Assaye, Argaum, Gawilyhur, Monkaseer; on the north side, Talavera, Fuentes D’onor, Crunad, Rodrigo, Badajos, Salamanca, Vittoria, Pyrenees; on the south, Rolica, Vimiera, Oporto, Busaco, Torres Vedras, Redinha, Sabugal; on the east, Bidassoa, Nivelle, Nive, Adour, Orthes, Tarbes, Toulouse. The sculptures were all executed by Irish artists, and the metal cast from cannon taken in battle.
Royal Barracks (Benburb Street and Liffey Street West)
The foundation of the Royal Barracks was laid in 1701, on the north side of the Liffey, near to the Park Gate: they consist of a number of large squares, built on three sides only, the south side being open. Palatine Square is quite enclosed, and the buildings faced with mountain granite; and in this square is a ball-room for the use of the officers of the garrison.[cxxi]
The site was renamed Collins Barracks in 1922 when it was taken over by the Irish Free State. The original buildings were designed by Colonel Thomas Burgh and the complex, which includes 18th and 19th century buildings, housed troops for three centuries. It was assigned to the Irish National Museum for its use in 1994.[cxxii]
Island Bridge (South Circular Road at River Liffey)
Located at a little village called Island Bridge, is Sarah's Arch (later Island Bridge). This beautiful piece of architecture consists of one elliptical arch, the chord of which measures 104 feet, and the altitude from low water to the key stone is 30 feet. It is of a light and elegant construction, and is 7 feet wider in the span than the celebrated Rialto at Venice. In the view of Dublin from the rising ground of the Phoenix-park, this arch is a beautiful and picturesque object in the foreground. The foundation stone was laid in 1791, by Sarah, Countess of Westmorland.[cxxiii] The bridge was renamed Island Bridge in 1922 after the establishment of the Irish Free State.
Royal Military Infirmary (Infirmary Road at Montpelier Gardens)
This hospital was designed for such of the sick soldiers of the garrison of Dublin as cannot be accommodated in the regimental hospitals attached to the different barracks. The building presents a handsome elevation of granite, after a design of Mr. Gandon, consisting of a centre (surmounted by a handsome cupola, containing a clock), and projecting pavilions at the ends. The interior was divided into thirteen wards, seven of which are devoted to the accommodation of medical, and six to that of surgical patients: in the centre building, the lower part was occupied principally by the officers; the upper part was used for wards; and the hall had been fitted up as a chapel, where service is performed every Sunday morning. The wards were convenient, and the nurses' apartments and bath rooms were well-arranged. The centre and returning wings form three sides of an inner court; the fourth is a detached building, for the reception of such patients as labour under febrile or contagious diseases. There were a few cells on the ground-floor for maniacal patients. The structure, which cost £9,000 was begun in 1786, and completed in 1788. Previously to its erection, a large building in James's Street was used for a military hospital.[cxxiv]
The interior is unoriginal and much altered, the main facade also altered in the late 19th century. The infirmary was replaced by the nearby St. Bricin’s Hospital (formerly George V Hospital) in 1913. The structure now serves as a headquarters for the Irish Defence Forces.[cxxv]
Dunsink Observatory (Dunsink Road, between Ratoath Road and the M50, near Elmgreen Golf Course)
On Dunsink Hill, about four miles northwest of Dublin Castle, stands the Observatory, founded at the instance of Dr. Henry Usher, a professor of Astronomy in the University. In 1774, Provost Andrews bequeathed £3,000 and £250 per annum for building an Observatory and supplying instruments: by means of this donation, a handsome house was erected, presenting in front a facade of two wings, and a projecting centre, crowned by a dome. Besides apartments for the professor, there are two rooms particularly appropriated to astronomical purposes, the Equatorial and Meridian Rooms. The former is beneath the dome, which is intersected by an aperture of two feet six inches in breadth, and is moveable by means of a lever and projecting cogs, so that the aperture may be directed to any point of the horizon. The Meridian room, on the west side of the building, contains the transit instrument, and the celebrated Astronomical Circle, which is universally acknowledged to be Ramsden's best performance. This instrument is minutely described in Dr. Brinkley's work on Astronomy; and the valuable discoveries, relative to parallax and refraction, which the professor made with this celebrated piece of mechanism, are recorded in the Twelfth Volume of the Transactions of the Royal Irish Academy.
Site of Female Orphan House (North east corner of North Circular Road at Annamore Road, now occupied by a large office building)
About the year 1791, Mrs. Tighe and Mrs. Este formed a plan for fostering and educating female orphans, of an age not exceeding ten nor less than five years, and for that purpose purchased a small house in Prussia Street, and supported five orphans there at their own expense, but the nobleness of the design soon procured them several benevolent coadjutors. An extensive building, here on the North Circular Road, was built by public subscription solely, and was capable of accommodating 160 children. They were taught reading, writing, and needlework, at the same time that they were made acquainted with the duties of servants, for which purpose they were frequently apprenticed. About five years after, an extremely handsome chapel, in the gothic style, was erected adjoining the house. Divine service was performed here on Sundays, when a tolerable collection was made. A patroness of this institution, and to whom it is much indebted, was Mrs. Latouche. Besides the accumulated fund, the produce of an annual charity sermon, and the result of the labour of the orphans, there was an annual grant allowed by parliament for the support of this institution. It was visited by George IV in 1821. In 1793, an Orphan House was opened in Prussia-street, for educating, clothing, and maintaining orphan boys but appears to have been later abandoned.[cxxvi]
Whitworth Fever Hospital (Drumcondra) (Whitworth Road, between Claude Road and St. Columba’s Road Lower)
The great distance of the northern extremity of the town from the Hardwick Fever Hospital in Cork Street induced some charitable individuals to establish one for the accommodation of the northeastern part of the city. Accordingly, in 1816, this building was erected for that purpose, which was opened May 1st, 1818. It is situated at the third lock of the Royal Canal, near Drumcondra, and is a plain building of brick, with an entablature of granite, on which are the name and date. During the prevalence of the epidemic fever in the early 1800’s, it was of considerable service to the northeastern extremity of Dublin, and also to the villages in the vicinity.[cxxvii]
Royal Hospital, Kilmainham (Military Road and Irwin Street)
Before the year 606, there was a priory, on the south side of the city, not far from the Liffey, called the Priory of Kilmaignend, from St. Magnend, whose festival was observed the 18th of December. Within the cemetery of this priory, in a place now called the Hospital Fields, a lofty stone pillar of rude workmanship is pointed out as the burying-place of Brian Boromhe, King of Ireland, and Murchad his son, who fell in the battle of Clontarf in 1014. This, however, is quite erroneous, for the bodies of Brian and his son were borne from the field of battle to the monastery of St. Columba at Swords, seven miles north of Dublin, and were there laid in state, until Maelmurry Mac Eoch, Primate of Armagh, arrived with the sacred reliques, and removed them to his Cathedral, where they were solemnly interred in stone coffins, according to the request of Brian himself. The pillar which is shown is the remains of an ancient cross.
On the site of Kilmaignend was erected the ancient priory of Kilmainham, established in 1174, by Richard Strongbow, Earl of Pembroke, for Knights Templars, under the invocation of St. John the Baptist; and a confirmation was granted by Henry II the same year. After bestowing the lands of Kilmainham on this priory, Strongbow expired in 1176, and was interred in Christ Church.
The first prior was Hugh de Cloghall, who held that office about 1190, after whose government King John granted to the City of Dublin, that " the Knights Templars, or Hospitallers, should hold neither person or messuage exempt from the common customs of the city, one alone excepted." Edward II having sent a mandate, the Templars were seized upon in 1307, on the day of the Purification, in every part of the kingdom, and confined in the Castle of Dublin. The institution of the order of Knights Templars was peculiarly calculated to suit the romantic and chivalrous age in which it arose, about 1118, and so powerful was its influence, that, during the 200 years which this order existed, it had actually acquired 16,000 lordships. Their conduct, however, afforded ample grounds to the avaricious and designing Philip of France, to impeach their reputation; and upon charges of sorcery, idolatry, and other dreadful crimes, to confiscate their estates and imprison their persons. Edward II followed this example, and after a solemn trial held in Dublin, before Friar Richard Balybyn, Minister of the order of Dominicans, the Templars were condemned, but more in conformity with the general feeling of the rest of Europe, than from any evidence of their infamy.
The lands and possessions of this priory were then bestowed upon the Knights of St. John of Jerusalem by the Pope, and the grant confirmed by the King; and it became an hospital for guests and strangers, to the complete exclusion of the infirm and sick, who had been always received by the Knights Templars. The priory was henceforth held by persons of great rank, and many priors were also chancellors and Lords Deputy of Ireland, and every prior sat as a Baron in the House of Lords. James Keating, the prior in 1482, having seized on the Castle of Dublin and disposed of the property of the hospital, was removed from his office and excommunicated. But Keating seized on Marmaduke Lomley, the person appointed to succeed him, and compelled him to resign. He next lent his warmest support to the scheme of raising Lambert Simnell to the throne of England. It was then enacted that the prior of Kilmainham should henceforth be a person of English descent and John Rawson, an Englishman, was elected prior, some years after Keating's excommunication. In 1535, Rawson, with the consent of the chapter, surrendered the priory and all its possessions to the King, for which he was created Viscount Clontarf, with a salary of 500 marks.
Archbishop Brown, obtained a licence from Henry VIII, March 8th, 1545, the year before that monarch's death, to unite the church of St. John the Baptist, at Kilmainham, and that of St. James without the suburbs, to the church of St. Catharine within the suburbs. But Cardinal Pole, the Pope's legate, restored the prior of Kilmainham to his authority about twelve years afterwards; and March 8th, 1557, Queen Mary confirmed him in his possessions, and regranted the priory to Sir Oswald Massingberd, who held the office until the second year of Queen Elizabeth, when it was annexed to the crown, and continued so until the reign of Charles II. The property of the priory was gradually disposed of to private persons, for pecuniary consideration, and to the cathedral and churches gratuitously.
About 1675, Arthur, Earl of Granard, first entertained the idea of instituting an asylum for invalid superannuated soldiers; and Arthur Capel, Earl of Essex, then Lord Lieutenant, was so much struck with the nobleness of the plan, that he directed a proper site to be forthwith selected. Nothing further, however, was done during his government. Afterwards owing to the incessant application of the Duke of Ormond, on the same subject, Charles II was induced to grant his request. A committee was appointed (Oct. 27th, 1679,) to make an estimate of the number of invalids requiring accommodation, and to inspect the ground within the park wall, on the south of the river.
The first stone of the edifice was laid, April 29th,1680; the second by Francis Earl of Longford, Master General of the Ordnance. It was built after a design of Sir Christopher Wren, and was completed in less than three years, for £23,559.
In 1688, Richard Talbot, Earl of Tyrconnel, represented to James II that the charter was defective and Lord Chancellor Fitton declared, that the tenure of the hospital and lands, " to be held for ever in Frank Almoigne," was illegal, whereupon they supplicated his majesty to withdraw the charter. Lord Tyrconnel then became absolute master, admitted Roman Catholics to the benefits of the hospital, and had the service of the church of Rome celebrated in the hospital chapel. The charter, however, was preserved by
Robert Curtis, Esq. Registrar, who escaped with it into England, and detained it in his custody, until he surrendered it to Charles Fielding the Master, sometime after James's abdication.
The building, which is now most commonly called the Old Man's Hospital, is a pile 306 feet by 288, having in its interior a handsome court-yard, 210 feet square, with grass plats, intersected by four walks meeting in the centre.[cxxviii]
For a time the quadrangle was used for storage of old statuary of British monarchs that were removed from public spaces in Dublin after independence. A statue of Queen Victoria that came from the front of Leinster House, was stored here for many years before being sold to the city of Victoria in Australia. After lying empty for many years, the building has been refurbished and is in use as the Irish Museum of Modern Art (IMMA). A new foyer and bookshop area was constructed within the external fabric of the old building and this contains a magnificent glass and steel staircase. To the north of the building lie the recently restored formal gardens.[cxxix]
Kilmainham Gaol (Inchicore Road and South Circular Road)
Built in 1796, Kilmainham Jail has witnessed many of the events leading to Irish independence: Prisoners from the United Irish Rebellion of 1796, the Emmet Rebellion of 1803, the Great Famine of 1845 to 1851, the Young Ireland Rebellion of 1848, the Fenian Rebellion of 1867, the Land War of the 1880s, the Easter Rising of 1916, the War of Independence and the Irish Civil War were held and often executed here.
The jail has two main areas of cells, and several exercise yards, one of which was used for executing the leaders of the 1916 Easter Rising. The original wing dating from the opening of the jail is incredibly dark and oppressive. The later Victorian wing with its wide walkways and top-lit main hall paved the way for new thinking in designs of jails in the 19th century. The interior of the jail can be visited on a guided tour. Some of the photographs above are from the interior of the later Victorian wing. The wide open central hall surrounded by metal walkways and stairwells can be seen and appreciated. In contrast, the tight narrow and dark corridors of the old wing can be seen above. These corridors were often only lit by one window whilst the cells had very small opening to allow the minimum of natural light.
The jail has been used in several movies, notably “In the name of the father” and “The Italian Job”. In both movies it played jails in England.[cxxx]
Dr. Steeven’s Hospital (Steeven’s Lane at St. John’s Road West)
In 1710, Dr. Steevens, a physician of Dublin, bequeathed his estate, amounting to £600 per annum, to his sister, during her life, and after her death, vested it in three trustees, for the purpose of erecting an hospital for the maintenance of sick poor, as well medical as surgical patients, to be called Steevens's Hospital. Anxious to fulfill the wishes of her brother, as soon as she came into possession, she immediately appropriated the greater part of the property to building the hospital, reserving to herself merely £120 per annum, and apartments in the hospital, an act of public spirit and generosity which exceeds, perhaps, that of the founder himself. It was commenced in 1720, and, in 1733, was so far advanced as to be ready for the accommodation of forty patients; the hospital was accordingly opened on the 2nd of July, in that year.
10 Henrietta Street, 53.352954, -6.2712394
17 South William Street, 53.34206, -6.2627358
9 Henrietta Street, 53.352862, -6.270964
Aldborough House, 53.355129, -6.2477836
Anatomy House, 53.342992, -6.2517678
Archbishop Marsh's Library, 53.339048, -6.2705773
Ballast Office, 53.346871, -6.2591384
Ballsbridge, 53.329284, -6.2314296
Bank of Ireland, 53.344802, -6.2598218
Bewley's Oriental Cafe, 53.346247, -6.2592887
Birthplace of the Duke of Wellington, 53.338788, -6.2527607
Bloody Bridge, 53.346735, -6.2840169
Blue Coat Hospital, 53.348559, -6.2827397
Broadstone Railway Station, 53.354361, -6.2746237
Charlemont House, 53.354234, -6.2646866
Christ Church Cathedral, 53.343422, -6.2715232
City Assembly House, 53.342032, -6.2624856
City Hall, 53.343938, -6.2672433
College Green, 53.344539, -6.2594752
Connolly Station, 53.351659, -6.2497452
Corn Exchange Building, 53.347312, -6.2565596
Custom House, 53.34861, -6.2531423
Dan O'Connell Residence, 53.340089, -6.2478916
D'Olier Chambers, 53.346042, -6.257389
Dr. Steeven's Hospital, 53.345581, -6.2921372
Dublin Castle, 53.343463, -6.2677756
Dunfillan House and Conservatory, 53.309913, -6.2731061
Dunsink Observatory, 53.387863, -6.3368553
Ely House, 53.337538, -6.2540222
Father Mathew Bridge, 53.34555, -6.2757639
Four Courts, 53.345932, -6.2734856
French Huguenot Cemetery, 53.338617, -6.2549242
Garda Pearse Statiion, 53.345721, -6.2571192
General Post Office, 53.349395, -6.2605185
Grattan Bridge, 53.345704, -6.2677705
Green Street Courthouse, 53.349648, -6.2708031
Ha'penny Bridge, 53.346335, -6.2631396
Hardwick Fever Hospital, 53.337388, -6.2845377
Island Bridge, 53.347203, -6.3082197
Iveagh Markets, 53.342073, -6.2750293
Jeanie Johnston Tall Ship & Famine Museum, 53.347558, -6.2450972
Kilmainham Gaol, 53.341701, -6.3102039
King's Inns, 53.352923, -6.2716688
Leinster House, 53.340581, -6.2539991
Mansion House, 53.340041, -6.2582624
Mercer's Hospital, 53.340827, -6.2635887
Merchants' Hall, 53.346048, -6.2628446
Merrion Square, 53.339666, -6.2491945
Messrs Maguire Restaurant, 53.346974, -6.2583627
National Concert Hall, 53.334615, -6.2586855
National Gallery, 53.341015, -6.2545417
Newgate, 53.349361, -6.2709516
O'Connell Bridge, 53.347251, -6.2592148
O'Donovan Rossa Bridge, 53.345294, -6.2721926
O'Neill's Victorian Pub, 53.344795, -6.2523419
Original Site of St. Thomas Church, 53.352216, -6.2593079
Pearse Street Station, 53.343593, -6.2495112
Portobello Barracks, 53.329554, -6.2711681
Powerscourt House, 53.342497, -6.2621791
Quakers Meeting House, 53.344795, -6.2648907
Queen Bridge, 53.346414, -6.2803764
Richmond Lunatic Asylum, 53.352404, -6.2782194
Rotunda Hospital, 53.35253, -6.2624416
Royal College of Surgeons, 53.338873, -6.2616647
Royal Hospital Donnybrook, 53.32468, -6.2481375
Royal Hospital, Kilmainham, 53.34293, -6.3000581
Royal Military Infirmary, 53.350065, -6.2965896
Ruins of St. Luke's Church, 53.338675, -6.2756973
Section of Dublin City Wall, 53.342473, -6.2739065
Sir Patrick Dun's Hospital, 53.339133, -6.241172
Site of Antrim House, 53.339894, -6.2468624
Site of Charitable Infirmary, 53.348238, -6.2661496
Site of Custom House Dock, 53.348576, -6.2518395
Site of Female Orphan House, 53.357759, -6.2870854
Site of Isolde's Tower, 53.345161, -6.2682341
Site of King George II Statue, 53.338166, -6.2590069
Site of King William of Orange Statue, 53.344454, -6.2599623
Site of Marine School, 53.346141, -6.241359
Site of Marshalsea Prison, 53.344983, -6.2825228
Site of Mechanics' Institution, 53.348678, -6.2573416
Site of Molineux Asylum, 53.339191, -6.2679357
Site of Nelson's Pillar, 53.349788, -6.2602308
Site of Parish Church of St. Peter's, 53.339218, -6.2660745
Site of Pleasants' Asylum, 53.335192, -6.2653731
Site of Royal Hibernian Academy, 53.348576, -6.2580221
Site of Rutland Square, 53.353753, -6.2642551
Site of Simpson's Hospital, 53.350345, -6.2672066
Site of St. Bridget's Church, 53.341319, -6.2702554
Site of St. John's Church, 53.343736, -6.2704791
Site of the Broadstone Branch of the Royal Canal, 53.357359, -6.2719002
Site of the Linen Hall, 53.351601, -6.2730387
Site of Trinity College Botanical Garden, 53.332183, -6.2349484
Site of Weavers' Hall, 53.339437, -6.2746421
Site of Westmoreland Lock Hospital, 53.346089, -6.2543876
Skinner's Alley, 53.338863, -6.2761379
St. Andrew's Church, 53.343658, -6.260945
St. Andrew's Roman Cath Church, 53.343211, -6.2492487
St. Audoen's Church, 53.343559, -6.2736286
St. Catharine's Church, 53.343098, -6.2813156
St. George's Church, 53.357349, -6.2627763
St. James' Church, 53.343573, -6.2887426
St. Mary's Church, 53.348572, -6.2669363
St. Michael's Church, 53.343159, -6.2720948
St. Michan's Catholic Church, 53.349382, -6.2716125
St. Patrick's Cathedral, 53.339594, -6.2720376
St. Paul's Church, 53.349778, -6.2806616
St. Stephen's Green, 53.338354, -6.2556191
St. Werburgh's Church, 53.343091, -6.2696838
Stove-Tenter House, 53.337576, -6.2826957
Tailors' Hall, 53.342989, -6.2735223
The Palace Bar, 53.345929, -6.2595819
Thomas Moore Statue, 53.345225, -6.2588823
Times Building, 53.346025, -6.2577497
Trinity Church, 53.349955, -6.2540183
Trinity College, 53.344471, -6.2589736
Trinity College Provost House, 53.343573, -6.2587376
Tyrone House, 53.350632, -6.2577651
Wellington Testimonial, 53.349153, -6.303051
Whitworth Fever Hospital, 53.363189, -6.2648992
Whitworth Hospital, 53.351496, -6.2765298
[i] “History of Dublin”; Visiting Dublin; http://visitingdublin.com/downloads/HistoryOfDublin.pdf
[ii] History of Ancient and Modern Dublin; or Visitor’s Guide to the Metropolis of Ireland; M. Starrat; Dublin, J. Charles 57 Mary Street, 1830; pg. 108.
[iii] History of Ancient and Modern Dublin; or Visitor’s Guide to the Metropolis of Ireland; M. Starrat; Dublin, J. Charles 57 Mary Street, 1830; pg. 98-106.
[iv] History of Ancient and Modern Dublin; or Visitor’s Guide to the Metropolis of Ireland; M. Starrat; Dublin, J. Charles 57 Mary Street, 1830; pg. 108.
[v] History of Ancient and Modern Dublin; or Visitor’s Guide to the Metropolis of Ireland; M. Starrat; Dublin, J. Charles 57 Mary Street, 1830; pg. 94-98.
[vi] A-Locations in Dublin; Dublin by Lamplight; http://natalieharrower.com/dublinbylamplight/city-of-dublin-google-earth/locations-in-dublin-streets-pubs-and-buildings/
[vii] A-Locations in Dublin; Dublin by Lamplight; http://natalieharrower.com/dublinbylamplight/city-of-dublin-google-earth/locations-in-dublin-streets-pubs-and-buildings/
[viii] Historical Guide to the City of Dublin; G.N. Wright, 1825; pg. 169-170.
[ix] Black’s Guide to Dublin and the Wicklow Mountains; Adam and Charles Black, Edinburgh, 1865; pg. 28.
[x] Historical Guide to the City of Dublin; G.N. Wright, 1825; pg. 41.
[xi] Historical Guide to the City of Dublin; G.N. Wright, 1825; pg. 182-183.
[xii] 1891 – D’Olier Chambers, D’Olier Street, Dublin; Archiseek; http://archiseek.com/2010/1891-dolier-chambers-dolier-street-dublin/#.UXwro7XOmkc
[xiii] 1915 – Garda Station, Pearse Street, Dublin; Archiseek; http://archiseek.com/2010/1915-garda-station-pearse-street-dublin/
[xiv] Historical Guide to the City of Dublin; G.N. Wright, 1825; pg. 215.
[xv] 1792-Westmoreland Lock Hospital, Townsend Street, Dublin; Archiseek; http://archiseek.com/2012/1792-westmoreland-lock-hospital-townsend-street-dublin/
[xvi] 1885 – O’Neill’s, Pearse Street, Dublin; Archiseek; http://archiseek.com/2010/oneills-pearse-street-dublin/
[xvii] History of Ancient and Modern Dublin; or Visitor’s Guide to the Metropolis of Ireland; M. Starrat; Dublin, J. Charles 57 Mary Street, 1830; pg. 106.
[xviii] History of Ancient and Modern Dublin; or Visitor’s Guide to the Metropolis of Ireland; M. Starrat; Dublin, J. Charles 57 Mary Street, 1830; pg. 112.
[xix] Historical Guide to the City of Dublin; G.N. Wright, 1825; pg. 81.
[xx] History of Ancient and Modern Dublin; or Visitor’s Guide to the Metropolis of Ireland; M. Starrat; Dublin, J. Charles 57 Mary Street, 1830; pg. 113-114.
[xxi] History of Ancient and Modern Dublin; or Visitor’s Guide to the Metropolis of Ireland; M. Starrat; Dublin, J. Charles 57 Mary Street, 1830; pg. 114.
[xxii] History of Ancient and Modern Dublin; or Visitor’s Guide to the Metropolis of Ireland; M. Starrat; Dublin, J. Charles 57 Mary Street, 1830; pg. 181.
[xxiii] Historical Guide to the City of Dublin; G.N. Wright, 1825; pg. 108.
[xxiv] Historical Guide to the City of Dublin; G.N. Wright, 1825; pg. 150.
[xxv] Black’s Guide to Dublin and the Wicklow Mountains; Adam and Charles Black, Edinburgh, 1865; pg. 36
[xxvi] “The Train Now Standing Over Hatch Street!”; James Scannell; Dublin Historical Record Vol. 53, No. 2 (Autumn, 2000); pp. 135-138.
[xxvii] 1798 – Former Irish Times Offices, D’Olier Street, Dublin; Archiseek; http://archiseek.com/2010/former-irish-times-offices-dolier-street-dublin/#.UXwsybXOmkc
[xxviii] Historical Guide to the City of Dublin; G.N. Wright, 1825; pg. 196-197.
[xxix] A-Locations in Dublin; Dublin by Lamplight; http://natalieharrower.com/dublinbylamplight/city-of-dublin-google-earth/locations-in-dublin-streets-pubs-and-buildings/
[xxx] 1758 – Statue of George II, St. Stephen’s Green, Dublin; Archiseek; http://archiseek.com/2013/1758-statue-of-george-ii-st-stephens-green-dublin/
[xxxi] Black’s Guide to Dublin and the Wicklow Mountains; Adam and Charles Black, Edinburgh, 1865; pg. 30-31.
[xxxii] History of Ancient and Modern Dublin; or Visitor’s Guide to the Metropolis of Ireland; M. Starrat; Dublin, J. Charles 57 Mary Street, 1830; pg. 115.
[xxxiii] “Mansion House Virtual Tour”; Lord Mayor of Dublin; http://www.lordmayorofdublin.ie/lordmayor/Files/MansionHouseVirtualTour.pdf
[xxxiv] Black’s Guide to Dublin and the Wicklow Mountains; Adam and Charles Black, Edinburgh, 1865; pg. 35.
[xxxv] O’Connell House; The Keough-Naughton Institute for Irish Studies; https://irishstudies.nd.edu/O'Connell%20house.html
[xxxvi] A History of Irish Music; William H. Grattan Flood; Chapter XXVI
[xxxvii] Historical Guide to the City of Dublin; G.N. Wright, 1825; pg. 141.
[xxxviii] Historical Guide to the City of Dublin; G.N. Wright, 1825; pg. 219-220.
[xxxix] All About the Merrion; Merrion Hotel; http://www.merrionhotel.com/page.php?pid=77
[xl] Dublin: Ely House; Irish Georgian Society; http://www.igs.ie/Programmes/Conservation-Grants/Ely-House,-Dublin.aspx?docpath=/Programmes/Conservation-Grants/Ely-House,-Dublin
[xli] Germaine-Dillon, Mona; Irish Family History, journal of the Irish Family History Society (volume Xlll); 1997; http://www.irishtimes.com/ancestor/magazine/articles/ifhs_huguenots.htm
[xlii] Black’s Guide to Dublin and the Wicklow Mountains; Adam and Charles Black, Edinburgh, 1865; pg. 32-33.
[xliii] History of Ancient and Modern Dublin; or Visitor’s Guide to the Metropolis of Ireland; M. Starrat; Dublin, J. Charles 57 Mary Street, 1830; pg. 117.
[xliv] Historical Guide to the City of Dublin; G.N. Wright, 1825; pg. 8.
[xlv] Ward & Locks (Late Shaw’s) Tourists’ Guide to Dublin and Wicklow; Ward, Lock & Co., London, 1879; pg. 16.
[xlvi] Ward & Locks (Late Shaw’s) Tourists’ Guide to Dublin and Wicklow; Ward, Lock & Co., London, 1879; pg. 13.
[xlvii] “Dublin City Walls and Defences”; The Integrated Conservation Group and RPS McHugh; 2004, pg. 7-8.
[xlviii] Handbook for Dublin and it’s Environs; James Fraser; William Robertson, Dublin, 1862; pg. 38.
[xlix] "Project history of Dublin’s River Liffey bridges"; Bridge Engineering 156 Issue BE4; Phillips & Hamilton; pg. 162
[l] Historical Guide to the City of Dublin; G.N. Wright, 1825; pg. 151-152.
[li] Historical Guide to the City of Dublin; G.N. Wright, 1825; pg. 152.
[lii] Historical Guide to the City of Dublin; G.N. Wright, 1825; pg. 114.
[liii] 1775 – The Marshalsea, Dublin; Archiseek; http://archiseek.com/2012/1775-the-marshalsea-dublin/#.UX2MFbXOmkc
[liv] Historical Guide to the City of Dublin; G.N. Wright, 1825; pg. 78-79.
[lv] Historical Guide to the City of Dublin; G.N. Wright, 1825; pg. 77-78.
[lvi] 1902-Iveagh Markets, Francis Street, Dublin; Archiseek; http://archiseek.com/2010/1902-iveagh-markets-francis-street-dublin/#.UYa9nbXOmkc
[lvii] “Dublin City Walls and Defences”; The Integrated Conservation Group and RPS McHugh; 2004, pg. 15.
[lviii] Historical Guide to the City of Dublin; F.N. Wright, 1825; pg. 64.
[lix] Historical Guide to the City of Dublin; F.N. Wright, 1825; pg. 60-61.
[lx] Ward & Locks (Late Shaw’s) Tourists’ Guide to Dublin and Wicklow; Ward, Lock & Co., London, 1879; pg. 17-18.
[lxi] Historical Guide to the City of Dublin; F.N. Wright, 1825; pg. 61-62.
[lxii] Historical Guide to the City of Dublin; F.N. Wright, 1825; pg. 68-69.
[lxiii] Historical Guide to the City of Dublin; F.N. Wright, 1825; pg. 72.
[lxiv] Historical Guide to the City of Dublin; G.N. Wright, 1825; pg. 133.
[lxv] Historical Guide to the City of Dublin; F.N. Wright, 1825; pg. 41.
[lxvi] Ward & Locks (Late Shaw’s) Tourists’ Guide to Dublin and Wicklow; Ward, Lock & Co., London, 1879; pg. 16-17.
[lxvii] Historical Guide to the City of Dublin; F.N. Wright, 1825; pg. 109.
[lxviii] History; Irish Guild of Weavers, Spinners, and Dyers; http://www.weavespindye.ie/history2.html
[lxix] Historical Guide to the City of Dublin; F.N. Wright, 1825; pg. 83-84.
[lxx] Historical Guide to the City of Dublin; F.N. Wright, 1825; pg. 108.
[lxxi] Historical Guide to the City of Dublin; G.N. Wright, 1825; pg. 187-188.
[lxxii] Historical Guide to the City of Dublin; G.N. Wright, 1825; pg. 216-217.
[lxxiii] Ward & Locks (Late Shaw’s) Tourists’ Guide to Dublin and Wicklow; Ward, Lock & Co., London, 1879; pg. 19-20.
[lxxiv] Historical Guide to the City of Dublin; G.N. Wright, 1825; pg. 205.
[lxxv] Historical Guide to the City of Dublin; G.N. Wright, 1825; pg. 70-71.
[lxxvi] Black’s Guide to Dublin and the Wicklow Mountains; Adam and Charles Black, Edinburgh, 1865; pg. 23-24.
[lxxvii] Black’s Guide to Dublin and the Wicklow Mountains; Adam and Charles Black, Edinburgh, 1865; pg. 39.
[lxxviii] Historical Guide to the City of Dublin; G.N. Wright, 1825; pg. 142.
[lxxix] Charlemont House; Dublin City Gallery The Hugh Lane; http://www.hughlane.ie/charlemont-house
[lxxx] About the Gallery; Dublin City Gallery The Hugh Lane; http://www.hughlane.ie/about-the-gallery
[lxxxi] 1720-No. 9 Henrietta Street, Dublin; Archiseek; http://archiseek.com/2010/1720-no-9-henrietta-street-dublin/
[lxxxii] 1730-No. 10 Henrietta Street, Dublin; Archiseek; http://archiseek.com/2010/1730-no-10-henrietta-street-dublin/
[lxxxiii] Black’s Guide to Dublin and the Wicklow Mountains; Adam and Charles Black, Edinburgh, 1865; pg. 39.
[lxxxiv] History; Honorable Society of King’s Inns; http://www.kingsinns.ie/website/heritage/heritage.htm
[lxxxv] Historical Guide to the City of Dublin; G.N. Wright, 1825; pg. 131-132.
[lxxxvi] Black’s Guide to Dublin and the Wicklow Mountains; Adam and Charles Black, Edinburgh, 1865; pg. 39.
[lxxxvii] 7.3 Prisons and prisoners; Ulster Historical Foundation; http://www.ancestryireland.com/hip_statutes.php?filename=7.3
[lxxxviii] JC-Newgate Prison; Designing Dublin; http://www.designingdublin.com/?p=4007
[lxxxix] Black’s Guide to Dublin and the Wicklow Mountains; Adam and Charles Black, Edinburgh, 1865; pg. 40.
[xc]Midland Great Western Railway in Westmeath; http://www.westmeathcoco.ie/en/media/Midland%20Great%20Western%20Railway%20in%20Westmeath.pdf
[xci] Black’s Guide to Dublin and the Wicklow Mountains; Adam and Charles Black, Edinburgh, 1865; pg. 40.
[xcii] Historical Guide to the City of Dublin; G.N. Wright, 1825; pg. 222.
[xciii] Dublin Lunatic Asylums From A Topographical Dictionary of Ireland, 1837; Dictionary of Ireland; http://www.libraryireland.com/topog/D/Dublin-Lunatic-Asylums.php
[xciv] Historical Guide to the City of Dublin; G.N. Wright, 1825; pg. 79-80.
[xcv] Historical Guide to the City of Dublin; G.N. Wright, 1825; pg. 194.
[xcvi] 1859-Rory O’More Bridge, Dublin; Archiseek; http://archiseek.com/2010/1859-rory-omore-bridge-dublin/#.UYWgaLXOmkc
[xcvii] Historical Guide to the City of Dublin; G.N. Wright, 1825; pg. 152.
[xcviii] 1764-Mellows Bridge, Dublin; Archiseek; http://archiseek.com/2010/1764-queen-maeve-bridge-dublin/#.UYWe-rXOmkc
[xcix] Black’s Guide to Dublin and the Wicklow Mountains; Adam and Charles Black, Edinburgh, 1865; pg. 28.
[c] 1797 – Green Street Courthouse, Dublin; Archiseek, http://archiseek.com/2010/1797-green-street-courthouse-dublin/
[ci] Broadstone Station-A Forgotten History of Dublin; Irish History Podcast; http://irishhistorypodcast.ie/2011/02/17/broadstone-station-%E2%80%93-a-forgotten-history-of-dublin/
[cii] Ward & Locks (Late Shaw’s) Tourists’ Guide to Dublin and Wicklow; Ward, Lock & Co., London, 1879; pg. 20.
[ciii] The Dublin Mechanics’ Institute, 1824-1919; Jim Cooke; Dublin Historical Record, Vol. 52, No. 1 (Spring, 1999); pp. 15-31.
[civ] A-Locations in Dublin; Dublin by Lamplight; http://natalieharrower.com/dublinbylamplight/city-of-dublin-google-earth/locations-in-dublin-streets-pubs-and-buildings/
[cv] 1904 – Abbey Theatre, Dublin; Archiseek; http://archiseek.com/2012/1904-abbey-theatre-dublin/
[cvi] Black’s Guide to Dublin and the Wicklow Mountains; Adam and Charles Black, Edinburgh, 1865; pg. 37.
[cvii] 1824 – Royal Hibernian Academy, Lower Abbey St., Dublin; Archiseek; http://archiseek.com/2012/1824-royal-hibernian-academy-lower-abbey-st-dublin/
[cviii] Historical Guide to the City of Dublin; G.N. Wright, 1825; pg. 154.
[cix] Cosgrave, Ephraim McDowel; Strangways, L.R. (1908). A Dictionary of Dublin (2nd Edition). Dublin: Sealy, Bryers and Walkers.
[cx] History of the Parish of St. George and St. Thomas; Parish of St. George and St. Thomas; http://georges.dublin.anglican.org/history.html
[cxi] Historical Guide to the City of Dublin; G.N. Wright, 1825; pg. 176-177.
[cxii] Jeanie Johnston-History; Jeanie Johnston Tall Ship & Famine Museum; http://www.jeaniejohnston.ie/history-page.html
[cxiii] Connolly Station to Greystones; Industrial Heritage Ireland; http://industrialheritageireland.info/TikiWiki/tiki-index.php?page=Connolly+Station+to+Greystones
[cxiv] Aldborough House; Consurv-Conservation Surveying; http://www.consurv.ie/Projects/Historic_Houses/Navigation.html
[cxv] Historical Guide to the City of Dublin; G.N. Wright, 1825; pg. 74.
[cxvi] “Trinity College Botanical Gardens”; J. Keaveney; http://www.news4.ie/dec05/frame3/35trinity.htm
[cxvii] “Trinity College Botanical Gardens”; J. Keaveney; http://www.news4.ie/dec05/frame3/35trinity.htm
[cxviii] Dublin: Dunfillan Conservatory; Irish Georgian Society; http://www.igs.ie/Programmes/Conservation-Grants/Dublin--Dunfillan-Conservatory.aspx
[cxix] Irish Architectural Archive-The Dictionary of Irish Architects 1720-1940; http://www.dia.ie/works/view/37559/building/CO.+DUBLIN,+DUBLIN,+ORWELL+ROAD+(RATHGAR),+NO.+057-59+(DUNFILLAN)
[cxx] Cathal Brugha Barracks; Dublin City Public Libraries & Archive; http://dublincitypubliclibraries.com/dublin-buildings/cathal-brugha-barracks
[cxxi] Historical Guide to the City of Dublin; G.N. Wright, 1825; pg. 149.
[cxxii] History of the Museum; Irish National Museum; http://www.museum.ie/en/list/history-of-the-museum.aspx
[cxxiii] Historical Guide to the City of Dublin; G.N. Wright, 1825; pg. 153.
[cxxiv] Historical Guide to the City of Dublin; G.N. Wright, 1825; pg. 225.
[cxxv] 1786-Irish Army Headquarters, Phoenix Park, Dublin; Archiseek; http://archiseek.com/2010/1786-irish-army-headquarters-phoenix-park-dublin/
[cxxvi] Historical Guide to the City of Dublin; G.N. Wright, 1825; pg. 133-134.
[cxxvii] Historical Guide to the City of Dublin; G.N. Wright, 1825; pg. 223-224.
[cxxviii] Historical Guide to the City of Dublin; G.N. Wright, 1825; pg. 189-192.
[cxxix] 1680-Royal Hospital Kilmainham, Dublin; Archiseek; http://archiseek.com/2010/1680-royal-hospital-kilmainham-dublin/#.UYbRSrXOmkc
[cxxx] 1796-Kilmainham Jail, Dublin; Archiseek; http://archiseek.com/2010/1796-kilmainham-jail-dublin/#.UYbRRbXOmkc