Table of Contents:
East of the City:
North of the City:
West of the City:
South of the City:
While every effort has been made to insure accuracy, neither the author nor the publisher assume legal responsibility for any consequences arising from the use of this book or the information it contains.
All maps are by the author.
A London Nobody Knows
The City’s More Obscure History
All Rights Reserved. Copyright © 2012 Lyn Wilkerson
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without the permission in writing from the author.
This travel guide to London history is the first in a series created by Caddo Publications USA to explore the lesser known history of this great city. It is not intended to be an exhaustive account of all historic sites, landmarks, and structures within the metropolitan area. The purpose of this guide is to introduce to the domestic and international traveler many of the rich heritage sites which are not always part of the traditional history itinerary. Future volumes will be created to include additional historic content, and we welcome any suggestions from residents of the city to be included in subsequent guides.
Site of Pears’ Soap Store (71-75 New Oxford Street, Covent Garden)
Andrew Pears, a son of the tenant of Lanadron Farm, near Megavissey, in Cornwall, came into London in the 18th century, and set up a barber shop on Gerrard Street, Soho, in 1789. In those days, the barber did more than shave and cut hair—gentlemen wore wigs, and the "hair dresser" curled, powdered and kept these in order. Young Pears studied closely and steadily the preparations then used by barbers, and soon realized the defects of the soaps then in use. He experimented, attempting to make an article different from anything else on the market. He finally announced to the world that he had created transparent soap.
The death of Mr. Andrew Pears in 1909 dissolved a memorable partnership in which there had never been a misunderstanding. At Isleworth, Mr. Pears looked after the making of his incomparable soap, while Mr. Thomas J. Barratt in London superintended its sale and exploited in novel and untried ways a product that was to minister to health, beauty and refinement the world over, and to become an active auxiliary in the progress of English civilization.[i]
Charles Lefevre House (10 Bedford Square, corner of Montague Place)
No. 10 was not built by the November 20th, 1777, for a lease of No. 9, granted on that date, refers to the northern boundary as "ground contracted to be built upon." It does not find a place in the parish rate books until 1781. The names of the occupants of the house during the latter part of the 18th Century are given by the rate books as follows:
1790-97 John Lefevre.
1797-98 Chas Lefevre.
1789-90 Chas Shaw Lefevre.
1798- Henry Davison.
The "Chas. Shaw Lefevre" and "Chas. Lefevre " shown in the parish rate books as occupying the house in 1789-1790 and 1797-1798 respectively was Charles Shaw, a barrister, who, on his marriage with Helena, only daughter of John Lefevre (possibly the occupier in 1790-1796), assumed the additional name of Lefevre. His eldest son, Charles, afterwards Viscount Eversley, was born in 1794, and, therefore, while the family was not resident here; but the birth of his second son, John George (afterwards Sir John George Shaw-Lefevre) took place at this house on the January 24th, 1797. John George had a distinguished career as a public official. He had a passion for acquiring languages, and mastered fourteen. He died in 1879.[ii]
Lincoln’s Inn (Lincoln’s Inn Fields and New Square)
If our imagination could carry us back to the thirteenth century, we should notice, as we walked up what now is Chancery Lane, but then was known as New Street, leading from the Temple Bar up to "Old Bourne," the palace of the Bishops of Chichester, the mansion of Henry de Lacy, Earl of Lincoln, and the beautiful church of the Knights Templars, resplendent with the solemn services which were daily celebrated within it. It is from this Earl of Lincoln that what is now "Lincoln's Inn" derives its name; and it is the opinion of the learned antiquary, Francis Thynne, that it was constituted a regular Inn of Court not long after that nobleman's death in 1312. Those of the buildings which still remain, however, are not older than the Tudor times, the old gateway and the hall having been both erected in the reign of Henry VII. The frontage of these old buildings facing Chancery Lane is about 500 feet in length. The gatehouse is a fine specimen of late red brickwork of a Gothic type, and is now almost the only example of that sort of work to be found in London. The principal gateway, and the two flanking towers on either side, still stand in the same condition as when they were first erected, except that their red color has been dulled by three centuries and a half of dust and smoke; but the windows for the most part have been modernised, much to the loss of picturesque effect. Over the gateway are still to be seen three shields of arms in as many square compartments. The first are those of Lacy, Earl of Lincoln; those in the centre are the royal arms of England; and the third and last are the bearings of the actual builder of the gate, Sir Thomas Lovel, Knight. Beneath these is the date A.D. 1518. These heraldic sculptures were repaired and redecorated in 1815.[iii]
Bell Yard (Fleet Street and Middle Temple Yard)
It was from here that Richard Quincy wrote the only letter in existence, addressed to Shakespeare, requesting a loan of thirty pounds.[iv] The yard is first mentioned in 1659.
Gunpowder Square (South of Printer Street, West of Shoe Lane)
In Gunpowder Alley, off Shoe Lane, Richard Lovelace, who wrote "stone walls do not a prison make," died miserably poor.
Dr. Samuel Johnson House (17 Gough Square)
Dr. Johnson lived and died in this residence. It was in Gough Square that most of his great dictionary was written, and at the "Cheshire Cheese" (Fleet Street) he and Oliver Goldsmith are said to have gathered in convivial hours, and their seats may still be used by the ordinary diner there.
Barnard’s Inn (24 Holborn)
Barnard’s Inn was recorded as part of the estate of Sir Adam de Basyng, Mayor of London, in 1252. In 1454 the property was established as an Inn of Chancery. The Inn was a school for law students, who then passed on to the Inns of Court. Barnard’s Inn, together with Staple Inn, became associated with Gray’s Inn. In 1892 the freehold was purchased by the Mercers’ Company and the building housed the Mercers’ School from 1894 until 1959.
The Hall dates from the late 14th century, with early 16th century linen-fold paneling. The historic chalk and tile walling preserved in the southern wall of the Council Chamber below the Hall is much older, dating from the Roman period. The hall suffered substantial damage during the Gordon Riots of 1780. Next door, on the site of Buchanan House, there stood a distillery owned by a Roman Catholic, Mr. Langdale. His premises were burned down by the rioters, and he only escaped by scrambling through a small hole in the cellars into Barnard’s Inn. The Hall was damaged and several of the residential chambers destroyed. The cellars were flooded, and one of the officers of the Inn, on the second day after the fire, “saw a sturdy fellow at the pump, pumping up not the pure water now flowing in this excellent spring, but gin scarcely impregnated with the water, which he doled out for 1d. a mug to the crowd of miscreants thirsting from the heat of their exploits…” The Inn received sums totaling £3,200 from the authorities towards the cost of restoration.
In 1931, the Hall was systematically restored by the Mercers’ Company. The old roof timbers were scraped, made good and put back in their places, and a dignified stone fireplace of Tudor design was put at each end of the Hall. The paneling was carefully cleaned and restored, with missing pieces replaced. The windows were re-glazed, re-leaded and provided with new oak frames, and the flooring restored.
In 1990 the building, including the Hall, was again refurbished with facilities needed for meetings, dinners and functions. Barnard’s Inn Hall has been the home of Gresham College since 1991.[v]
Site of Black Bull Tavern (122a Holborn)
In the old Black Bull Tavern, Mrs. Gamp and Betsy Prig of Charles Dickens’ Martin Chuzzlewit nursed their patient so well that he did not die. Mrs. Gamp says of it that it was "a little dull, but not so bad as might be. I'm glad to see parapidges in case of fire and lots of roof and chimney-pots to walk upon." The tavern had been in existence since 1697, and was torn down in 1904. [vi]
Site of Lud Gate (Ludgate Hill and Old Bailey)
Lud Gate, which John Stow in his Survey of London in 1598 designates the sixth and principal gate of London, taken down in 1760 at the solicitation of the chief inhabitants of Farringdon Without and Farringdon Within, stood between the present London Tavern and the church of St. Martin. According to old Geoffry of Monmouth's fabulous history of England, this entrance to London was first built by King Lud, a British monarch, sixty-six years before Christ. Our later antiquaries, ruthless as to legends, however romantic, consider its original name to have been the Flood or Fleet Gate, which is far more feasible. Lud Gate was either repaired or rebuilt in the year 1215, when the armed barons, under Robert Fitzwalter, repulsed at Northampton, were welcomed to London, and there awaited King John's concession of the Magna Charta. While in the metropolis these greedy and fanatical barons spent their time in spoiling the houses of the rich Jews, and used the stones in strengthening the walls and gates of the City. That this tradition is true was proved in 1586, when (as Stow says) all the gate was rebuilt. Embedded among other stones was found one on which was engraved, in Hebrew characters, the words "This is the ward of Rabbi Moses, the son of the honorable Rabbi Isaac." This stone was probably the sign of one of the Jewish houses pulled down by Fitzwalter, Magnaville, and the Earl of Gloucester, perhaps for the express purpose of obtaining ready materials for strengthening the bulwarks of London. In 1260, in the time of Henry III, Lud Gate was repaired, and beautified with images of King Lud and other monarchs. In the reign of Edward VI, the citizens, zealous against everything that approached idolatry, smote off the heads of Lud and his family; but Queen Mary, partial to all images, afterwards replaced the heads on the old bodies.[vii]
London City & Midland Bank Building (45-57 Ludgate Hill)
To No. 45 (south side), Ludgate Hill, that strange, independent man, Charles Lamb's friend, William Hone, the Radical publisher, came from Ship Court, Old Bailey, where he had published those blasphemous "Parodies," for which he was three times tried and acquitted, to the vexation of Lord Ellenborough. Here, having sown his seditious wild oats and broken free from the lawyers, Hone continued his occasional clever political satires, sometimes suggested by bitter Hazlitt and illustrated by George Cruikshank's inexhaustible fancy. Here, Hone devised those delightful miscellanies, the "Every-Day Book" and "Year Book," into which Lamb and many young poets threw all their humour and power. The books were commercially not very successful, but they have delighted generations, and will delight generations to come. Mr. John Timbs, who saw much of Hone, describes him as sitting in a second-floor back room, surrounded by rare books and black-letter volumes. His conversion from materialism to Christianity was apparently sudden, though the process of change had no doubt long been maturing. The story of his conversion is thus related by Mr. Timbs:—"Hone was once called to a house, in a certain street ina part of the world of London entirely unknown to him. As he walked he reflected on the entirely unknown region. He arrived at the house, and was shown into a room to wait. All at once, on looking round, to his astonishment and almost horror, every object he saw seemed familiar to him. He said to himself, 'What is this? I was never here before, and yet I have seen all this before, and as a proof I have I now remember a very peculiar knot behind the shutters.' He opened the shutters, and found the very knot. 'Now, then,' he thought, 'here is something I cannot explain on any principle—there must be some power beyond matter.' "The argument that so happily convinced Hone does not seem to us in itself as very convincing. Hone's recognition of the room was but some confused memory of an analogous place. Knots are not uncommon in deal shutters, and the discovery of the knot in the particular place was a mere coincidence. But, considering that Hone was a self-educated man, and, like many skeptics, was incredulous only with regard to Christianity, and even believed he once saw an apparition in Ludgate Hill, who can be surprised?[viii]
Constructed in 1891, this building is identified for its “modern” architectural style in the 1910 edition of the Encyclopedia Britannica on page 440.
Site of Baynard’s Castle (Upper Thames Street and Puddle Dock)
John Stow tells us that the Castle was originally built by Baynard, a Nobleman who came over with William the Conqueror and died in the reign of William Rufus. He is possibly the Bainiard mentioned in the Domesday Book as holding 3 hides of land in the Vill of St. Peter, of the Abbot of Westminster. The Castle seems to be alluded to by Fitz Stephen in 1170.
The castle was forfeited by William Baynard in 1111 and then given to Robert Fitz Richard, son of Gilbert de Clare, who was succeeded by Walter. Walter was succeeded by Robert Fitz Walter, and, according to Stow, the Castle remained in the same family for more than a century.
During excavations made in 1890, oaken piles were found, said to be Roman, and to have formed part of the Arx Palatina, which terminated the southern wall at this point[ix]
Edward IV, the same day he was proclaimed, dined at the palace at Paul's (that is, Baynard's Castle, near St. Paul's), in the City, and continued there until his army was ready to march in pursuit of King Henry; during which stay in the City he caused Walter Walker, an eminent grocer in Cheapside, to be apprehended and tried for a few harmless words innocently spoken by him. It is stated that Walker said that he would make his son heir to the Crown, inoffensively meaning his own house, which had the crown for its sign. For this imaginary crime he was beheaded in Smithfield, on the eighth day of this king's reign. [x]
Site of Black Friars (Friar Street, south of Carter Lane)
Black Friars was a house of Dominican Friars near Ludgate on the site known later as the precinct of Blackfriars. It was founded in 1221 by Hubert de Burgh, who gave the Friars land in Holborn for their house. The gift was confirmed to the Canons of the Preaching Friars in 1224 by John Bokointe.
In 1278, the Friars received a grant of the site of Castle Baynard for the erection of a church and cloister and other buildings, and the old site in Holborn was sold to Henry de Laci, earl of Lincoln. Permission was given to the Friars to pull down a portion of the City wall for the erection of their house, and in 1283 and 1284 the King directed that the wall should be rebuilt by the City outside the Friars' precincts. In 1294, a quay was in the course of construction on the Thames at their house. By 1315, the City wall was still incomplete and customs were granted by the King in aid of the work, so that it might be completed, between the river Flete and the house of the Preaching Friars as far as the Thames, and also for the erection of a new turret adjoining the wall.
The site of the monastery comprised the small parish church of St. Ann, the splendid coventual church, the churchyard and cloisters, the chapter house and priory buildings, and extended from the Wall of London and Bridewell Ditch west to Puddle Dock east and from the Thames north to the Wall of London, just south of Ludgate Hill. It is frequently referred to in records as used for public purposes. Divers Parliaments met there and the Emperor Charles V was lodged there in 1522.
It was surrendered to the King Henry VIII and portions of the site were granted by him to various persons. The site of the priory was given by Edward VI to Thomas Cawardine in 1549 and 1550. There was an Anker's cell within the precincts.
The special privileges granted to the monastery continued to be enjoyed by the inhabitants living within the precincts of the Black Friars for many years after the dissolution of the monastery and the destruction of the conventual buildings. The famous Blackfriars theatre was erected on part of the site about 1596, in spite of protests from some of the inhabitants, but was pulled down in1655, and the site converted into tenements.
In 1900, some remains of the priory of 13th-century work were brought to light between Friar Street and St. Anne's churchyard.[xi]
St. Paul’s Cathedral (Saint Paul's Church Yard, City of London, London EC4M 8)
From the beginning of the 7th century, a Christian church has stood on this site. The immediate predecessor of the present building was destroyed in the great fire of 1666. The Cathedral, as we see it now, is due to the genius of architecture, Sir Christopher Wren, who was engaged for thirty-five years on the task, at a salary of two hundred pounds a year. The cost of the Cathedral was over a million pounds, its length is five hundred and fifteen feet, height three hundred and sixty-five feet, and the golden ball at the top will comfortably hold ten persons.
Great Paul, the largest bell in England, weighs seventeen tons and is rung daily at one o'clock. At the base of the steps, as you enter, you may see the inscription marking the spot where Queen Victoria gave public thanks for having reigned sixty years.[xii]
Christ Church Greyfriars Garden (Newgate Street and King Edward Street)
Also known as Christ Church Newgate Street, the first church was destroyed in the Great Fire and rebuilt by Wren between 1677 and 1691. The structure was gutted in 1940 during World War II. The tower was restored in 1960.[xiii]
Whitbread Brewery Building (52 Chiswell Street)
John Rocque’s map of London from 1746 clearly indicates the King’s Head Brewhouse, built around a courtyard on the south side of Chiswell Street, which was derelict when it was purchased by Samuel Whitbread and Godfrey and Thomas Shewell in 1748. The partnership of Whitbread and Shewell had been formed in 1742 and had first occupied the Goat Brewhouse on the corner of Old Street and Upper Whitecross Street nearby.
The new owners cleared the site and by 1750 a new brewery specifically designed for the mass production of porter was completed. Over the next twenty years, alterations and extensions were made to the brewery in response to expanding business, but in 1773 fire destroyed the old Porter -Tun Room.
A new storehouse with enlarged vaults beneath was built, followed by improvements to the taphouse and the rebuilding of the counting house, incorporating a new gateway and a large connection to the City’s new sewer in Chiswell Street. As the scale of operation at Chiswell Street continued to increase, further development took place. This included building across the east end of the yard, the paving of the yard itself (1777), the completion of the Porter Tun-Room in 1784 (with a King post roof having the widest timber span in London apart from Westminster Hall) and the installation of a Boulton & Watt steam engine in 1785. Characteristically, Whitbread employed some of the leading engineers of his time and utilized the most up-to-date technology available. He was also concerned that his buildings should be of high quality construction.
Such industry was rewarded by a visit to Whitbread’s brewery by King George III and Queen Charlotte in 1787 and at the time of Samuel’s death nine years later, production at Chiswell Street exceeded 200,000 barrels in one year. By 1800, the brewery had extended to both sides of Chiswell Street and throughout the nineteenth century both sites continued to expand with further technological improvements being made. In the late 1880’s the brewery reached its maximum physical extent and its facilities then included a 140 foot high malt store, a new tun-room, two wells each 327 feet deep, two 3,000 barrel water reservoirs at roof level, a new brewhouse, three refrigerators, as well as the single span ‘great fermenting room’ (the Porter-Tun Room) measuring 165 feet by 60 feet. A new 70 horsepower steam engine had replaced the Bolton & Watt engine which had been in use for over 100 years.
Developments in production methods continued into the twentieth century, along with further physical alterations to the buildings themselves. However, in many respects the extent of these changes was less radical than before and, consequently, the form and external appearance of much of the Chiswell Street brewery remained unaltered until the Second World War. However, on December 29th, 1940 the City of London suffered a heavy air-raid, during which the brewery was hit by hundreds of incendiary bombs. Nevertheless, Whitbread’s own fire brigade and the Auxiliary Fire Service managed to extinguish the incendiaries and the following morning the brewery buildings stood largely undamaged, but surrounded by almost total devastation.
In the post-war period, recognition of the architectural and historic significance of some of the buildings within the overall Whitbread complex gradually resulted in a number being ‘listed’, the earliest protection being confirmed in 1950. Nevertheless, substantial changes to the brewery took place in the later 1970s following the issue in 1973 of one of the last substantial Office Development Permits to be granted by the Greater London Council. Brewing at Chiswell Street ceased in 1976 and two acres of brewery buildings to the south of the Porter-Tun Room—including the malt store—were demolished and redeveloped for office use.[xiv]
Site of Cheapside Standard (Cheapside and Honey Lane)
The Cheapside Standard, opposite Honey Lane, was also a fountain, and was rebuilt in the reign of Henry VI. In the year, 1293 (Edward I) three men had their right hands stricken off here for rescuing a prisoner arrested by an officer of the City. In Edward III's reign two fishmongers, for aiding a riot, were beheaded at the Standard. Here also, in the reign of Richard II, Wat Tyler, that unfortunate reformer, beheaded Richard Lions, a rich merchant. When Henry IV usurped the throne, very beneficially for the nation, it was at the Standard in Chepe that he caused Richard II's blank charters to be burned. In the reign of Henry VI, Jack Cade (a man who seems to have aimed at removing real evils) beheaded the Lord Say, as readers of Shakespeare's historical plays will remember; and in 1461 John Davy had his offending hand cut off at the Standard for having struck a man before the judges at Westminster.[xv]
Site of Cheapside Cross (Cheapside and Wood Street)
Cheapside Cross, one of the nine crosses erected by Edward I., that soldier king, to mark the resting places of the body of his beloved queen, Eleanor of Castile, on its way from Lincoln to Westminster Abbey, stood in the middle of the road facing Wood Street. It was built in 1290 by Master Michael, a mason, of Canterbury. From an old painting at Cowdray, in Sussex, representing the procession of Edward VI from the Tower to Westminster, we gather that the cross was both stately and graceful. It consisted of three octangular compartments, each supported by eight slender columns. The basement story was probably twenty feet high; the second, ten; the third, six. In the first niche stood the effigy of probably a contemporaneous pope; round the base of the second were four apostles, each with a nimbus round his head; and above them sat the Virgin, with the infant Jesus in her arms. The highest niche was occupied by four standing figures, while crowning all rose a cross surmounted by the emblematic dove. The whole was rich with highly-finished ornament.
The cross was rebuilt in 1441, and combined with a drinking-fountain. The work was a long time about, as the full design was not carried to completion till the first year of Henry VII. This second erection was, in fact, a sort of a timber-shed surrounding the old cross, and covered with gilded load. It was, we are told, re-gilt on the visit of the Emperor Charles V. On the accession of Edward VI., that child of promise, the cross was altered and beautified.
In Queen Elizabeth's time, in their horror of image worship, the Puritans, foaming at the mouth at every outward and visible sign of the old religion, took great exception at the idolatrous cross of Chepe. Violent protest was soon made. In the night of June 21st, 1581, an attack was made on the lower tier of images—i.e., the Resurrection, Virgin, Christ, and Edward the Confessor, all which were miserably mutilated.
On the night of January 24th, 1641, the cross was again defaced. On the May 2nd, 1643, the cross in Cheapside was pulled down. [xvi]
St. Mary le Bow Church (Cheapside and Honey Lane)
The first Bow Church seems to have been one of the earliest churches built by the conquerors of Harold; and here, no doubt, the sullen Saxons came to sneer at the masse chanted with a French accent. The first church was racked by storm and fire, was for a time turned into af ortress, was afterwards the scene of a murder, and last of all became one of our earliest ecclesiastical courts. John Stow, usually very clear and unconfused, rather contradicts himself for once about the origin of the name of the church—"St. Mary de Arcubus or Bow." In one place he says it was so called because it was the first London church built on arches; and elsewhere, when out of sight of this assertion, he says that it took its name from certain stone arches supporting a lantern on the top of the tower. The first is more probably the true derivation, for St. Paul's could also boast its Saxon crypt. Bow Church is first mentioned in the reign of William the Conqueror, and it was probably built at that period.
There seems to have been nothing to specially disturb the fair building and its ministering priests until 1090 (William Rufus), when, in a tremendous storm that sent the monks to their knees, and shook the very saints from their niches over portal and arch, the roof of Bow Church was, by one great wrench of the wind, lifted off, and wafted down like a mere dead leaf into the street. It does not say much for the state of the highway that four of the huge rafters, twenty-six feet long, were driven (so the chroniclers say) twenty-two feet into the ground.
In 1270, part of the steeple fell, and caused the death of several persons; so that the work of medieval builders does not seem to have been always irreproachable. It was in 1284 (Edward I) that blood was shed, and the right of sanctuary violated, in Bow Church. One Duckett, a goldsmith, having in that warlike age wounded in some fray a person named Ralph Crepin, took refuge in this church, and slept in the steeple. While there, certain friends of Crepin entered during the night, and violating the sanctuary, first slew Duckett, and then so placed the body as to induce the belief that he had committed suicide. A verdict to this effect was accordingly returned at the inquisition, and the body was interred with the customary indignities. The real circumstances, however, being afterwards discovered, through the evidence of a boy, who, it appears, was with Duckett in his voluntary confinement, and had hid himself during the struggle, the murderers, among whom was a woman, were apprehended and executed. After this occurrence, the church was interdicted for a time, and the doors and windows stopped with brambles.
By the Great Fire of 1666, the old church was destroyed; and in 1671 the present edifice was commenced by Sir Christopher Wren. After it was erected, the parish was united to two others, All Hallows, Honey Lane, and St. Pancras, Soper Lane. The church was completed (chiefly at the expense of subscribers) in 1680. [xvii]
Aldgate Pump (Leadenhall Street and Fenchurch Street)
Aldgate Well was first mentioned in the thirteenth century—in the reign of King John—and referred to by sixteenth century historian, John Stowe, who described the execution of the Bailiff of Romford on the gibbet “near the well within Aldgate.” In The Uncommercial Traveller, Charles Dickens wrote, “My day’s business beckoned me to the East End of London, I had turned my face to that part of the compass… and had got past Aldgate Pump.” Music Hall composer Edgar Bateman nicknamed “The Shakespeare of Aldgate Pump,” wrote a comic song in celebration of Aldgate Pump--including the lyric line “I never shall forget the gal I met near Aldgate Pump…”
The pump was first installed upon the well head in the sixteenth century, and subsequently replaced in the eighteenth century by the gracefully tapered and rusticated Portland stone obelisk that stands today with a nineteenth century gabled capping. The most remarkable detail to survive to our day is the elegant brass spout in the form of a wolf’s head – still snarling ferociously in a vain attempt to maintain its “Pump of Death” reputation – put there to signify the last of these creatures to be shot outside the City of London.
The spring water of the Aldgate Pump was appreciated by many for its abundant health-giving mineral salts, until—in an unexpectedly horrific development—it was discovered that the calcium in the water had leached from human bones from the surrounding cemeteries. Several hundred people died in the resultant Aldgate Pump Epidemic as a result of drinking polluted water. The pump was switched to the public water system in 1876.[xviii]
Tower of All Hallows Staining Church (Mark Lane and Dunster Court)
The body of this church was demolished in 1870. The tower and crypt are maintained by the Livery Company of Clothworkers. The original church was built around 1320 A.D.
Tower Hill (Tower Hill, Shorter Street, and Mansell Street, next to the Tower of London)
On Tower Hill is the site of the scaffold where many of England's bravest and best met their death by the headman's axe. [xix]
Tower of London (Tower Hill, Shorter Street, and Mansell Street)
The Tower itself dates from the William the Conqueror's day. A fortress, a prison, a place of execution (Anne Boleyn and Lady Jane Grey were beheaded here), a royal residence, and now a fortress and museum only, it has dominated London for eight centuries. To know the Tower in detail is to know English history thoroughly. The Yeomen of the Guard, whose uniform has remained unchanged since the day of Henry VIII stand on duty at all interesting points, showing the way to the Traitor's Gate, whither offenders against the law, or the caprice of a king, were brought by water; to the Armory, the various Towers, or the collection of Crown Jewels. The jewels consist of the King's crown, scepter, orb, state sword, and other regalia. The Cullinan Diamond, presented to the King by the Transvaal, is also on view.
Near by the Tower stands the Royal Mint and the Trinity House, which controlled the light sand buoys round the British coast; but of more popular interest is the Tower Bridge, costing one million five hundred thousand pounds, the novel features of which are the two bascules which are raised to allow large vessels to pass up and down the river.[xx]
Hoxton Hall (130 Hoxton Street, Shoreditch)
Built in 1863 as MacDonald’s music hall, this building is now the home of the Hoxton Hall Youth Arts Centre. The theatre was expanded in 1909.[xxi] Hoxton Hall is the smallest of the three theatres used in the filming of Miss Marie Lloyd-Queen of the Music Hall.
It's a perfectly preserved saloon-style theatre in the heart of Hoxton, where Marie Lloyd was born and brought up. Opened in 1863 as a music-hall, it was one of many small theatres in the East End of London. But it lost its license in 1871 after complaints of rowdiness, and never regained it. It's unlikely therefore that Marie Lloyd ever sang here, as her career only started in the mid-1880s.[xxii]
Site of Curtain Theatre (2-8 Hewitt Street)
The Curtain, the second theatre to be built in London, was opened some time in 1577. It is known that, in 1585, Henry Lanman was the proprietor and manager and from the fact that Lanman is mentioned in March of 1580 and 1581, as one of the lessees of Curtain Close it is a fairly warrantable inference that his connection dates back to that time. From 1585 to 1592, however, James Burbage appears to have shared in the management, using the building as an easor to The Theatre. The association of the two managements may have lasted even later than 1592, for two actors in the companies of Burbage and Lanman at their deaths (Thomas Pope, in 1603, and John Underwood, in 1623) owned shares in the Curtain. The building survived orders by the Privy Council in 1597 and 1609 that it should be destroyed, and is referred to in a license in 1603 to Thomas Green and others to act "in their usual houses called the 'Curtayne' and the 'Bore's Head ' in Middlesex," and in a letter dated April 6th, 1604, from the Lords of the Council to the Lord Mayor and other magistrates. It gradually fell into disuse, the last reference to it which has been traced being in 1628, in the recognizances of Thomas Roades, William Crosswell and Richard Burford "to answear the complaint of the inhabitants of Shoreditch for casting six tuns of filth . . . into the common shoare near the Curtaine Playhouse."
It would, however, appear to have been in a sorry condition some years previously, for in the indenture of July 1st, 1611, accompanying the transfer of Curtain Close to Edward Morris, it is referred to as "all that large mesuage or tenemente, built of timber and thatched, now in decay, called the 'Curtaine,' with a parcell of ground adjoyning thereto, wherein they use to keepe stage playes, now or late in the tenure or occupacion of Thomas Greene."
Very little is known of the plays which were performed at the Curtain. In 1598, the Lord Chamberlain's company of players, of whom Shakespeare was one, was acting there, and we have the contemporary evidence of John Marston that, about this time, Romeo and Juliet was performed there. It is also said that Ben Jonson acted in the building, and it is practically certain that it witnessed the production of his principal comedy, Every Man in His Humour.
There is no doubt whatever that the Curtain theatre was situated in Curtain Close, and that it was either identical with or adjacent to the house called The Curtain. This absolutely disposes of the idea that the site is now indicated by St. James's Church which is on the wrong side of the street. Further than this, however, it is hardly possible to go. On the whole, the probabilities seem to be in favor of the suggestion that the site is approximately indicated by the opening called Curtain Court, in Chassereau's map, though no positive evidence can be adduced therefor. The site of Curtain Court seems to have been approximately in the neighborhood of the present Hewett Street, and it therefore seems probable that the Curtain theatre occupied a site somewhere near the south side of that street.[xxiii]
Port of London Authority Headquarters (10 Trinity Square)
The headquarters of the Port of London Authority bought the three-acre site of 10 Trinity Square in 1912. At the time, it comprised Georgian residences, warehouses and offices. The Board of the PLA then ran an architectural competition for the design of a new headquarters building, with strict rules that it should be visible from the river. The architect Sir Edwin Cooper was the successful applicant, and the building was officially opened by the Prime Minister David Lloyd George in 1922. Its entrance was surmounted by a flat-topped masonry tower containing a series of sculptures by Albert Hodge, representing commerce, navigation, exportation and, to symbolise the River Thames and the prosperity it bore.
The building was badly damaged by enemy bombing during World War II, and when rebuilt in the 1970s a functional rectangular office block was built to occupy the central part of the building which was destroyed in the war. The building was occupied as the European headquarters of insurance company Willis following the relocation of the PLA.[xxiv]
Cambridge House (94 Piccadilly)
At Cambridge House, popular for being the residence of Lord Palmerston, a lunatic lieutenant named Pate attempted to take the life of Queen Victoria. Robert Pate, a retired lieutenant, attacked the Queen in 1850, inflicting a wound upon her Majesty. Pate, who was sentenced to transportation in present-day Tasmania for seven years for the assault, died in 1895. The cane Pate attacked the queen with was advertised to be sold at auction in January of 1899, but was withdrawn when the owner received an official communication from Osborne House, the former royal residence of Queen Victoria and Prince Albert on the Isle of Wright.[xxv]
Watergate (George Street, Villiers Street, Duke Street, and Buckingham Street)
The local street names recall the unworthy favorite of Charles II, George Villiers (1628-1687), 2nd Duke of Buckingham. Villiers had a mansion here, the water-gate of which is still to be seen, showing how far the river has receded from its ancient course.[xxvi]
William Paterson House (19 Queen Annes Gate)
William "Pattison"of the ratebooks was William Paterson, founder of the Bank of England and promoter of the ill-fated Darien scheme. He was born in 1658 in Dumfriesshire. The story that "he came from Scotland in his younger years, with a pack on his back, and having travell'd this country for some years, became first a missionary and then a buccaneer in the West Indies,” is not supported by evidence of any value. The early part of his business life was spent in America, chiefly in the Bahamas. He returned to England in James II’s reign and soon acquired great influence in the City. In 1691 he, with certain other merchants, proposed to the Government a scheme of which he was "chief projector," for the foundation of the Bank of England, and on its establishment three years later he became a director. In 1695, however, he retired from that position. He now applied himself to the developing of a scheme for the establishment of a Scottish East India Company with a colony in Darien, where they would "hold the key of the commerce of the world." The Scots invested very largely and when the scheme utterly failed and the colony had to be abandoned, Scottish prosperity received a grievous blow. After his return from Darien, Paterson was frequently consulted by the King and his ministers on financial questions. He was an able supporter of the union of England and Scotland, and had a great share in framing the articles of the treaty relating to trade and finance. He died in January, 1719. He is the hero of Eliot Warburton's novel Darien, or the Merchant Prince. According to the Dictionary of National Biography, his residence in Queen Square began in 1703. The first ratebook which shows the square is that for 1705 (possibly implying a residence in 1704) and that gives only two names: "Lord Dartmouth" and "Wm. Pattison, Esq." Paterson was therefore one of the earliest occupants of the square. The further statement in the Dictionary that he "was one of the higher ratepayers" is incorrect, his house being rated at only £45, while seven others were either £80 or £90. It would seem that Paterson left Queen Square some months before his death, as the entries in the ratebooks for the two last quarters of that year (1718) signify that the tenant is gone away, the dwelling being 'empty.'[xxvii]
Nicolas Clagett House (17 Queen Annes Gate)
This was once the residence of was Nicholas Clagett, the third of that name who attained some eminence in the religious world. He resided here between 1744 and 1746. His father was a well-known controversialist, who had been preacher for 45 years at St. Mary's, Bury St. Edmunds, and his grandfather, an able Puritan divine, had also held the same position until rejected for nonconformity at the Restoration. The youngest Nicholas became Dean of Rochester in 1724 and Bishop of St. David's in 1732. In 1742 he was translated to Exeter. He died on December 8th, 1746, "at his house in Queen Square" and was buried at St. Margaret's, Westminster.[xxviii]
William Dodd House (36-38 Old Queen Street)
The remarkable record of William Dodd, L.L.D., a popular preacher, royal chaplain and convicted forger, is well known. He was born in 1729, the son of the vicar of Bourne. Coming to London in 1751, he entered the ministry, and soon attained great popularity. He identified himself particularly with the interests of the Magdalen Charity, to which he was appointed chaplain, and purchased for himself a proprietary chapel in Pimlico called Charlotte Chapel, where he attracted a fashionable congregation. In 1772, he entered into occupation of this house in Queen Street, and a letter dated November 24th, 1773, addressed by Thomas Gainsborough, the painter, to "the Rev. Dr. Dodd, Queen Street, Westminster," is extant. A few months later, the simony scandal occurred (Mrs. Dodd had written anonymously offering money for the reversion of the living of St. George, Hanover Square) and Dodd lost much of his popularity. He soon became involved in debt, and had to leave the house in Queen Street. In 1777, he forged the signature of the Earl of Chesterfield to a bond for £4200, was arrested, tried and sentenced to death. In spite of numerous petitions on his behalf the sentence was duly carried out.[xxix]
Downing Street (Downing Street and Parliament Street)
Sir George Downing was born in 1623. In 1638, he accompanied his parents to New England, where he completed his education at Harvard, of which he was the second graduate. Returning to England he entered the Commonwealth service, and in 1650 was acting as scoutmaster-general of Cromwell's army in Scotland. In 1655, he was sent to France and Turin to remonstrate on the massacre of the Vaudois, and in 1657 was appointed resident at the Hague. There, he made his peace with Charles II, and on the Restoration was continued in his post and made a teller of the exchequer. He was knighted in 1660, and made a baronet in 1663. In 1671 he was again sent to the Hague for the express purpose of stirring up strife, but his unpopularity there was such that he left hurriedly, and was sent to the Tower for a time for having returned without the King's orders. He died in 1684, leaving behind him an unenviable reputation for treachery and avarice.
On April 3rd, 1581, Queen Elizabeth granted the land which would become Hampden House to Thomas Knyvet, the Keeper of the Palace, for life without rent. The lease was later extended to 60 years beyond his death. On July 27th, 1622, Knyvet died, leaving the residue of his property, after payment of debts and legacies, to his wife. The latter survived her husband only a few weeks. By her will, dated September 4th, 1622 (she died on the following day), she left the whole of her property, after payment of debts and some legacies, to her niece, Elizabeth Hampden, a widow. The fact that Elizabeth Hampden was Lady Knyvet's niece and the mention in her will of her four grandsons, Richard Hampden, Sir Robert Pye, Sir John Hobart and Sir John Trevor, show that she was the mother of John Hampden, the statesman, and aunt of Oliver Cromwell, the Protector, and Colonel Whalley, the regicide. She is shown in occupation of Hampden House in the overseers' accounts for 1623. She lived there until her death in 1665, her residence lasting for over 40 years.
George Downing, whose name was henceforth to be inseparably associated with the site of the house, now appeared on the scene. On June 24th, 1651, the Parliamentary Commissioners sold the Crown's interest in the property to Robert Thorpe and William Procter, and on November 24th, 1654, Downing acquired the interest from Thorpe, the survivor. At the Restoration the transaction, of course, became void, but Downing was not minded to let the matter drop. In 1662, he successfully petitioned the King for a new lease.
Meanwhile, Mrs. Hampden was still at the house. She died in February of 1665 and was buried on the 21st of that month at Great Hampden. The residue of her estate (including the unexpired term of the Knyvet lease) was left to her four grandchildren named above. Information as to the occupiers of the house for the next few years is scanty. A letter, however, dated September 1st, 1672, and written by Sir
Robert Clayton, stating that he had received a summons to wait upon the Duke of Buckingham at Hampden House, would seem to justify' the inference that the duke was then living there. In the following year, Sir Thomas Osborne, Viscount Latimer (afterwards Earl of Danby), seems to have stayed for a short time at the house.
In 1682, the Knvvet lease came to an end, and Downing entered into possession. His intention all along had been to rebuild. In the report which the Lord Treasurer ordered to be made on his petition in 1663 attention was called to the fact that "the houseing . . . are in great decay and will hardly continue to be habitable to the end," of the Knyvet lease, and it was suggested that Downing might even buy in the estate for rebuilding before the completion of the term. Whether Downing acted on this suggestion and entered into negotiations with Mrs. Hampden, there is nothing to show. If he did, he was unsuccessful.
Downing's lease would naturally expire in 1763, but in 1751 Jacob Garrard Downing (his grandson) sought and obtained (on February 5th, 1752) an extension to 1803 in respect of the greater portion of the property, and a further extension to 1820 was afterwards granted to trustees on behalf of Dame Margaret Downing.
The first alteration in the form of the street took place in connection with Soane's building of the Board of Trade and Privy Council Offices, when the Downing Street frontage was set back and arranged at a different angle to King Street. The southern side of the street and the large open area at the western end (known as Downing Square) remained unaltered for several years, hut on the erection of the new Government offices on the south side the street attained its present shape and size.[xxx]
10 Downing Street
No. 10 Downing Street stands partly on the site of the garden of Hampden House, but in part occupies the site of the westernmost portion of the Duke of Albemarle's premises as shown on the plan of 1670. On the death of Albemarle in that year, the latter site seems to have passed into the possession of the Duke of Buckingham.
Of the buildings which were erected in Downing Street on the site of Hampden House, four are particularly referred to in Sir George Downing's will as "all those foure greate houses, being parcell of the premises held of the Crowne, fronting Saint James Parke West and North." These may be identified as follows: (i) a house (afterwards No. 14) to the south of the present No. 12, (ii) a house on the site of the present No. 12, (iii) a house occupying the greater portion of the site of the present No. 11, and (iv) the Great House," occupying the remainder of the site of No. 11 and the greater part of the site of the Downing Street portion of No. 10. The remainder of the site of the Downing Street part of No. 10 was occupied by a small house.
In 1722, the original building leases ran out, and fresh leases of the four large houses were granted. The Great House was divided. On September 15th, 1722, Charles Downing demised to Henry Cornwall the eastern portion of the house, as well as the small house adjoining it, for 38 years, for the erection of stabling. The remainder of the Great House was dealt with separately. On April 17th, 1723, Downing leased to James Steadman for a term expiring in June, 1760, land “in a place heretofore called Hampden Garden neare Kingstreet.” On the westernmost portion of this site, Steadman seems to have built the house which now forms the eastern portion of No. 11. From the fact, however, that in 1766 the Downing Street portion of No. 10 is described as "old” and "much decayed," it seems probable that the remaining portion of the Great House was left standing. In the ratebook for 1731, the two houses are shown in the occupation of John Scroop and Mr. Chicken (previously Mr. Skeley) respectively. Four years later, Chicken's house disappears, being obviously merged with the Bothmar house (and the Cornwall stabling) to form what is now No. 10 Downing Street. The Crown did not purchase the Steadman lease, probably because of the complication introduced by its inclusion of the eastern part of No. 11, but rented the No. 10 portion. Between 1766 and 1783, extensive repairs and rebuilding took place on the structure.[xxxi]
Site of Carlton House (Waterloo Place and Carlton House Terrace)
Carlton House was located on part of the former Royal Garden of St James's Palace, roughly where Pall Mall and Waterloo Place now intersect. Henry Boyle, who became Lord Carlton in 1714, leased the land from the Crown and built a house and gardens overlooking St James's Park. These were subsequently acquired by George, Prince of Wales, on his coming of age in 1783. As Prince Regent, George spent huge sums of money on the house, which was intended to form the southern end of the great Regent Street development by the architect John Nash.
However, by the time he took the throne as George IV in 1820, Carlton House had fallen from favor, with Buckingham Palace the preferred site for the royal residence. The King therefore authorized the demolition of Carlton House and the development of the site and gardens as a residential area, choosing Nash as his favored architect once again. In 1827 Nash came up with the idea of a terrace of two great blocks of nine houses apiece, with a central space in between. Originally envisaged as a site for a large domed fountain, this space was later taken up by the flight of steps down to the Mall, surmounted by the statue of Frederick Augustus, "the grand old Duke of York", which can be seen today.[xxxii] The Duke of York, the second son of George III, is said to have gone up there to escape his creditors.[xxxiii]
White’s Club (37 St James’s Street)
White's, originally White's Chocolate House, was established in the 1693 and speedily became the resort of wealthy and aristocratic gamesters. Harley never passed its portals without cursing it as the house of half the nobility of his day. [xxxiv] This house has been occupied since 1755 by White's, which previously occupied a house on the west side of the street.[xxxv]
Cocoa Tree (64 St. James’s Street)
The first known reference to the Cocoa Tree chocolate house is in 1698. During its long career, it occupied three different houses in Pall Mall and then moved to No. 64 St. James's Street. At some unknown date, it ceased to be a place of public resort and became first a proprietary and then (probably) a members' club. When it ceased to exist in 1932 it was, apart from White's, the only West End club whose ancestry could be traced back to the chocolate houses of the late seventeenth century.
The Cocoa Tree is mentioned as a popular resort in the first number of The Spectator in 1711—'my face is likewise very well-known at the Grecian, the Cocoa-tree, and in the theatres, both of Drury-lane and the Haymarket'. It appears to have been frequently patronized by Jonathan Swift and by 1722 it was evidently regarded as a favored Tory rendezvous, a reputation which it continued to enjoy for about the next half-century. At the time of the rebellion of 1745 its habitués were clearly suspected of Jacobite sympathies. In a letter written shortly after the battle of Culloden, Horace Walpole relates that 'the Duke [of Cumberland] has given Brigadier Mordaunt the Pretender's coach, on condition he rode up to London in it. "That I will, Sir," said he, "and drive till it stops of its own accord at the Cocoa Tree."'[xxxvi]
Haymarket Theatre (18 Suffolk Street)
Built in 1720, the Haymarket Theatre has nearly three centuries of history behind it. It was here, in 1734, that Fielding's "Historical Register" so cleverly satirized Sir Robert Walpole, the Prime Minister, that the act was passed by which the Lord Chamberlain's license had to be obtained before a play can be produced—a restriction under which daring dramatists loudly complained.[xxxvii]
St. Jame’s Square (St. James Square and Pall Mall)
St. James's Square was round which biographer Samuel Johnson and poet Richard Savage, not having enough money to pay for a bed, tramped all one dreary night, argued politics, and swore they would die for their country. Neither had the occasion to do so. The Square, formed in the time of Charles II, who often visited his questionable friends here, later boasted among its residents the Bishop of London, the Duke of Norfolk, and other eminent folk.[xxxviii]
Marlborough House (Marlborough Road and The Mall)
Marlborough House was the town residence of the Prince of Wales. Here, the Duke of Marlborough, the victor of the Battles of Blenheim and Ramillies, passed away, and his widow, the redoubtable "Sarah," gave him such a magnificent funeral as London had rarely seen. Fifty years afterward she, too, went the way of all flesh. Today it is used by the Commonwealth Secretariat.[xxxix]
Brooks’s Club (60A St. James’s Street)
Brooks's Club, founded in 1764 and once the headquarters of the Whigs, is where dignity reigns supreme. "Dining at Brooks's," it was once said, "is like dining at a duke's house with the duke lying dead upstairs." Play is by no means so heavy as it was in the old days—it was started as a gaming club—and one is not likely to witness a repetition of the scene when Beau Brummel won heavily from Alderman Combe, the brewer, and told him that in future he would drink his porter only. "I wish every other blackguard would tell me that," retorted the irate loser. [xl]
Ratcliffe Highway (Dock Street and E. Smithfield)
Now referred to as The Highway, Ratcliffe Highway contains evil memories, as readers of Thomas De Ouincey know. On Saturday, December 7th, 1811, at around 11:30 pm, Timothy Marr, the owner of a drapers shop at 29 Ratcliffe Highway, was preparing to close his business for the night. Inside the premises were four other people apart from himself: his wife Celia and their three-and-a-half-month old baby, also called Timothy, and two non-family members-their apprentice, James Gowan and Margaret Jewell, their serving girl. Within the hour, Jewell alone would remain alive; all of the others would lie brutally and horribly murdered. They would be the first victims in a series of murders that would both grip and terrify the entire East End of London.[xli]
Site of King’s Arms Tavern (81 Garnet Street)
John Williamson, his wife, Elizabeth and their barmaid, Bridget Harrington, were found murdered at the King's Arms tavern, New Gravel Lane, now called Garnet Street, on December 19th, 1811. The murders were discovered when a patrolling watchman found a man (John Turner, a lodger at the tavern) scrambling semi naked down knotted sheets from an upper floor and shouting that murder was being committed within the house. Entry was gained to the premises by forcing the cellar flap and a rapid search revealed the body of John Williamson hanging from a ladder in the cellar and the bodies of his wife Elizabeth and Bridget Harrington in the kitchen area. All three had been brutally battered and murdered. It also appeared that their throats had been cut in what appeared to be almost a carbon copy of the recent atrocities involving the Marr family. There were further similarities to the Marr murders in the supposed method of escape, which appeared to be across open land at the rear of the premises. Only one person (other than Turner) survived the attack, Kitty Stillwell, the Williamson's fourteen-year-old granddaughter had slept through the incident and had thus escaped being found by the murderers.[xlii]
Jacob’s Island (Jacob Street and Georges Row)
Jacob's Island is the scene of Bill Sykes's attempt to escape from the angry mob who desired to take his life in Charles Dickens’ Oliver Twist.
Brunel’s Thames Tunnel (Wapping Station)
At Wapping Station begins Brunel's Thames Tunnel, the first tunnel in the world under a river, which took eighteen years to bore. The tunnel opened in 1843. The Brunel Museum is housed in Marc Brunel’s original Engine House, and features a fascinating exhibition on the Thames Tunnel’s construction and history.
St. Paul’s Church-Shadwell (300 block of The Highway)
This church, dedicated to St. Paul, was built in the year 1656, principally at the expense and by the influence of Thomas Neale, Esq., lessee of an estate (comprising two-thirds of the parish), under the church of St. Paul's. By the act of parliament in 1669, it was made parochial, but was not consecrated until the March 12th, 1671.[xliii]
Brunswick Wharf (Newport Avenue and Pilgrims Passage)
In the early 1830s, the river frontage between Blackwall Yard and the upper entrance to the East India Docks basin was rebuilt as a steam wharf by the East India Dock Company. Called Brunswick Wharf, it was intended to cater for the burgeoning steam-packet trade, which was already causing overcrowding in the Pool, and within a few years of opening in 1834, the new wharf was linked to the City by a frequent rail service. Sited on the wharf, the railway terminus was one of Blackwall's more distinguished architectural compositions, while the earlier river wall was a notable example of late-Georgian engineering. Brunswick Wharf survived into the late 1940s, when, together with the East India Export Dock, it was redeveloped as part of the site of the Brunswick Wharf Power Station.
James Walker proposed replacing the existing wall with one constructed of cast-iron sheet-piling backed by mass concrete. The use of iron had apparently been suggested by Joseph Cotton, the company's Chairman, on account of its relatively low cost. Because of the depth of water required to enable ships to use the wharf at all states of the tide, the alternative would have been a masonry wall, necessitating the construction of an expensive coffer dam. The use of iron for quay walls was not in itself an innovation. Iron sheet-piling had been introduced about 1820 by the engineer David Matthews for the foundations of the north pier at Bridlington Harbour, and Walker himself had used it in this way —for the first time on the Thames — in rebuilding part of Down's Wharf in 1824. Its use at Brunswick Wharf is particularly notable because of the large scale of the undertaking and the fact that the iron sheeting was not confined to the foundations but was used for the entire face of the wall. [xliv]
Limehouse Cut (Commercial Road at Limehouse Cut)
The Limehouse Cut is a navigable canal which connects the river Lee at Bromley with the Thames in this parish. It was completed in 1769, pursuant to an act of parliament.[xlv]
Bromley Recreation Ground (St. Leonards Street and Grace Street)
The property was held by the trustees of the late George Gammon Rutty,and was purchased on June 13th, 1898, by the London County Council for the purpose of converting the grounds into a public garden.
This was the site of the Tudor House. This house, although of late 16th century date, was so named from its having been the residence of one of the Tudor family, who, according to tradition, came to Bromley and joined the Scotch colony founded by James I., who is supposed to have built the Old Palace, which stood next to it on the north side.[xlvi] After the house was demolished, the garden was opened in 1900.
Site of Canal Dockyard (Manchester Road, south of Blue Bridge)
The whole of this area was once part of the large Hall-Preston estate, which extended northwards into Old Blackwall. In 1799, the southern end of this estate was one of the properties purchased by the City Corporation for making the City Canal. After the canal was finished, the Corporation leased and sold the surplus land on the south side of the Blackwall entrance to Thomas Pitcher, a shipbuilder at Northfleet, near Gravesend. Pitcher used the ground on the east side of Ferry Road (now Manchester Road) to lay out a new dockyard, with two dry docks, and opposite, on the west side of the road, he built some small houses for his employees (Canal Row) and a large detached house for himself (Lawn House). Pitcher's yard, renamed the Canal Dockyard by his successors, continued in operation until the 1920s.
Canal Row was demolished in 1877 for the widening of East Ferry Road, and the Merchant Shipping Company's workmen then living there moved to new houses provided by the East and West India Dock Company. Among the latter was a three-story brick house, with a two-story canted bay, erected in 1876 on the opposite side of East Ferry Road, at the north-west corner of the dockyard, and called Canal Villa, later No. 412 Manchester Road. Designed by the dock company's surveyor, Augustus Manning, and built by B. E. Nightingale (whose tender was for £743), this house was assigned to the Merchant Shipping Company's foreman-shipwright. It was demolished about 1930. The other replacements for Canal Row were on the east side of New (now Preston's) Road.
The gardens of Canal Row backed on to the extensive pleasure grounds of the large detached house — later called Lawn House - built by Thomas Pitcher for his own occupation. Situated at the northern end of Pitcher's land on the west side of Ferry Road, it originally overlooked the City Canal and the Canal Quay, and was a prominent landmark until its demolition in 1941. [xlvii]
Glen Terrace (575-615 Glen Terrace, west of Manchester Road)
Following the demolition of Canal Row and the widening of the roadway in 1877, the dock company did not itself bring forward any plans to redevelop the site, and in 1880 they adopted a scheme for letting the ground on building leases presented to them by Bradshaw Brown, a surveyor and auctioneer with offices in Westferry Road and the City. As it turned out, there was virtually no demand for the building plots here, and only one house was erected under Brown's plan. This was No. 615, a plain flat-fronted house built in 1881 by H. G. Smith of Bromley, and leased to William Jabez Davis, coffee-housekeeper, of Bromley Hall Road, Bromley, who opened another coffee house here, which he called the South Dock Coffee House. It was originally only three stories high, above the basement, and had a shop-front on the ground floor. A fourth story has been added since 1928. No. 615 continued to be occupied as a café (variously described as dining rooms or coffee rooms until the early 1920s; in 1924 and 1925 it was converted for occupation by a PLA police family.
Undeterred by its failure to let the other plots, the dock company continued to advertise them through the 1880s. There were many enquiries but no takers. According to a report in 1887 the reason was that 'a higher price has been asked for land than could have been obtained in even the most prosperous days of the Isle of Dogs'. After this, the company gave up trying to let the ground, and it was sold to raise money to help pay for the costs of making Tilbury Docks. The purchaser, who offered £1,550 for the freehold, was William Warren, an estate agent in East India Dock Road, who immediately set about developing the site in association with George Larman, a builder from Plaistow. In March of 1888, Larman gave notice to the District Surveyor of his intention to build a row of 20 houses here. The work was completed in 1890.
The new houses (with the earlier coffee house) were called Glen Terrace, after the Glen Shipping Line (McGregor, Gow & Company) which temporarily had occupied the site in the early 1880s, and they were numbered 1–21, from north to south. A stone tablet with the name Glen Terrace was affixed to No. 21 (later No.575). In 1891, the houses were renumbered as part of Manchester Road. [xlviii]
Preston’s Road (Prestons Road at Coldharbour)
The roadway here is the only surviving section of an old riverside road which led southwards from Blackwall Stairs before petering out somewhere near the present entrance to the South Dock of the West India Docks. This old road almost certainly originated as a pathway along the top of the medieval river embankment called the Blackwall. A deed for a house on the east side, leased in 1626, describes the house as having been built on 'part of the wall commonly called Blackwall', and the street as 'the way which lieth on the same wall called Blackwall'. The name Coldharbour — a fairly common and self-explanatory one — was in use by the early seventeenth century. It formerly applied to the whole stretch of roadway, and was only restricted to the southern section after the road had been cut by the construction of the Blackwall entrance to the West India Docks.[xlix]
Isle House (1 Coldharbour)
This former dockmaster's residence was built for the West India Dock Company in 1825 and 1826, to the designs of their Principal Engineer, Sir John Rennie. It replaced an earlier dockmaster's house erected in 1809 and 1810 near the south corner of Coldharbour and Preston's Road. The earlier house, designed by Thomas Morris, was so badly built—by the local firm of Howkins, Barker, Morris & Constable—that in 1823 it needed the support of temporary braces 'to prevent its being blown down'. In 1824, therefore, the dock company decided to demolish the old house and erect a new one on the riverside site in Coldharbour next to the dock entrance, which the company had bought in1815. [l]
Nelson House (3 Coldharbour)
Built about1820, No. 3 is an amalgamation with extensive recasting of two existing houses. In Daniell's 1802 view the older houses are shown as narrow buildings of three or four storys, the northern house having a canted east elevation and the southern house a ground story extending up to the river wall. Since the 1670s, the southern house had been held on a 147½-year lease granted in 1674 to John Shute of Poplar, shipwright, and his wife. Later occupants included a fisherman, William Roberts (c1740–c1754), and a waterman, Nicholas May(1762–c1782). May's widow was still living there in 1814, when Richard Gibbs, a local shipwright and ship chandler, who already owned the adjoining house to the south (No. 5), bought the freehold from Sir Robert Preston. Little is known about the history of the northern house (apart from the occupants' names) until1802, when Samuel Granger of Poplar, variously described as lighterman and coal merchant, purchased the freehold at the Preston sale, and took up residence there. In 1817, Granger bought the southern house from Gibbs, and subsequently recast the two properties into a single dwelling. [li]
The Gun Public House (27 Coldharbour)
A public house, under a variety of names, has occupied this site since at least the second decade of the eighteenth century. In 1722, it was called the King and Queen, by 1725 the Rose and Crown, and from about 1745 until 1770 the Ramsgate Pink. It was renamed the Gun in 1771. A plan of about 1800 shows that it occupied the northern 35ft of the site and had two bay windows on the river front. [lii]
People’s Palace (Mile End Road and Harford Street)
Designed by E. R. Robson, this structure was completed in 1886. It was rebuilt by Campbell-Jones and Smithers after a fire in 1931. If you have read Besant's All Sorts and Conditions of Men, you will understand what the palace is for and how it came about. The funds for its erection were provided by a wealthy citizen named Beaumont and the still wealthier Drapers' Company-one of the old city companies—and its purpose was to give instruction and recreation to the thousands of tailors living in the East End, who may enjoy the technical classes, the library, the baths, the gymnasium, or the swimming-baths as their hearts' desire.[liii] Today, it serves as part of Queen Mary University of London.
Canonbury Tower (Canonbury Place and Compton Road)
Canonbury House is generally supposed to have been built in 1362, ten years after Edward III had exempted the priory of St. Bartholomew from the payment of subsidies, in consequence of their great outlay in charity. Stow says that William Bolton (prior from 1509 to 1532) rebuilt the house, and probably erected the well-known brick tower, as Nichols, in his "History of Canonbury," mentions that his rebus, a bolt in a tun, was still to be seen cut in stone, in two places, on the outside facing Well's Row. The original house covered the whole of what is now Canon bury Place, and had a small park, with garden and offices.
The mansion was much altered by Sir John Spencer, who came to reside there, in splendor, about 1599, and it was now divided into several houses, Canonbury Place having absorbed the grand old residence, and portioned out its relics of by gone grandeur. A long range of tiled buildings, supposed to have been the stables of the old mansion, but which had become an appendage to the "Canonbury" Tavern, was pulled down in 1840. A tradition once prevailed at Islington that the monks of St. Bartholomew had a subterranean communication from Canonbury to the priory at Smithfield. This notion had arisen from the discovery of brick archways in Canonbury, which seem to have been only conduit heads, and had really served to lead water to the priory.
After the Spencers, the Lord-Keeper Coventry rented this house. In 1635, we find the Earl of Derby detained here, and prevented from reaching St. James's by a deep snow; and in 1685 the Earl of Denbigh died here. About 1719, it seems to have been let as lodgings. In 1780, it was advertised as a suitable resort for invalids, on account of the purity of the air of Canonbury, and the convenience of a sixpenny stage every hour to the City. It then became a resort for literary men, who craved for quiet and country air. Amongst those who lodged there was Samuel Humphreys, who died here from consumption, produced by overwork, in 1737. This Humphreys was a second rate poet, who sang the glories of the Duke of Chandos's seat at Canons, and whose verse Handel praised for its harmony. Ephraim Chambers, the author of one of the earliest cyclopedias, also died here, in 1740. Among other lodgers at Canonbury House were Onslow, the Speaker; Woodfall, who printed "Junius;" Deputy Harrison, many years printer of the London Gazette and Mr. Robert Horsfield, successor to Messrs. Knapton, Pope's booksellers. But the special glory of the old house is the fact that here Oliver Goldsmith for a time lodged and wrote, and also came here to visit his worthy friend and employer, Mr. John Newbury, the good natured publisher of children's books, who resided here, having under his protection the mad poet, Christopher Smart.[liv]
Site of Fisher House (Essex Road and Cross Street)
One of the celebrated buildings of Islington was Fisher House, in the Lower Street, and nearly opposite the east end of Cross Street. It was probably built about the beginning of the seventeenth century. In the interior the arms of Fowler and Fisher were to be seen. Ezekiel Tongue, an old writer against the Papists, is supposed to have kept a school here about 1660 for teaching young ladies Greek and Latin. It was afterwards a lodging-house, and then a lunatic asylum. Here Brothers, the prophet, was confined, till Lord Chancellor Erskine liberated him in 1806.[lv]
Highgate Archway (Archway Road at Hornsley Lane Overpass)
Previous to the formation of the roadway and the erection of the arch, a scheme was projected to construct a tunnel through the London clay at Highgate Hill, for the purpose of making a more easy communication between Holloway and Finchley. The attempt, however, failed, and the result was the construction of the open cutting which forms the present Highgate Archway Road. The failure appears to have arisen, in a great measure, from the want of experience on the part of the engineers who had charge of the work, more especially as they had such very difficult and heavy ground to work in as the London clay. The tunnel was nearly completed when it fell in with a terrific crash, in April of 1812, fortunately before the workmen had commenced their labor for the day. The idea of forming the tunnel, therefore, was ultimately abandoned, and the present arch constructed in its stead. The toll which was levied upon passengers along this road was of its kind unique, for not only was a toll levied upon the drivers of horses and vehicles, but one penny was also levied upon foot passengers; sixpence was the toll upon every horse drawing. When the subject of tolls was before the House of Commons in 1861, the "Holyhead Road Act" was passed, and in this the Highgate Archway Road was included. It is not an ordinary turnpike-road, belonging, in fact, to a company. The company in 1861 owed the Consolidated Fund Loans £13,000; but by the Holyhead Road Act the debt and arrear of interest were compounded for a payment of £9,000, in installments spread over fifteen years. Then the tolls were to cease, and this happy time having at length come round, the year 1876 saw Highgate freed from the impost. Within the previous twelve years more than one hundred turnpike-gates had been removed from the thoroughfares of the metropolis.[lvi]
The only useful purpose attained by the construction of this archway, designed by John Nash, is the continuation of Hornsley Lane. It was recorded on a brass plate fixed to the southern entrance to the structure that the foundation-stone of the original stone archway was laid by Edward Smith, Esq., on October 31st, 1812. The archway presented itself as a pleasing object to the traveler either leaving or entering London by this road; and from the pathway of the bridge on a clear day is obtained an excellent view of the surrounding country, and of many buildings in the metropolis, among which St.Paul's Cathedral stands finely displayed.
The current cast iron bridge which replaced Nash's structure was designed by Sir Alexander Binnie. Construction commenced in 1897, commemorated by the small grey plaque visible in the centre of the bridge, and the bridge was opened in 1900.[lvii]
Highgate Infirmary (Dartmouth Park Hill, south of Highgate Hill at Highgate Acute Mental Health Centre)
This large building, of nondescript architecture, is affiliated to one of the large London parishes. It was originally constructed as the infirmary of the St. Pancras Union. The foundation-stone was laid, in the year 1869, by Sir William H. Wyatt, chairman of the Board of Guardians, and at the close of the following year the management of the building was transferred to the Board of Managers of the Central London Sick Asylum District, representing the following unions and parishes:—St. Pancras, St. Giles-in-the Fields, St. George's, Bloomsbury, Strand Union, and Westminster Union. The building, which covers a large space of ground, commands, at the back, extensive views over the fields—or what is left of them unbuilt upon—in the direction of Kentish Town and Paddington. [lviii]
Site of Alexandra Orphanage (Hazellville Road, between St. Johns Way and Pilgrims Way on east side of roadway)
This charitable institution was founded in 1864, and is a branch of the Orphan Working School at Haverstock Hill. [lix] By 1871, 111 children were taught here. It was demolished by 1913.
Islington Workhouse (236 St. Johns Way)
This structure is all that survives of Islington Workhouse, which was built here in 1870 at a cost of £63,300. Most of the building was demolished in the 1970s. Despite the harsh treatment meted out to inmates, this was for many people the only alternative to starvation or homelessness, and for those people with chronic illnesses; it was the only way to get medical treatment.[lx]
Lauderdale House (Waterlow Park, Highgate Hill)
This house, said to have been erected about the middle of the seventeenth century, was formerly the residence of the Earls of Lauderdale, and at one time the home of Nell Gwynne. The house is supposed to have been built about the time of the restoration of Charles II., "one of whose most active and detestable ministers Lauderdale was from first to last," says William Howitt, in his Northern Heights of London. "Nay," he continues, "we are assured that he was a prominent man, even in the reign of Charles I., in Scotland, being then a Covenanter, and one of those who sold Charles I to the English army. He turned round completely under Charles II., and became one of the most frightful persecutors of the Covenanters that existed, he and Archbishop Sharpe going hand-in-hand in their diabolical cruelties. He was not only an English minister, a leading one of the celebrated Cabal Administration, but Lord-Deputy of Scotland, where nothing could surpass his cruelty but his capacity. Lord Macaulay draws this portrait of him: 'Lauderdale, the tyrant deputy of Scotland at this period, loud and coarse both in mirth and anger, was, perhaps, under the outward show o fboisterous frankness, the most dishonest man in the whole Cabal. He was accused of being deeply concerned in the sale of Charles I to the English Parliament, and was, therefore, in the estimation of good Cavaliers, a traitor of a worse description than those who sat in the High Court of Justice. He often talked with noisy jocularity of the days when he was a canter and a rebel. He was now the chief instrument employed by the court in the work of forcing episcopacy on his reluctant countrymen; nor did he in that cause shrink from the unsparing use of the sword, the halter, and the boot. Yet those who knew him knew that thirty years had made no change in his real sentiments; that he still hated the memory of Charles I, and that he still preferred the Presbyterian form of government to any other.' If we add to this picture Carlyle's additional touch of 'his big red head,' we have a sufficient idea of this monster of a man as he was at that time at work in Scotland with his renegade comrade, Archbishop Sharpe, with their racks, thumbscrews, and iron boot in which they used to crush the legs of their victims with wedges, so vividly described by Sir Walter Scott in 'Old Mortality' and in the 'Tales of a Grandfather;' whilst their general, Turner, was pursuing the flying Covenanters to the mountains and morasses with fire and sword." To complete his military despotism, as any reader of English history will know, Lauderdale got an Act passed in Scotland for the raising of an army there which the king should have the right to march to any part of his dominions; his design being, as Bishop Burnet stated at the bar of the House of Commons, to have "an army of Scotch to keep down the English, and an army of Irish to keep down the Scotch."
"When Lauderdale was in Scotland on this devil's business," continues Mr. Howitt, "no doubt his indulgent master used to borrow his house at Highgate for one of his troop of mistresses; and thus it was that we find pretty Nelly Gwynne flourishing directly under the nose of the indignant patriot Marvell. If Charles had picked his whole harem, however, he could not have found one of his ladies less obnoxious than 'poor Nelly.' As for Lucy Walters, the mother of the Duke of Monmouth, she was dead. Lady Castlemaine, Duchess of Cleveland, the mother of the Dukes of Grafton, was a bold and fiery dame that kept even the king in constant hot water. Madame de Querouaille, created Duchess of Portland, mother of the Dukes of Richmond, was the spy of Louis XIV of France, sent expressly to keep Charles to his obedience, and for this service Louis gave her a French title and estate. Moll Davis, the rope-dancer, the mother of the Radclyffes, had lost her influence, and Miss Stewart had got married. Of all the tribe Nelly was the best; and yet Marvell launched some very sharp arrows at her. He describes Charles a she might be seen walking in the Lauderdale gardens as: 'Of a tall stature and of sable hue, much like the son of Kish, that lofty grew;' and Nelly, as 'that wench of orange and oyster, 'in allusion to her original calling; for she commenced life by selling oysters about the streets, and then oranges at the theatres."
Though of the lowest extraction, "her beauty, wit, and extreme good nature," writes the author above quoted, "seem to have made her friends amongst the actors; and her figure and loveliness raised her to the stage. There she attracted the dissolute monarch's attention by a merely ludicrous circumstance. At another theatre an actor had been introduced as 'Pistol' in a hat of extravagant dimensions. As this caused much merriment, Dryden caused Nelly to appear in a hat as large as a coach-wheel. The audience was vastly diverted, and the fancy of the king, who was present, was taken at once. But as she was already the mistress of Lord Buckhurst, Charles had to compound with him for the transfer of Nelly by an earldom, making him Earl of Middlesex. Nelly soon won the ascendancy among the mistresses of the king, 'Who never said a foolish thing, And never did a wise one.'”
“Though extremely gay and witty, poor Nell Gwynne seems never to have shown any hauteur in her elevation, nor any avarice, a prominent vice in some of her rivals. On the contrary, she made no secret of condemning her peculiar position, and was always ready to do a good action. Charles never endowed her with the wealth and titles that he lavished on other women, probably because she did not worry him; but on his death-bed his conscience pricked him for his neglect, and he said, 'Don't let poor Nelly starve!' a frail security against starvation for a king's mistress in a new court.”
“The circumstance which connects her memory with Lauderdale House is the tradition that, as the king delayed to confer a title on her child, as he had done on the eldest son of others of his mistresses, she one day held the infant out of an upper window of Lauderdale House, and said, 'Unless you do something for your son, here he goes!' threatening to let him fall to the ground. On this Charles replied, 'Stop, Nelly; save the Earl of Burford!' Whether these words were said exactly as related or not, at all events, the story is very like one of Nell's lively sallies; and the child was created Earl of Burford, and afterwards Duke of St. Albans." An exquisite portrait of Nell Gwynne, by Sir Peter Lely, is in the National Portrait Gallery.”
This story, it will be seen, differs somewhat from the version we have told in the volume above referred to, but the reader is at liberty to choose which he pleases as being the more reliable; perhaps the one is as truthful as the other. It is rather a curious coincidence that on the western slope of Highgate, a few years ago, lived a certain Duchess of St. Albans, the wife of one of Nell's descendants, who had also begun life, like her, as an actress. This was Miss Harriet Mellon, who married firstly Mr. Thomas Coutts, the banker, and who, after his death, became the wife of William Aubrey de Vere, ninth Duke of St. Albans. "Like Nelly," remarks Mr. Howitt, "she had, whether actress or duchess, a noble nature; and the inhabitants of Highgate still bear in memory her deeds of charity, as well as her splendid fêtes to royalty, in some of which, they say, she hired all the birds of the bird-dealers in London, and fixing their cages in the trees, made her grounds one great orchestra of Nature's music."
Lauderdale House later became a private dwelling, and was for some time the residence of the first Lord Westbury before he reached the woolsack. In 1872, the house was converted to its present use, having been made over by its then owner, Sir Sydney Waterlow, to the governors of St. Bartholomew's Hospital for the purposes of a convalescent hospital, and it was opened in the above year as such by the Prince and Princess of Wales. [lxi]
Cromwell House (104 Highgate Hill)
This was the residence of General Ireton and his wife Bridget, the eldest daughter of Oliver Cromwell. The house, later the Convalescent Hospital for Sick Children, still bears the name of Cromwell House, and is thus described in Prickett's "History of Highgate:" "Cromwell House is supposed to have been built by the Protector, whose name it bears, about the year 1630, as a residence for General Ireton, who married his daughter, and was one of the commanders of his army; it is, however, said to have been the residence of Oliver Cromwell himself; but no mention is made, either in history or in his biography, of his having ever actually lived at Highgate. Tradition states there was a subterraneous passage from this house to the mansion house, which stood where the new church now stands, but of its reality no proof has hitherto been adduced. Cromwell House was evidently built and internally ornamented in accordance with the taste of its military occupant. The staircase, which is of handsome proportions, is richly decorated with oaken carved figures, supposed to have been those of persons in the general's army in their costume, and the balustrades are filled in with devices emblematical of warfare. On the ceiling of the drawing-room are the arms of General Ireton; this, and the ceilings of the other principal apartments, are enriched in conformity with the fashion of those days. The proportions of the noble rooms, as well as the brickwork in front, well deserve the notice and study of the antiquarian and the architect. From the platform on the top of the mansion may be seen a perfect panorama of the surrounding country."
In 1869, Cromwell House was taken as a convalescent establishment in connection with the Hospital for Sick Children, in Great Ormond Street. Fifty-two beds were here provided for the little ones on leaving the hospital. The number of admissions to the Convalescent Hospital, as we learn from the printed report of the committee of management, amounts annually to about 400, and the testimony of the medical officers who attend at Cromwell House, in reference to the progress of the children under treatment there, is of a most satisfactory character. The spacious play-ground attached to the house presented an attractive picture on fine days, when nearly all the children are out of doors at sport.
Today, the structure serves as the embassy to the Republic of Ghana. [lxii]
Immediately northwest of Cromwell House are Ireton House and Lyndale House, where a cottage of George Crowther was acquired by the Sprignells in 1640 and sold as a house in 1663. They formed a single residence in the late 17th century, the date of a plaster ceiling and a door in Lyndale House, but were largely rebuilt around 1730. Each half has doorways with Tuscan pilasters like that of the adjoining No. 110, also of circa 1730 but with its third story and attic rebuilt. The Cottage, a two-storied extension to No. 110, with its ground floor built out in the 19th century, completes the group of old houses on the Bank.[lxiii]
Ireton House (106 Highgate Hill)
General Henry Ireton, one of the staunchest and bravest of Cromwell's generals, was a native of Attenborough, in Nottinghamshire, and, as stated above, married Bridget, the eldest daughter of Cromwell, who, after Ireton's death, became the wife of General Fleetwood. Ireton commanded the left wing of Cromwell's army at the battle of Naseby. He was constantly with the Protector when he was in treaty with King Charles, at Hampton Court, in 1647,and in the following year sat on the trial of the king, and voted heartily for his death. Morrice, in his "Life of Lord Orrery," declares that "Cromwell himself related that in 1647, at the time they were endeavoring to accommodate matters with the king, Ireton and he were informed that a scheme was laid for their destruction, and that they might convince themselves of it by intercepting a secret messenger of the king's, who would sleep that night at the 'Blue Boar,' in Holborn, and who carried his dispatches sewed up in the skirt of his saddle. Cromwell and Ireton, disguised as troopers, waited that evening, seized the saddle, and found letters of the king's to the queen in France, confirming all that they had heard. From that hour, convinced of Charles's incurable treachery, they resolved on his death." Clarendon describes Ireton as taciturn, reserved, and uncommunicative, and as being "never diverted from any resolution he had taken." Such was the son-in-law for whom this old mansion was built. There is a portrait of Ireton by Walker, in the National Portrait Gallery. It was formerly in the Lenthall collection. [lxiv]
Fairseat (1 Highgate High Street)
Fairseat was the residence of Sir Sydney Waterlow, Treasurer of St. Bartholomew's Hospital, who gifted Lauderdale House to that institution. Sir Sydney Waterlow was Lord Mayor of London in 1872–1873; he was representative of the county of Dumfries in the House of Commons, in 1868–1869; and in 1874 he was returned as one of the members for the borough of Maidstone. His mansion here was named after that of his late father-in-law, Mr. William Hickson of Fairseat, Wrotham, Kent. [lxv]
Since 1926, Fairseat has been occupied by the Channing Junior School for Girls.
The Grove (1-6 The Grove, Highgate)
Perhaps the most elegant row in Highgate is the Grove, where Nos. 1 through 6 were built by William Blake but mortgaged to Sir Francis Pemberton. Ownership passed in 1714 from Pemberton's widow to John Schoppens (d. 1728), brother-in-law of John Edwards, and in 1782 from Edwards's granddaughter Mary Preston to Lord Southampton. The houses were sold, mostly to their lessees, in 1863, on the death of the Reverend Thomas William Coke Fitzroy. At the end of 1823, the Gillmans moved from Moreton House to No. 3 the Grove. Coleridge had a study-bedroom in the attic overlooking Kenwood, where he was visited by James Fenimore Cooper and Walter Savage Landor and where he died in 1834. The author Mr. J. B. Priestley bought No. 3 in 1931, renovated it, and sold it at the end of the Second World War. No. 2 was bought by the musician Mr. Yehudi Menuhin in 1959. The judge Sir Edward Fry (d. 1918) moved to No. 6 in 1863, while still a barrister, and his son Roger, the art critic and artist, was born there in 1866. [lxvi]
Parliament Hill (West of Hillgate West Hill and St. Albans Road, East of eastern end of Parliament Hill Road)
This high point was formerly known by the name of Traitors' Hill, from being the rendezvous, real or reputed, of the associates of Guy Fawkes. It is traditionally stated that it was upon this spot that the conspirators anxiously awaited the expected explosion during the Gunpowder Plot to blow up Parliament on November 5th, 1605. It was called Parliament Hill, "from the Parliamentary generals having planted cannon on it for the defence of London." [lxvii]
Highgate Cemetery (Swains Lane and Oakeshott Avenue)
The ground is the property of the London Cemetery Company, which was incorporated by Act of Parliament in 1839; and the cemetery itself was one of the first which was actually established by the Burial Act of 1835, which "rung the death-knell of intramural interments." The London Cemetery Company was among the early promoters of that reform which was so long needed. It was founded by Mr. Stephen Geary, who also acted as architect to the Company, and who was buried here in 1854. [lxviii]
Holly Village (Swains Lane and Chester Road)
Holly Village stands on the southern side of the pleasure-grounds of Holly Lodge. It was built about the year 1845 by Lady Burdett-Coutts, as homes for families of the upper middle class. They comprise a group of about ten cottages, erected to add picturesque and ornamental features to the surroundings of Holly Lodge, and are surrounded by trim and well-kept gardens.
Holly Lodge, the residence of Lady Burdett-Coutts, stood in its own extensive grounds on Highgate Rise, overlooking Brookfield Church, Millfield Lane, and the famous Highgate Ponds, which lie at the foot of the south-western slope of the hill. The house—formerly called Hollybush Lodge—was purchased by Mr. Thomas Coutts, the well-known banker, and it was bequeathed by him, with his immense property, to his widow, who afterwards married the Duke of St. Albans. On her decease, in 1837, it was left, with the great bulk of her fortune, amounting to nearly £2,000,000, to Miss Angela Burdett, a daughter of Sir Francis Burdett, the popular M.P. for Westminster, who thereupon assumed the additional name of Coutts. The extensive power of benefiting society and her fellow-creatures, which devolved upon her with this bequest, was not lost sight of by its possessor, and her charities are known to have been most extensive. Amongst the chief of these has been the endowment of a bishopric at Adelaide, in South Australia, and another at Victoria, in British Columbia; also the foundation and endowment of a handsome church and schools in Westminster in 1847, and the erection of a church at Carlisle in 1864. Besides the above, she has been also a large contributor to a variety of religious and charitable institutions in London—churches, schools, reformatories, penitentiaries, drinking-fountains, Columbia Market, and model lodging-houses. Miss Burdett-Coutts also exercised her pen, as well as her purse, in mitigating and relieving animals from the suffering to which they are often subjected, having written largely against cruelty to animals. In recognition of her large-heartedness she was, in the year 1871, raised to the peerage as Baroness Burdett-Coutts. [lxix]
The Gate House (Highgate High Street and Hampstead Lane)
The house of greatest dignity and largest accommodation was the "Gate House," so called from the original building having been connected with a gate which here crossed the road, and from which the name of the village is understood to have been derived. [lxx]
Highgate School (North Road and Hampstead Lane, opposite The Gate House)
Close by the old gate, at the summit of the hill, stood, until the year 1833, the chapel and school of Highgate, which dated their origin from the 16th century. There had, however, been a chapel on this spot from at least the 14th century; for, in the year 1386, Bishop Braybroke gave "to William Lichfield, a poor hermit, oppressed by age and infirmity, the office of keeping our chapel of Highgate, by our park of Haringey, and the house annexed to the said chapel, hither to accustomed to be kept by other poor hermits." This institution is noticed by Newcourt, in his"Repertorium," but he had met with one other, by which Bishop Stokesley, in 1531, "gave the chapel, then called the chapel of St. Michael, in the parish of Hornesey, to William Forte, with the messuage, garden, and orchard, and their appurtenances, with all tenths, offerings, profits, advantages, and emoluments whatever." "Regarding these hermits," writes Mr. J. Gough Nichols, in the Gentleman's Magazine, "we have this further information, or rather tradition, related by the proto-topographer of Middlesex: 'Where now (1596) the Schole standeth was a hermytage, and the hermyte caused to be made the causway betweene Highgate and Islington, and the gravell was bad from the top of Highgate hill, where is now a standinge ponde of water. There is adjoining unto the schole a chapple for the ease of that part of the countrey, for that they are within the parish of Pancras, which is distant thence neere two miles.' "
The chapel itself, for some reason or other, was granted by Bishop Grindal, in 1565, to the newly founded grammar-school of Sir Roger Cholmeley, together with certain houses, edifices, gardens, and orchards, and also two acres of pasture abutting on the king's highway.
From the above inscription some doubts were raised as to the exact date of the erection of the chapel; and about the year 1822, when the new church was first projected, a warm controversy sprung up respecting it. The main subject of the dispute, however, was the right of property in the chapel, whether it was vested entirely in the governors of the school, or shared by the inhabitants. "The truth appears to have been," writes Mr. Nichols, "that the chapel was actually the property of the charity, as well by grant from the Bishop of London, the ancient patron of the hermitage, as by letters patent from the Crown, and also by transfer from a third party, who had procured a grant of it from the queen as a suppressed religious foundation; that for the first century and a half the inhabitants had been allowed to have seats gratuitously; and that about the year 1723the pews had been converted into a source of income for the school."
Becoming inadequate to the accommodation of the inhabitants of the neighborhood, and part passing into a state of dilapidation, the chapel was taken down in 1833. The area of the chapel for many years formed the burial-ground for the hamlet; and till 1866 it remained much in its original condition. In it stood, among other tombs, that of Samuel Taylor Coleridge, the poet and philosopher, who during the latter period of his life resided at Highgate, and where he died in 1834.The tomb itself is now to be seen in the resuscitated chapel of the Grammar School.
Sir Roger Cholmeley, the founder of the Grammar School, and the great benefactor of Highgate, was in high favor under Henry VII., who bestowed on him the manor of Hampstead. He held the post of Chief Justice under Mary; but was committed to the Tower for drawing up the will of Edward VI, in which he disinherited his sisters. He spent his declining years in literary retirement at "Hornsey"—probably at no great distance from the school which he had founded—and died in 1565.
It is perhaps worthy of note that Mr. Carter, who was master of the school during the civil wars, was ejected and treated with great cruelty by the Puritans. Walker, in his "Sufferings of the Clergy," says that he was "turned out of the house with his family whilst his wife was in labour, and that she was delivered in the church porch." Another fact to be recorded is that Master Nicholas Rowe, the poet and Shakespearian commentator, was a scholar here.
On this ground, the croquet tournament of all England was held in1869. The original school buildings, as erected by Cholmeley, disappeared many years ago. A new school-house was erected in 1819, but this having at length become inadequate for the wants of the pupils, it was, at the tercentenary of the school which was celebrated in June of 1865, determined to raise new buildings. The old school was accordingly taken down in 1866, and rebuilt from the design of Mr. F. Cockerell. [lxxi]
Finsbury Park (Green Lanes and Seven Sisters Road)
Hornsey Wood House was pulled down in 1866, at which time the tea-gardens and grounds became absorbed in Finsbury Park, a large triangular space, some 120 acres in extent, laid out with ornamental walks and flower-gardens. It was opened by Sir John Thwaites, under the auspices of the Metropolitan Board of Works, in 1869, as a public recreation-ground and promenade for the working classes. Why the place is called "Finsbury" Park it would be difficult for us to say, seeing that it lies some miles away from Finsbury, the districts of Holloway, Islington, and Hoxton intervening, and that the site has always been known as Hornsey Wood. It ought to be styled, in common honesty, Hornsey Park.
The Illustrated London News, in noticing the opening of the park in 1869, says:—"The Act sanctioning the formation of this park was passed so far back as 1857. The site is what was formerly known as Hornsey Wood, which is associated with many interesting events in the history of North London. It commands a view of Wood Green, Highgate, the Green Lanes, and other suburban retreats. The ground has a gentle southern slope, from Highgate on the west and towards Stoke Newington on the east; and is skirted on the south by the Seven Sisters Road and on the east by the Green Lanes. The Great Northern Railway bounds it by a cutting and embankment on the western side, and latterly the London, Edgware, and Highgate Railway has been made with a station adjoining the park. There are several pleasant walks and drives, and in the center of the park a trench has been cut, into which water will be brought from the New River, and in this way a pretty artificial lake will be added to the other attractions. The cost of the freehold land was about £472 per acre. The funds were principally raised by a loan, in 1864, of £50,000, at 4½ percent, for thirty years, and £43,000 borrowed on debenture in 1868."
The Seven Sisters Road, skirting the south side of Finsbury Park, was constructed in 1832, prior to which time there was no thoroughfare through Holloway and Hornsey to Tottenham.[lxxii]
Site of St. Marys Church (Hornsey High Street and Cross Lane)
The original church on this site is stated by Norden and Camden to have been built with stones taken from the ruins of the palace of the Bishops of London, about the year 1500. The Ambulator, in 1774, describes the church as "a poor, irregular building, said to have been built out of the ruins of an ancient castle." The tower is built of a reddish sandstone, and is embattled, with a newel turret rising above the northwest corner. On the western face of the tower are sculptured two winged angels, bearing the arms of Savage and Warham, successively Bishops of London, the former of whom came to the see in 1497. It is probable that both of these prelates were contributors to the fabric. [lxxiii]
The tower was retained when a new church was built alongside it, finished in 1833. This church in turn became unsuitable and was closed in 1888, although it was not demolished until 1927. The tower was spared and the site was made into a garden. For the new church a different site was chosen, on the corner of Hornsey High Street and Church Lane, and the building was completed by 1889. The church contained space for 1,200 and was considered to be the finest 19th century church in Middlesex. Unfortunately the subsoil was unstable and cracks began to appear, forcing the demolition of the building in 1969.[lxxiv]
Here, amongst other tombs, on the northern side of the church, is that of the poet Samuel Rogers. It is an altar-tomb, resting on a high base, and surrounded by an iron railing. The following are the inscriptions on the face of the tomb:—"In this vault lie the remains of Henry Rogers, Esq., of Highbury Terrace; died December 25, 1832, aged 58. Also of Sarah Rogers, of the Regent's Park, sister of the above; died January 29, 1855, aged 82. Also of Samuel Rogers, author of the 'Pleasures of Memory,' brother of the above-named Henry and Sarah Rogers; born at Newington Green, July 30, 1763, died at St. James's Place, Westminster, December 18, 1855." Near the south-east corner of the churchyard an upright stone marks the grave of Anne Jane Barbara, the youngest daughter of Thomas Moore, the poet. [lxxv]
Site of Lalla Rookh House (Muswell Hill Road and Cranmore Way)
At the foot of Muswell Hill was Lalla Rookh Cottage, where Thomas Moore was residing in 1817 when he wrote, or, at all events, when he published, the poem bearing the title of "Lalla Rookh," for which, as we learn from his "Life," he received £3,000 from Messrs. Longmans, the publishers. In this house his youngest daughter, Anne Jane Barbara, died.
A native of Dublin and a son of Roman Catholic parents, Moore came over to England when still young to push his fortunes in the world of literature, and became the poet laureate of Holland House and of the Whig party. During his later years he occupied Sloperton Cottage, a small house adjoining Lord Lansdowne's park at Bowood, near Calne, in Wiltshire, where he died in 1852, at the age of seventy-three. Lord Russell claims for Moore the first place among our lyric poets, but few will be willing to allow his superiority to Robert Burns, though he was certainly the English Beranger. He was probably the best hand at improvised songwriting on the common topics of every-day life, but he had no real depth of feeling. A refined, voluptuous, and natural character, equally frank and gay, he passed, after all, a somewhat butterfly existence, and has left behind him but little that will last except his "Irish Melodies." [lxxvi]
The cottage was located on the Rookfield estate. The Rookfield Garden Village of W. J. Collins contains two-storied semidetached houses in short streets lined by trees. Building was in progress before 1910 and involved the demolition of Lalla Rookh, already threatened in 1898.[lxxvii]
Alexandra Palace (Alexandra Park)
Shortly after the close of the second International Exhibition (that of 1862) at South Kensington, it was resolved to erect on this spot a place of popular entertainment for the working classes of northern London, which should rival the Crystal Palace at Sydenham. To the great mass of people in the north of London the Crystal Palace, except on great occasions and great attractions, is so distant as to be almost inaccessible; and it is reported, as was proved by railway returns, it is mainly the south London population which keeps up the great building "over the water." There seemed no valid reason, therefore, why the north of London, with at least three times the number of inhabitants, should not be able to support a Crystal Palace of its own. It was considered, moreover, that the Alexandra Palace—for such the building was to be named, in honor of the Princess Alexandra—would not be dependent on support from local influences. The rare beauty of its site, which probably has not its equal anywhere around London, together with the special attractions in the building, would be sure to make it a universal favorite with both the north and south of the metropolis.
With regard to the palace itself, it was decided to purchase some portion of the materials of the International Exhibition, and with them to erect the building on the summit of Muswell Hill, in the same manner as the originators of its prototype at Sydenham had purchased for that purpose the materials of the Great Exhibition of 1851. The new palace, therefore, was almost entirely built out of the materials of the Great Exhibition of 1862, but totally altered and improved in their re-construction. It had only one of the noble domes in the center transept, with two less lofty octagon towers at either end. It had one main nave, exclusive of the entrances, about 900 feet long, and three cross transepts of about 400 feet each.
After a delay of some six or seven years beyond the first appointed time, the palace and grounds being all but completed, the place was opened to the public on May 24th, 1873.
The opening was inaugurated by a grand concert, presided over by Sir Michael Costa, in which some of the leading singers of the day took part. However, on June 9th the whole building fell a prey to the flames, and all that was left was a melancholy and gutted ruin. The fire originated at the base of the great dome, where some workmen had been employed in "repairing the roof," and had, possibly, let some lighted tobacco fall into a crevice. During the brief period, the palace was open (fourteen days only) it was visited by as many as 124,124 persons, and its success was no longer doubtful. Thus encouraged, the directors resolved at once to rebuild the palace, and in its re-construction they availed themselves of the experience so dearly purchased, particularly with reference to arrangements for protection from fire.
The new building, which was opened on the May 1st, 1875, occupies an area of about seven acres, and is constructed in the most substantial manner. It contains the grand hall, capable of seating 12,000 visitors and an orchestra of 2,000; the Italian garden, a spacious court in which are asphalt paths, flower-beds, and a fine fountain; also the concert-room, which has been erected on the best known acoustic principles, and will seat 3,500 visitors. [lxxviii]
Bull and Last Inn (Highgate Road and Woodsome Road, Camden)
This inn was so called because it was the last Inn for travelers in the village this side of Highgate. It was a general house of call for wagons and heavy goods packages, large and small coming from the North of England as a depot, before they reached London, which gave rest to man and beast, as wagons contained many sleeping passengers in those days as well as goods.
The earliest mention of this inn which can be identified is in 1728 when George Holder inherited it from his father George Holder of Kentish Town, a cordwainer. It is described as "a parcel of waste in Green Street and a cottage."[lxxix]
Grove Terrace (Grove Terrace and Highgate Road, Camden)
In the year 1788 an eccentric character named Cheeke, a builder, purchased a large piece of ground for building purposes which, being elevated above the road, was of sufficient length to erect twenty-seven houses, which were not completed in his life time. Among the many persons he employed was a young man named Richard Cooke, a stonemason, living in the New Road (later Euston Road), who paid great attention to Mr. Cheek's only daughter and, against the consent of her father, married her. This proved a most unhappy marriage, and soon separated. Cheeke did not survive to see his plans finished, which devolved upon his son in law to complete, who lived on the property until he died in the year 1850.
The whole terrace of houses appears on J. Thompson's map of 1804, showing 22 houses. From the rate books it appears that numbers 18 to 27 were built about the year 1780 and the rest in 1793. The open ground in front of Grove Terrace was enclosed from the common in the year 1772 by Frances Catherine, wife of William Legge, 2nd Earl of Dartmouth, and daughter of Sir Charles Gunter-Nicholl (d. 1733), from whom she inherited what was later called the Dartmouth Park Estate in 1669, when her great-grandfather Richard Nicoll came into possession on the death of his brother Basil Nicoll. It was on the frontage of this estate that Grove Terrace was built.[lxxx]
Site of St. Matthew’s Church (Oakley Square and Crowndale Road)
Oakley Square, which lies on the east side of Eversholt Street and Harrington Square, is so called after Oakley House, one of the seats of the ducal owner, near Bedford. In this square was St. Matthew's Church, a large and handsome Gothic building, with a lofty tower and spire. It was erected in 1854, from the designs of Mr. J. Johnson, F.R.S., and was capable of seating upwards of 1,200 persons. [lxxxi]
The structure was demolished in 1977. The low wall along the walkway at the intersection is the only remnant from the original complex.
Statue of Richard Cobden (Camden High Street and Eversholt Street)
This is a marble statue of Richard Cobden, which was erected by subscription in the year 1863. The statue, which stands in a conspicuous position, is rather above life-size, and is placed upon a granite pedestal of two stages, about twelve feet high, the plinth of which is simply inscribed "Cobden. The Corn-Laws Repealed, June, 1846. "The great politician is represented in a standing attitude, as if delivering an address in the House of Commons. He is attired in the ordinary dress of a gentleman of the present day, and holds in one hand a Parliamentary roll. The sculptor's name was Wills. Born at Dunford, in Sussex, in the year 1804, Cobden was brought up as a lad to business, and served behind a counter in a large establishment at Manchester. About the year 1840, he helped to found the Anti-Corn Law League, whose efforts in less than ten years' time set aside the restrictions imposed by the old Corn Laws on the importation of foreign grain, and eventually secured to the country the advantages of free trade. He was offered, but refused, all honors and offices; but he represented Stockport, the West Riding, and Rochdale from 1841 down to his death, in 1865. [lxxxii]
Site of Bedford Arms (Mary Terrace, between Camden High Street and Arlington Road)
The Bedford Arms, in Grove Street (now Mary Terrace), on the west side of the High Street, had been a tavern of some note in its day. Formerly, the tea-gardens attached to the house were occasionally the scene of balloon ascents. The Morning Chronicle of July 5th, 1824, contains an account of an aerial voyage made from these gardens by a Mr. Rossiter and another gentleman. The ascent took place shortly after five o'clock, and the balloon alighted safely in Havering Park, two miles from Romford, in Essex. The two aeronauts, having been provided with a post-coach, returned at once to Camden Town, and arrived at the Bedford Arms about half-past ten o'clock. On June 14th, 1825, as we learn from the Morning Herald, Mr. Graham took a trip into the aerial regions from these grounds, accompanied by two ladies. Their ascent was witnessed by a large concourse of spectators; and after a pleasant voyage of nearly an hour, they landed at Feltham, near Hounslow. In 1861, the Bedford Arms was replaced by the attractions of a music-hall, called The Bedford. The Bedford Palace survived until the late 1950s. [lxxxiii]
Site of Mother Red Cap Pub (Present World’s End Pub, Kentish Town Road and Camden High Street)
The "Mother Red Cap," observes Mr. J. T. Smith, in his Book for a Rainy Day, was in former times a house of no small terror to travelers. "It has been stated," he adds, "that 'Mother Red Cap' was the 'Mother Damnable' of Kentish Town in early days, and that it was at her house that the notorious 'Moll Cut-purse,' the highwaywoman of Oliver Cromwell's days, dismounted, and frequently lodged." The old house was taken down, and another rebuilt on its site, with the former sign, about the year 1850. This, again, in its turn, was removed; and a third house, in the modern style, and of still greater pretensions, was built on the same site some quarter of a century afterwards.
Perhaps there may be more of truth in the following "biographical sketch" of the original Mother Red Cap, which we now quote from Mr. Palmer's work on "St. Pancras, and its History," above referred to:—"This singular character, known as 'Mother Damnable,' is also called 'Mother Red Cap,' and sometimes 'The Shrew of Kentish Town.' Her father's name was Jacob Bingham, by trade a brickmaker in the neighborhood of Kentish Town. He enlisted in the army, and went with it to Scotland, where he married a Scotch peddler’s daughter. They had one daughter, this 'Mother Damnable.' This daughter they named Jinney. Her father, on leaving the army, took again to his old trade of brickmaking, occasionally travelling with his wife and child as a pedlar. When the girl had reached her sixteenth year, she had a child by one Coulter, who was better known as Gipsey George. This man lived no one knew how; but he was a great trouble to the magistrates. Jinney and Coulter after this lived together; but being brought into trouble for stealing a sheep from some lands near Holloway, Coulter was sent to Newgate, tried at the Old Bailey, and hung at Tyburn. Jinney then associated with one Darby; but this union produced a cat-and-dog life, for Darby was constantly drunk; so Jinney and her mother consulted together, Darby was suddenly missed, and no one knew whither he went. About this time her parents were carried before the justices for practicing the black art, and there with causing the death of a maiden, for which they were both hung. Jinney then associated herself with one Pitcher, though who or what he was, never was known; but after a time his body was found crouched up in the oven, burnt to a cinder. Jinney was tried for the murder, but acquitted, because one of her associates proved he had 'often got into the oven to hide himself from her tongue.' Jinney was now a 'lone woman,' for her former companions were afraid of her. She was scarcely ever seen, or if she were, it was at nightfall, under the hedges or in the lanes; but how she subsisted was a miracle to her neighbors. It happened during the troubles of the Commonwealth that a man, sorely pressed by his pursuers, got into her house by the back door, and begged on his knees for a night's lodging. He was haggard in his countenance, and full of trouble. He offered Jinney money, of which he had plenty, and she gave him a lodging. This man, it is said, lived with her many years, during which time she wanted for nothing, though hard words and sometimes blows were heard from her cottage. The man at length died, and an inquest was held on the body; but though everyone thought him poisoned, no proof could be found, and so she again escaped harmless. After this Jinney never wanted money, as the cottage she lived in was her own, built on waste land by her father. Years thus passed, Jinney using her foul tongue against every one, and the rabble in return baiting her as if she were a wild beast. The occasion of this arose principally from Jinney being reputed a practicer of the black art—a very witch. She was resorted to by numbers as a fortune-teller and healer of strange diseases; and when any mishap occurred, then the old crone was set upon by the mob and hooted without mercy. The old, ill-favored creature would at such times lean out of her hatch-door, with a grotesque red cap on her head. She had a large broad nose, heavy shaggy eyebrows, sunken eyes, and lank and leathern cheeks; her forehead wrinkled, her mouth wide, and her looks sullen and unmoved. On her shoulders was thrown a dark grey striped frieze, with black patches, which looked at a distance like flying bats. Suddenly she would let her huge black cat jump upon the hatch by her side, when the mob instantly retreated from a superstitious dread of the double foe.
"The extraordinary death of this singular character is given in an old pamphlet:—'Hundreds of men, women, and children were witnesses of the devil entering her house in his very appearance and state, and that, although his return was narrowly watched for, he was not seen again; and that Mother Damnable was found dead on the following morning, sitting before the fire-place, holding a crutch over it, with a tea-pot full of herbs, drugs, and liquid, part of which being given to the cat, the hair fell off in two hours, and the cat soon after died; that the body was stiff when found, and that the undertaker was obliged to break her limbs before he could place them in the coffin, and that the justices have put men in possession of the house to examine its contents.'”
We learn from the Morning Post, of 1776, that the open space opposite the Mother Red Cap was at one time intended to have been made a second Tyburn. "Orders have been given from the Secretary of State's office that the criminals capitally convicted at the Old Bailey shall in future be executed at the cross road near the 'Mother Red Cap' inn, the half-way house to Hampstead, and that no galleries, scaffolds, or other temporary stages be built near the place."
At the beginning of the 19th century, the Mother Red Cap was a constant resort for many a Londoner who desired to inhale the fresh air, and enjoy the quiet of the country, for at that time the old tavern—which, by the way, was also known as the half-way house to Highgate and Hampstead—stood almost in the open fields, and was approached on different sides by green lanes and hedgeside roads. At that time, too, the dairy over the way, at the corner of the Chalk Farm, or Hampstead, and the Kentish Town Roads was not the fashionable establishment it afterwards became, but partook more of the character of "milk fair," for there were forms for the pedestrians to rest on, and the good folks served out milk fresh from the cow to all who came. [lxxxiv]
London & Northwestern Railway Roundhouse (Chalk Farm Road and Belmont Street)
On September 30th, 1830, the promoters of two independent schemes for constructing a railway from London to Birmingham agreed to combine, and on October 13th in the same year, Messrs. Stephenson and Son were proposed as the engineers. The capital was given as £3,000,000 and detailed statements regarding the project were published on January 22nd and December 26th, 1831. Plans had been deposited in Parliament in November, but the Bill was thrown out by the Lords on July 10th, 1832. A fresh application to Parliament was made and an Act for making a Railway from London to Birmingham became law on May 6th, 1833. Under this Act, the Proprietors were empowered to raise £2,500,000 in £100 shares, to borrow up to a further limit, and to acquire property on the line which the railway was to take. A schedule of properties so affected is appended to the Act. It was proposed that the railway should start "on the West side of the High Road leading from London to Hampstead, at or near to the first bridge Westward of the Lock on the Regent's Canal at Camden Town."
The Company authorized the construction of the first terminus, at Chalk Farm, near the site of the present roundhouse in 1833 and a siding there is still called "the Terminus siding." Then, in August of 1834, Robert Stephenson suggested the extension to Euston. This had been contemplated in the first instance, but eliminated from the Bill in its second presentation. However, the extension was authorized by an Act obtained on July 3rd, 1835, under which property was acquired as far as Euston Grove. Sufficient land was taken for four lines of railway because of tentative discussions with the Great Western Railway concerning a junction at Willesden and a joint terminus at Euston. But the discussions failed.
The round-house (former engine-house) in Chalk Farm Road was designed under Robert Stephenson by Robert B. Dockray and his assistant Mr. Normanville in 1847. From 1846 to 1848, the first portion of the long range of buildings in Eversholt Street, comprising the railway clearing house, was erected. This was incorporated, in 1859, in the present block at the south corner of Barnby Street. The range of buildings north of Barnby Street was built at various times from 1874 to 1902. [lxxxv]
Euston Station (Eversholt Street and Euston Gardens)
Euston Station was planned by Robert Stephenson, but the platform sheds were designed by Charles (later Sir Charles) Fox and the architectural frontispiece, including the so-called "arch," more properly the portico, by Philip Hardwick, who was commissioned in July of 1836. The original station buildings consisted, apart from the platform coverings and portico, of a narrow two-story building running north and south adjacent to, and westward of, the departure platform.
In 1838, the Company vacated its offices in Cornhill and moved to Euston, presumably occupying the rooms over the booking office and perhaps some old buildings elsewhere on the site. The first section of the London and Birmingham line, to Boxmoor, was opened on July 20th, 1837, and the whole line from Euston to Birmingham on September 17th, 1838.
In 1839, sites were acquired from Lord Southampton for two hotels, flanking the approach to the portico. These, erected by a subsidiary company, were known as the "Euston" (east) and "Victoria" (west) Hotels, the latter being appropriated to sleeping accommodation only. The hotels, for which Philip Hardwick was the architect, were opened in September of 1839.The portico was not completed till 1840. In 1846 the Company amalgamated with the Grand Junction and Manchester and Birmingham Railways, the London & Northwestern Railway being thus created.[lxxxvi]
Regent’s Canal (Camden Road at the canal)
The Regent's Canal, passing north of London to the Thames at Limehouse, was authorized in 1812, despite parochial objections. From a pumping station at Little Venice, it headed north-east to a tunnel under Edgware Road at Maida Hill, a bridge being built by the Regent's Canal Company across the canal's western end at what became Warwick Avenue. The first section, from Paddington to Camden Town, was opened in 1816. Running at first mainly through fields, the canals confirmed a division between the northern and southern parts of the parish already marked by Harrow Road and later reinforced by the railway.[lxxxvii]
Hampstead Road Bridge (Camden High Street at Grand Union Canal)
This iron road bridge over the Grand Union Canal and towpaths was built in 1876, replacing an earlier inadequate brick bridge built around 1815.
Site of Knightsbridge (Albert Gate of Hyde Park, Williams Street and Knightsbridge)
The bridge which spanned the Westbourne, and gave its name to the hamlet of Knightsbridge, is described by Strype as of stone, and probably is the same which lasted until the 1870’s. It stood where now is Albert Gate, and probably portions of it are still embedded in the high road a few yards south of that entrance, and opposite to Lowndes Square. The stream is now little more than the surplus water of the Serpentine, which passes here in a covered drain under the high road; but Mr. Davis tells us that, as lately as 1809, it overflowed its banks so much that the "neighborhood became a lake, and that foot-passengers were for several days rowed from Chelsea by Thames boatmen."
When Albert Gate was first formed, the late Mr. Thomas Cubitt designed and built two very lofty mansions on either side, which were sneeringly styled the "Two Gibraltars," because it was prophesied that they never would or could be "taken." Taken, however, they were; that on the eastern side was the town residence of the "Railway King," George Hudson, before his fall; it has since been occupied as the French Embassy. Queen Victoria paid a visit to the Embassy in state in 1854, and the Emperor Louis Napoleon held a levée here, on his visit to London, in the summer of the following year. [lxxxviii]
Site of Smith & Barber Factory (Trevor Place and Kensington Road)
At the corner of South Place and Hill Street (now Trevor Place), nearly opposite the site of the Calvary Barracks, stood the celebrated floor-cloth manufactory of Messrs. Smith and Barber. It was established as far back as the year 1754, and is said to have been the oldest manufactory of the kind in London. The first block used for patterns was cut by its founder, Mr. Abraham Smith, and was preserved in the factory. An illustration of it is given in Dodd's "British Manufactures," where the process of the manufacture will be found minutely described. In the adjoining house, No. 2, lived the Reverend Mr. Gamble, one of the incumbents of Knightsbridge Chapel; and after him Mr. Edward Stirling, known as the "Thunderer" of the Times, from whom it passed to his son, the gifted and amiable John Stirling, whose early death was so much lamented. There he used to receive among his visitors Professor Maurice, John Stuart Mill, and Thomas Carlyle; and here Sir Colin Campbell took up his residence for a time between his Crimean and his last Indian campaign. [lxxxix]
Site of Kingston House (Southeast corner of Kensington Road and Ennismore Gardens)
It was at Kingston House—situated some little distance westward of Kent House—that, on the 26th of September, 1842, the eminent statesman, the Marquis Wellesley, died, at the age of eighty-two. He was the elder brother of the "great" Duke of Wellington. Mr. Raikes tells us, in his Journal: "He had in his time filled various offices in the State at home, had been Governor-General of India, and twice Lord-Lieutenant of Ireland. He was a man of considerable talent and acquirements, particularly in the Latin and Greek languages. His first wife was a French lady—a Madame Roland—formerly his mistress. His second wife was an American—Mrs. Patterson."
Ennismore Place, close by Prince's Gate, is so called from the second title of the Earl of Listowel, to whom the ground on which they stand belongs or belonged. [xc]
22 Brompton Square
At No. 22 in this square died, in 1836, George Colman "the Younger," the author of John Bull. Here also lived Mr. Luttrell, the friend of Sam Rogers, and the most brilliant of conversationalists temp. George IV. In consequence of the salubrity of the air in this neighborhood, Brompton Square has long been a favorite abode for singers and actors. [xci]
Brompton Church (Cottage Place and Brompton Road)
Brompton Church, a poor semi-Gothic structure, dates from about 1830. It was built from the designs of Professor Donaldson, and has a lofty tower and stained-glass windows of ancient design and colour. The church is approached by a fine avenue of lime-trees, and its churchyard contains a very large number of tombs; all, however, are modern, and few are of interest to the antiquary. John Reeve, the comic actor, who died in 1838, is buried here. Adjoining the parish church stands a building in the Italian style, known as the Oratory of St. Philip Neri, consisting of a large chapel, of no architectural pretensions, and a fine residence in the Italian style. They cover the site of a country house standing in its own grounds, which as lately as the year 1851 was used as a school. The clergy attached to the Oratory are secular priests, living voluntarily in a community, but not tied by religious vows. The first rector, and indeed the founder of this community in London, was the Rev. Frederick William Faber, formerly of University College, Oxford, and well known as the author of "The Cherwell WaterLily," and other poems. He died in 1863. [xcii]
Site of Tattersall’s Yard (Knightsbridge Green and Raphael Street)
Tattersall’s Yard was the great sporting rendezvous and auction-mart for horses. It was removed to this spot in 1865 from Grosvenor Place, where it was originally established. The building occupied a site previously of comparatively little value, and had before its entrance a small triangular space planted with evergreens. The building in itself was arranged upon much the same plan as that of its predecessor. [xciii]
Belgrave Square (Upper Belgrave Street, between Chapel Street and Halkin Street)
Where now rise Belgrave and Eaton Squares, the most fashionable in the metropolis, there was, down to about 1831 an open and rural space, known as the "Five Fields." It was infested, as recently as the beginning of the present century, by footpads and robbers. These fields formed the scene of one of the first, but unsuccessful, attempts at ballooning in London. De Moret, a Frenchman, and a bit of an adventurer, proposed, in 1784, to ascend from some tea-gardens in this place, having attached to his balloon a car, not unlike some of the unwieldy summer-houses which may be seen in suburban gardens, and even provided with wheels, so that, if needful, it could be used as a travelling carriage. "Whether," says Chambers, in his "Book of Days," "M. Moret ever really intended to attempt an ascent in such an unwieldy machine, has never been clearly ascertained. … However, having collected a considerable sum of money, he was preparing for his ascent, on the 10th of August in that year, when his machine caught fire and was burnt; the unruly mob avenging their disappointment by destroying the adjoining property. The adventurer himself made a timely escape; and a caricature of the day represents him flying off to Ostend with a bag of British guineas, leaving the Stockwell Ghost, the Bottle Conjurer, Elizabeth Canning, Mary Toft, and other cheats, enveloped in the smoke of his burning balloon."[xciv]
St. George’s Hospital (Knightsbridge and Grosvenor Place)
The hospital was built upon the site of a pleasant suburban residence of the first Lord Lanesborough, who died in 1723. Here, he was out of the sound of the noisy streets, and could enjoy in private his favorite amusement of dancing.
In 1733, Lanesborough House was converted into an infirmary by some seceding governors of Westminster Hospital. The old house for many years formed the central part of the hospital, two wings having been added to it when it was converted to its new purposes.
The present edifice was commenced towards the end of the reign of George IV., by William Wilkins, R.A., the architect of the National Gallery, University College in Gower Street, and other important buildings; but several additions have since been made to the original design, the latest being the erection of a new wing on the south-west side, in Grosvenor Crescent, which was completed about the year 1868.[xcv]
Bag o’ Nails (Buckingham Palace Road and Lower Grosvenor Place)
At the-corner of Arabella Row (now Lower Grosvenor Place) and Buckingham Palace Road, is a public-house, rejoicing in the once common sign of the "Bag o' Nails"—a perversion of "The Bacchanals" of Ben Jonson. "About fifty years ago," writes the author of Tavern Anecdotes, in 1825, "the original sign might have been seen at the front of the house; it was a Satyr of the Woods, with a group of 'jolly dogs,' ycleped Bacchanals. But the Satyr having been painted black, and with cloven feet, it was called by the common people 'The Devil;' while the Bacchanalian revelers were transmuted, by a comic process, into the 'Bag of Nails.'"[xcvi]
This structure replaced the Agriculture House, which was built in 1954 to 1963 on the site of the Alexandra Hotel and the two adjoining properties to the east as a headquarters for the National Farmers' Union. Designed by Ronald Ward & Partners and built by Trollope & Colls, Agriculture House was a double-mansarded block with a 'Bankers' Georgian' façade given some distinction by a centrepiece of four recessed columns in Lutyens's New Delhi order. It was demolished in 1993.[xcvii]
The Alexandra Hotel, which covered the ground formerly occupied by some half-dozen of the houses in St. George's Place, was one of the most important and largest hotels in the metropolis. It was built shortly after the marriage of the Prince of Wales with the Princess Alexandra of Denmark, after whom it is named. The hotel was largely patronized by families of distinction from the country, and also by foreign notabilities, who, during their stay in London, desired to be within easy reach of the Court and the principal quarters of the West End. [xcviii]
Nazareth House (169 Hammersmith Road)
On the south side of the high road, just before entering the town, and close to the busy thoroughfare of King Street East, stands a tall Gothic building, of secluded and religious appearance, three storys high, the home of those noble-hearted ladies, of whose self-denial any communion in the world might well be proud—the "Little Sisters of the Poor." We will not attempt to describe it in our own words, but will employ those of the biographer of Thomas Walker, the London police magistrate, and author of The Original—a gentleman whose Protestant zeal is beyond suspicion. He writes: "We are under the roof of the Little Sisters of the Poor. The house is full of old folk, men and women. It is Death's vestibule governed by the gentlest charity I have ever seen acting on the broken fortunes of mankind. The sisters are so many gentlewomen who have put aside all those worldly vanities so dear in these days of hoops and paint to the majority of their sisters, and have dedicated their lives to the menial service of destitute old age. They beg crusts and bones from door to door, and spread the daily board for their protégés with the crumbs from the rich men's tables. And it is only after the old men and women have feasted on the best of the crumbs that the noble sisters break their fast. I stepped into the Little Sisters' refectory. The dishes were heaps of hard crusts and scraps of cheese; and at the ends of the table were jugs of water. The table was as clean as that of the primmest epicure. The serviette of each sister was folded within a ring. And the sisters sit daily—are sitting to-day, will sit to-morrow—with perfect cheerfulness, their banquet the crumbs from pauper tables! Cheerfulness will digest the hardest crust, the horniest cheese, or these pious women had died long ago. He who may find it difficult to make the first step to the cleanly, healthy, gentlemanly life into which Thomas Walker schooled himself, should knock at the gate of the hermitage wherein the Little Sisters of the Poor banquet pauper age, and pass into the refectory of these gentlewomen. It is but a stone's-throw out of the noisy world. It lies in the midst of London. Here let the half-repentant, the wavering Sybarite rest awhile, pondering the help which a holy cheerfulness gives to the stomach—yea, when the food is an iron crust and cheeseparings." The edifice, called Nazareth House, or the "Convent of the Little Daughters of Nazareth," is shut in from the roadway by a brick wall, and the grounds attached to it extend back a considerable distance. It provides a home not only for aged, destitute, and infirm poor persons, but likewise an hospital for epileptic children.[xcix]
This home was opened in 1857 and 30 infirm children and a group of elderly were moved into the new building. A new wing for children was built and opened in 1868.[c]
Church of the Holy Trinity (East end of Brook Green at Warwick Way)
This is a spacious stone edifice of the Early Decorated style of architecture, and has a lofty tower and spire at the northeastern corner. The first stone of the building was laid in 1851, by Cardinal Wiseman. [ci]
Brook Green (Between Warwick Way and Shepherd’s Bush Road)
Brook Green—so called from a small tributary of the Thames which once wound its way through it from north-west to south-east—connects the Broadway, on the north side, with Shepherd's Bush, which lies west of Notting Hill, on the Uxbridge Road. It is a long narrow strip of common land, bordered with elms and chestnuts, and can still boast of a few good houses. In former times a fair was held here annually in May, lasting three days. [cii]
Near St. Mary's Church on the south side of Hammersmith Road were four houses originally called St. Mary's Place. Charles James Fèret records that "here the Black Bull Ditch, coming from Shepherd's Bush, reached the Hammersmith Road, which it crossed under a brick arch." It was named after the Black Bull Inn, where the house of the High Master of St. Paul's School later stood. The bridge over this ditch was called in early times the Brook Bridge, and there are references respecting the failure of the lord of the manor to keep it in good condition. The Brook is mentioned in the Fulham Court Rolls for 1479 and 1480, when Richard Bedille surrendered half an acre in Northcroft (the land between Hammersmith Road and Brook Green) abutting on "le Brook" to the east. A "Broke Close" is referred to in 1614 and 1615 as lying between "Blynd Lane" and the Common. Brook Green evidently takes its name from the stream, which is shown as a sewer in Salter's plan of 1830. South of Hammersmith Road it followed the parish boundary as far as the Thames and was called in its lower course the Parr Ditch. The road to Fulham crossed it at Parr Bridge.[ciii]
St. Joseph’s Almshouses (Next to eastside of Church of the Holy Trinity at Brook Green)
The first stone of this structure was laid by the Duchess of Norfolk, in May of 1851. The almshouses are built in a style to correspond with the church, and form together with it a spacious quadrangle. They provided accommodation for forty aged persons, and were managed by the committee of the Aged Poor Society. [civ]
Blythe House (23 Blythe Road)
This structure, built between 1899 and 1903, was the former Post Office Savings Bank, which opened for business on September 16th, 1861. An Act of Parliament established the bank. It was set up to encourage ordinary people to save money safe in the knowledge that it was secured by the government. It also provided the government with a financial asset. The Bank did not just offer savings accounts. Over time it introduced a range of other services including government stocks and bonds in 1880, war savings in 1916 and premium savings bonds in 1956. In 1969, the Bank ceased to be part of the Post Office. Instead it became a separate government department and was known as National Savings. However, the Bank's link with the postal service continued as post offices continued to handle deposits and withdrawals over the counter.[cv]
William Lewins, in his "History of the Post Office," reminds us that in 1757, the boy who carried the mail for Portsmouth happening to dismount at Hammersmith, about three miles from Hyde Park Corner, and to call for beer, some thieves took the opportunity to cut the mail-bags from off the horse's crupper, and got away undiscovered. The plunder was probably all the more valuable, as there was then no "money-order office," and even large sums of money were enclosed in letters in the shape of bank-notes. [cvi]
Site of Counter’s Bridge and Creek (Hammersmith Road at Rail Tracks, east of Olympia Way)
At the most easterly point of the Hammersmith parish boundary, where Hammersmith Road meets Kensington Road, stood Counter's Bridge, which spanned a watercourse flowing in a south-easterly direction to the river. It had its origin in the neighborhood of Wormwood, properly Wormholt, Scrubs, and flowed into the Thames at Sandford Creek, sometimes now called the Chelsea Basin. It appears to have had no name that applied to it as a whole, but is of much topographical interest, as it formed a parish boundary almost throughout its course, first dividing what is now Hammersmith from Kensington and finally Fulham from Chelsea.
In Rocque's map of 1741–45 it is distinctly marked from Counter's Bridge to the Thames, but the northern course is not shown, though it appears in a plan of 1813 included in Faulkner's History of Fulham. In Fulham Old and New (1900), Charles James Fèret gives instances of the name as Contessesbregge (1421), Contassebregge (1422), Cuntassebregge (1445), and he finds it reported at a Court General in 1475 that the "bridge called Countesbregge is ruinous, and the Lordought to repair it."
Perhaps we may be allowed to say a few words about the portion of the stream which was south of this bridge, because it was intimately connected with Hammersmith parish, though not actually in it, and because the various names by which it was known would otherwise lead to confusion. In Salway's Plan of the Turnpike Road from Hyde Park Corner to Counter's Bridge, 1811, it is called Stanford Brook, but its commoner names were Counter's Creek or Billingwell Ditch, and between Chelsea and Fulham it was the New Cut River, Chelsea Creek, or Bull Creek. Stamford Bridge, carrying the Fulham Road over what was once this creek, was in the 15th century Samford or Sandford Bridge, with various slight differences of spelling, meaning the bridge at the sandy ford. In the 17th century, the word was corrupted to Stanford, and later took its present form. The village called Little Chelsea having sprung up hard by, the bridge is called in Rocque's map of 1745 Little Chelsea Bridge, a name which has long been dropped. In 1827 and 1828, at a cost of about £40,000, this watercourse, forming the eastern boundary of Fulham from Counter's Bridge to the Thames, was widened and formed into Kensington Canal, about two miles in length. In 1845, except for a short distance at the mouth, which is still a creek or haven, the canal was bought by the West London Railway Company and, having been drained, was turned into a railway. [cvii]
Dorville Row (King Street and Dalling Road)
This long row of shops preserves to a certain extent its late 18th Century character. Nos. 182 to 198 constitute the original Dorville Row, but they are less picturesque than the remaining houses, since their plastered front walls are now crowned by parapets in place of the original eaves. Nos. 200 to 224 are of two storeys, with rooms in their mansard roofs which are slated and provided with dormer windows. On the first floor throughout the wall is plastered and forms a too ready background for advertisements. No. 208 is the Foresters' Arms.
HISTORICAL NOTE: The only mention we find of the Row in Faulkner is to the effect that a Mr. Crook took a lease for ninety-nine years. From an indenture, dated 12th July, 1780, " between John Dorville of Ravens Court . . . Hammersmith, Esq., and John Crook of the same hamlet, timber merchant," relating to a piece of land on the west side of Frog Lane (later Webb's Lane, and now Dalling Road), Dorville Row is described as " houses belonging to the said John Dorville standing in King Street." The Row was clearly named after the Dorville family who occupied Ravenscourt."[cviii]
Site of Peterboro House (Quarrendon Street and New Kings Road)
Peterboro House, described in ancient records as a capital messuage, called Rightwells, or Brightwells, was the property of John Tamworth, Esq., privy counselor to Queen Elizabeth, who died there in the year 1569, and was buried at Fulham. It afterwards belonged to Sir Thomas Knolles, who, in the year 1603, sold it, together with twenty-four acres of land adjoining, within a pale, for the sum of 530 British pounds to Thomas Smith, Esq. afterwards Sir Thomas, clerk of the council and master of the requests to James I.[cix]
Fulham Palace (West end of Bishops Avenue in Bishops Park, west of Fulham Palace Road)
The manor of Fulham, we may here state, is one of the oldest in England, having been granted in 631, by the Bishop of Hereford, to Bishop Erkenwald, of London, so that it has existed as an appendage of the see for upwards of twelve hundred years.
There is every reason to believe that the manor house here was occupied at the time of the Norman Conquest; but the first mention of this was in the account of the capture of Robert de Sigillo,Bishop of London, who was a partisan of the Empress Maud, and was made prisoner and held to ransom by the followers of Stephen. Bishop Richard de Gravesend resided much at Fulham, and died here in 1303. His successor, Richard Baldock, who was Lord Chancellor of England, dates most of his public acts from Fulham Palace; but Bishop Braybroke, who enjoyed the same high office, and presided over the see of London nearly twenty years, seems to have spent but little of his time at this place, as he resided mostly at Stepney. Lysons, in his Environs of London, says that "of Bishop Bonner's residence at Fulham, and of his cruelties, some facts are recorded in history, and many traditions are yet current. A large wooden chair, in which he is said to have sat to pass sentence upon heretics," he adds, "was placed, a few years ago, in a shrubbery near the palace, which gave occasion to an elegant poem, written by Miss Hannah More, who was then on a visit at the bishop's." This poem, called "Bishop Bonner's Ghost," was printed at the Earl of Oxford's private press at Strawberry Hill. One deprived bishop of the English Church, John Byrde (who was the last "provincial" of the Carmelites, and afterwards became Bishop of Chester), seems to have found an asylum with Bonner, and was living with him at Fulham in 1555. "Upon his coming," says Anthony Wood, in his Athenæ Oxonienses, "he brought his present with him—a dish of apples and a bottle of wine." Bishop Aylmer, or Elmer, was principally resident at Fulham Palace, where he died in 1594. The zeal with which he supported the interests of the Established Church exposed him to the resentment of the Puritans, who, among other methods which they took to injure the bishop, attempted to prejudice the queen against him, alleging that he had committed great waste at Fulham by cutting down the elms; and, punning upon his name, they gave him the appellation of Bishop Mar-elm; "but it was a shameful untruth," says Strype, "and how false it was all the court knew, and the queen herself could witness, for she had lately lodged at the palace, where she misliked nothing, but that her lodgings were kept from all good prospect by the thickness of the trees, as she told her vice-chamberlain, and he reported the same to the bishop."
Fulham Palace has been honoured with the presence of royalty on several occasions. Norden says that Henry III often lay there. Bishop Bancroft here received a visit from Queen Elizabeth in 1600, and another two years later. King James likewise visited him previously to his coronation. In 1627, Charles I and his queen dined here with Bishop Mountaigne.
During the Civil Wars, we find that most of the principal inhabitants of Fulham, as might have been expected, were staunch Royalists. One of the most prominent was the Bishop (Juxon) who attended his royal master on the scaffold, and to whom the king addressed his last mysterious word, "Remember!" Juxon was deprived of his see, and the manor and palace of Fulham were sold to Colonel Edward Harvey, in 1647.[cx]
Fulham was mainly used as a summer residence until the 20th century when it became the principle home of the Bishop of London. Until 1939, the whole of the building (over 100 rooms) was lived in by one family and a full staff of servants kept for the house and garden. When in residence, the Bishop would run the Diocese from the Palace, receiving candidates for ordination and entertain members of the church and other dignitaries from all over the world.
The manor house became known as Fulham Palace because bishops were considered to be ‘princes of the church’. The site was occupied by the Bishops from about 700 until Bishop Stopford retired in 1975.[cxi]
Site of Craven Cottage (Craven Cottage Football Stadium, Stevenage Road and Finlay Street)
Craven Cottage, a charming retreat by the waterside, was originally built in 1780 for the Countess of Craven, afterwards Margravine of Anspach, but has been considerably altered and enlarged by subsequent proprietors. After the Margravine, the cottage was for some years the residence of Mr. Denis O'Brien, the friend of Charles James Fox, and in 1805 it was sold to a Sir Robert Barclay. Mr. Walsh Porter, who was its next occupant, is said to have spent a large sum in altering and embellishing it. About 1843, it became the residence of Sir E. Bulwer Lytton. He was living here in 1846, when he entertained Prince Louis Napoleon at dinner, after his then recent escape from the fortress of Ham. The house was at one time the residence of a celebrated moneylender, who was generally known as "Jew King." He was, as Captain Gronow tells us, in his amusing Reminiscences, a man of some talent, and had good taste in the fine arts. He had made the peerage a complete study, knew the exact position of every one who was connected with a coronet, the value of his property, how deeply the estates were mortgaged, and what encumbrances weighed upon them. Nor did his knowledge stop there; by dint of sundry kind attentions to the clerks of the leading banking-houses, he was aware of the balances they kept, and the credit attached to their names, so that, to the surprise of the borrower, he let him into the secrets of his own actual position. He gave excellent dinners, at which many of the highest personages of the realm were present; and when they fancied that they were about to meet individuals whom it would be upon their conscience to recognise elsewhere, were not a little amused to find clients quite as highly placed as themselves, and with purses quite as empty. King had a well-appointed house in Clarges Street, Piccadilly; but it was here that his hospitalities were most lavishly and luxuriously exercised. Here it was that Sheridan told his host that he liked his dinner-table better than his multiplication table; to which his host, who was not only witty, but often the cause of wit in others, replied, "I know, Mr. Sheridan, your taste is more for Jo-king than for Jew King," alluding to the admirable performance of the actor, King, in Sheridan's School for Scandal.
Craven Cottage, as left by Walsh Porter in 1809, was considered the prettiest specimen of cottage architecture then existing. [cxii] The cottage was destroyed by fire in 1888. The site of the cottage is believed to be the center of the current stadium’s pitch.
The Crabtree (Rainville Road, just north of Crabtree Lane)
This house known as the "Crab Tree" has long been familiar to all Thames oarsmen, amateurs and professionals alike. The crab is the indigenous apple-tree of this country, and its abundance in this neighborhood formerly gave its name to the adjoining part of the parish. Faulkner, in his History of Fulham, remarks that "it has been said by some ancient people that Queen Elizabeth had a country seat here. Some few years ago," he adds, "a very ancient outbuilding belonging to Mr. Eayres fell to the ground through age. Upon clearing away the rubbish, the workmen discovered, in the corner of a chimney, a black-letter Bible, handsomely bound and ornamented with the arms of Queen Elizabeth, in good preservation."
Early in the 19th century a villa was built on the banks of the Thames, near the "Crab Tree," for the Earl of Cholmondeley. The design for the edifice was taken from a villa in Switzerland, which his lordship had seen on his travels. The house was built chiefly of wood, of the earl's own growing, and the interior was principally fitted up with cedar of the largest growth ever produced in this country. The exterior was covered with colored slates, having nearly the same appearance and solidity as stone. The front next the river was ornamented with a colonnade, extending the whole length of the building, and thatched with reeds, to correspond with the roof. The house, however, has long since been pulled down. [cxiii]
Fulham Palace Road Cemetery (Fulham Palace Road, between Little Road and Atalanta Street)
This cemetery for the parish of Fulham was opened in 1865. It is laid out in Fulham Fields, and covers several acres of land which had previously served to rear fruit and vegetables. [cxiv]
Site of Fulham Workhouse (Imperial College-London Charing Cross Campus, Fulham Palace Road and St. Dunstan’s Road)
The Workhouse formerly stood on the east side of the High Street. It was built in 1774, but had been in a dilapidated condition for many years, and was pulled down about 1860. A large building to be used as the Union for the joint parishes of Fulham and Hammersmith was erected here in 1849. Cipriani, the distinguished Florentine painter, lived for some time in a house adjoining the old workhouse; he died in London in 1783. [cxv]
The site later became Fulham Hospital and is now the Charing Cross Hospital. All the former workhouse buildings have been demolished.[cxvi]
The Golden Lion (57 Fulham High Street)
The old "Golden Lion," in this street, which was pulled down in the 1870’s to make room for a new public-house bearing the same sign, is closely connected by tradition with the annals of the palace. The old house, which dated back to the reign of Henry VII, is said to have been the residence of Bishop Bonner, and when converted into an inn, to have been frequented by Shakespeare, Fletcher, and other literary celebrities. Bishop Bonner, according to one account, died at Fulham in his arm-chair, smoking tobacco; and the late Mr. Crofton Croker, in a paper read by him before the British Archeological Association at Warwick, tried to show that an ancient tobacco-pipe, of Elizabethan pattern, found, in situ, in the course of some alterations made in 1836, was the veritable pipe of that right reverend prelate! Strange stories are told of a subterranean passage which existed, it is said, between this house and the palace. On the pulling down of the old "Golden Lion," the paneling was purchased by the second Lord Ellenborough, for the fitting up of his residence, Southam House, near Cheltenham. [cxvii]
Site of Holcrofts (Fulham Road, between Fulham Palace Road and Oxberry Avenue)
Holcrofts, which stood on the left side of the Fulham Road, as we pass from the top of the High Street, dated from the early part of the 18th century, when it was built by Robert Limpany, a wealthy merchant of London, whose estate in this parish was so considerable that, as Bowack tells us, "he was commonly called the Lord of Fulham. "The house, which formerly had a long avenue of trees in front of it, was sold to Sir William Withers, in 1708, and became afterwards successively the residence of Sir Martin Wright, one of the Justices of the King's Bench, and of the Earl of Ross. The building was subsequently known as Holcrofts Hall, and was for some time occupied by Sir John Burgoyne, who here gave some clever dramatic performances. Here it was that the celebrated Madame Vestris lived, after her marriage with Charles Mathews, the well-known actor, and here she died in 1856, at which time the house was called Gore Lodge.
Holcrofts Priory, on the opposite side of the road, was built about the year 1845, on the site of an old Elizabethan mansion called Claybrooke House, from a wealthy family of that name who owned the property in the 17th century. One of the family was buried in Fulham Church in 1587. Claybrooke House was in the occupation of the Frewens at the commencement of the 19th century, and afterwards became the property of the above-mentioned Robert Limpany. For many years, prior to its demolition it was used as a seminary for young ladies. [cxviii]
Site of Burlington House (Burlington Road and Rigault Road)
Burlington House, whence the road derives its name, was for upwards of a century a well-known academy kept at one time by a Mr. Roy. On the grounds attached to the house was later a Reformatory School for Females; it was built about 1856. [cxix]
Site of Munster House (Munster Road and Felden Street)
Munster House, which is supposed to owe its name to Melesina Schulenberg, who was created by George I, in 1716, Duchess of Munster. According to Faulkner, it was at one time called Mustow House; but as Mr. Croker suggests, in his Walk from London to Fulham, "this was not improbably the duchess's pronunciation." Faulkner adds that tradition makes this house a hunting-seat of Charles II., and asserts that an extensive park was attached to it; but there seems to be no foundation for the statement. In the 17th century the property seems to have belonged to the Powells, from whom it passed into the possession of Sir John Williams, Bart., of Pengethly, Monmouthshire. In 1795, Lysons tells us, the house was occupied as a school; and in 1813 Faulkner informs us that it was the residence of M. Sampayo, a Portuguese merchant. It was afterwards for many years tenanted by Mr. John Wilson Croker, M.P., Secretary of the Admiralty, and whose name is well known as the editor of Boswell's Johnson. About 1820, Mr. Croker resigned Munster House as a residence, "after having externally decorated it with various Cockney embattlements of brick, and collected there many curious works of art, possibly with a view of reconstruction." On the gate-piers were formerly two grotesque-looking composition lions, which had the popular effect, for some time, of changing the name to Monster House. [cxx]
During the spring of 1895, Munster House was demolished and the estate was developed into residential property. Felden Street and the east side of Munster Road now cover the site.[cxxi]
Site of St. Thomas More’s Residence (57-64 Beaufort Street)
The old mansion stood at the north end of Beaufort Row, extending westward at the distance of about one hundred yards from the water-side. Some elements of the walls, doors, and windows, and parts of the foundation were still to be seen in 1829 adjoining to the burying-ground belonging to the Moravian Society. Nothing remains but the name, Beaufort Row, to tell how it was once honored. The house was built in 1521. ·In the old chronicles of Chelsea ·it was known as Buckingham House in 1527, and was called Beaufort House in 1682. It was immediately facing the present Battersea Bridge, a little back from the river and about where Beaufort Street now runs. It was purchased by Sir Hans Sloane and taken down in 1740.
More was imprisoned in the Tower for thirteen months, and arraigned at Westminster Hall on May 7th, 1535. He was beheaded on Tower Hill. The head of More was put upon London Bridge, where traitor’s heads were set upon poles. It was to be cast into the Thames after several months, but his daughter, Margaret Roper, stated before the Council that she should be allowed to bury it where she thought appropriate. After he was beheaded, his rest of his body was interred in St. Luke’s Church, near the middle of the south wall, where was some slight monument erected. Having been worn by time, about 1644, Sir Lawrence of Chelsea, at his own proper costs and charges, erected to his memory a handsome inscription of marble. The head of Sir Thomas More is deposited in St. Dunstan's Church at Canterbury, where it is preserved in a niche in the wall, secured by an iron grate, near the coffin of Margaret Roper.[cxxii]
Henry VIII., to whom More owed his rise and fall, frequently came to Chelsea, and spent whole days in the most familiar manner with his learned friend; and "it is supposed," says Faulkner, in his "History of Chelsea," "that the king's answer to Luther was prepared and arranged for the public eye, with the assistance of Sir Thomas, during these visits." St. Thomas More is said to have converted one part of his house into a prison for the restraint of heretics; and according to a passage in "Foxe's Book of Martyrs," he here kept in prison, and whipped in his garden, one John Baynham, a lawyer, who was suspected of holding the doctrines of Wycliffe, and who was ultimately burnt at Smithfield.
After having held the Great Seal for two years and a half, Sir Thomas, on being pressed by the king to hasten on his divorce from Catherine of Arragon, resigned his office in May of 1532. He retired cheerfully to the privacy of domestic life, and to the studies which he was not long to enjoy. On the day after he resigned the chancellorship, Sir Thomas went to church, as usual, with his wife and family, none of whom he had yet informed of his resignation. During the service, as was his custom, he sat in the choir in a surplice. After the service, it was usual for one of his attendants to go to her ladyship's pew and say, "My lord is gone before." But this day the ex-Chancellor came himself, and, making a low bow said, "Madam, my lord is gone." Then, on their way home, we are told, "to her great mortification, he unriddled his mournful pleasantry, by telling her his lordship was gone, in the loss of his official dignities." He was included in the bill of attainder introduced into Parliament to punish Elizabeth Barton—"the holy maid of Kent"—and her accomplices; but on his disclaiming any surviving faith in the nun, or any share in her treasonable designs, his name was ultimately struck out of the bill. On the passing of the Act of Succession, which declared the king's marriage with Catherine invalid and fixed the succession on the children of Anne Boleyn, More declined to accept it and refused to take the oath. A few days afterwards he was committed to the Tower, and in the space of a few short months, as is known to every reader of English history, was placed on his trial for high treason, found guilty, and executed on Tower Hill. More retained his mild and characteristic jocularity to the last. "Going up the scaffold, which was so weak that it was ready to fall," we read in Roper's Life of More, "he said hurriedly to the lieutenant, 'I pray you, Master Lieutenant, see me safe up; and for my coming down, let me shift for myself.' When the axe of the executioner was about to fall, he asked for a moment's delay while he moved aside his beard. 'Pity that should be cut,' he murmured; 'that surely has not committed treason.'"
Sir Thomas More's house appears to have become afterwards the residence of royalty. Anne of Cleves died here in 1557; and Katharine Parr occupied it after her re-marriage with Admiral Seymour, having charge of the Princess Elizabeth, then a child of thirteen. [cxxiii]
Cremorne Gardens (15 Lots Road)
Among the residents of Chelsea in the last century was Lord Cremorne, who occupied a house called Chelsea Farm, which was situated at a short distance from the bridge, on the site now covered by Cremorne Gardens. Lady Cremorne is celebrated in the "Percy Anecdotes" as the best mistress of a household that ever lived. She had a servant, Elizabeth Palfrey, who had lived with her for forty-eight years, during the latter half of the time as housekeeper, and who so regulated affairs that in all that long time not one of the female servants was known to have left her place, except in order to be married. Such mistresses are rare now, and probably were not common even in her day. As late as 1826, the name of Viscountess Cremorne appears in the "Royal Blue Book," with "Chelsea Farm" as her country residence.
The edifice, which was built of brick, overlooked the river, from which it was separated by a lawn, pleasantly shaded by stately trees. The house had a somewhat irregular appearance externally and little to boast of in the way of architecture; but the interior was commodious, and the best suite of rooms well adapted to the use of a distinguished family. Here was a small but judicious collection of pictures, formed by Viscount Cremorne, among which were some by noted Flemish and Italian masters.[cxxiv]
The gardens once stretched from the Thames to Kings Road.
Site of Pier Hotel (Oakley Street at Chelsea Embankment and Albert Bridge)
The Pier Hotel was built in the mid-19th century to cater for passengers using the paddle-steamers to Cadogan Pier that ran from 1841 by Chelsea Steamboat Company. The hotel was demolished in 1968 and replaced by Pier House flats.[cxxv]
Winchester House, the Palace of the Bishops of Winchester from about the middle of the seventeenth down to the commencement of the 18th century, stood on the spot later occupied by the Pier Hotel, and its gardens adjoined Shrewsbury House. It was a heavy brick building, of low proportions, and quite devoid of any architectural ornament. The interior was fairly commodious, and "much enriched by the collection of antiques and specimens of natural history" placed there by Bishop North, the last prelate who occupied it. Bishop Hoadley, who died here in 1761, was so lax in his ideas of Church authority, that some free-thinking Christians were wittily styled by Archbishop Secker, "Christians secundum usum Winton," in allusion to the customary title of books printed "for the use of the Winchester scholars." [cxxvi]
St. Luke’s Christ Church (Christchurch Street and Caversham Street)
In the porch, placed upon brackets on the wall, is a bell, which was presented to the church by the Honorable William Ashburnham, in 1679, in commemoration of his escape from drowning. It appears, from a tablet on the wall, Mr. Ashburnham was walking on the bank of the Thames at Chelsea one very dark night in winter, apparently in a meditative mood, and had strayed into the river, when he was suddenly brought to a sense of his situation by hearing the church clock strike nine. Mr. Ashburnham left a sum of money to the parish to pay for the ringing of the bell every evening at nine o'clock, but the custom was discontinued in 1825. The bell, after lying neglected for many years in the clock-room, was placed in its position after a silence of thirty years. [cxxvii]
Thomas Carlyle House (24 Cheyne Row)
Thomas Carlyle, who has so far identified himself with this neighborhood as to be known to the world in common parlance as "The Philosopher of Chelsea," lived in this residence for several years. Not far from his house, a square named after him bears witness to the fact that his worth is known and appreciated in his new country.
The connection of Thomas Carlyle with Chelsea is, at all events, over forty years' duration, as he was a resident there in the early part of1834; two years previously, when in London, he visited Leigh Hunt, who at that time lived close to Cheyne Row; and, probably, it was at that time that he resolved to make it his fixed abode. The two writers were neighbors here until 1840, when Leigh Hunt removed to Kensington, which he has immortalized under the title of the "Old Court Suburb;" and their friendship continued until Hunt's death.
At Chelsea, it is almost needless to add, Carlyle wrote his history of "The French Revolution," "Past and Present," his "Life of John Stirling," "Oliver Cromwell's Letters and Speeches," and his "Life of Frederick the Great;" in fact, nearly all the works which have made his name famous through the world. [cxxviii]
Chelsea Embankment (North bank of the Thames, from Battersea Bridge to Chelsea Bridge)
The embankment facing Cheyne Walk, extending from Battersea Bridge, close by old Chelsea Church, to the grounds of Chelsea Hospital, a distance of nearly a mile, presents a pleasing contrast to the red-bricked houses of which we have been speaking. Although the proposition to embank the northern shore of the Thames between Chelsea Hospital and Battersea Bridge was first made by the Commissioners of Her Majesty's Woods and Forests in 1839, the practical execution of the idea was not commenced even on a small scale until some twenty years afterwards. These works originally formed a portion of a scheme for which the Commissioners of Woods and Forests obtained an Act of Parliament in 1846, and which embodied the formation of an embankment and roadway between Vauxhall and Battersea bridges, and the construction of a suspension bridge at Chelsea. The funds which it was estimated would be required were procured, but they proved insufficient for the whole of the work, the bridge costing more than was anticipated. A narrow embankment and roadway were therefore constructed as far as the western end of the Chelsea Hospital gardens, where they terminated in a cul de sac. In time, however, the necessity arose for making a sewer to intercept the sewage of the district west of Cremorne, and to help it on its way to Barking. But there was no good thoroughfare from Cremorne eastwards along which to construct it; so it was proposed to form a route for the sewer, and at the same time to complete an unfinished work by continuing the embankment and road on to Battersea. Application was made to Government for the return of £38,150, a sum which remained unexpended from the amount originally raised for the bridge and embankment, and which would have assisted in the prosecution of the new work. The application, however, was unsuccessful, and Sir William Tite, who from the first took a very active interest in the matter, appealed to the Metropolitan Board of Works to undertake the work independently of Government assistance. The Board, therefore, made several applications to Parliament for an Act, which they succeeded in obtaining in 1868. The designs for the embankment, roadway, and sewer were at once prepared by Mr. (afterwards Sir James) Bazalgette, the engineer to the Board, and the whole work was completed and opened to the public in 1874. [cxxix]
Albert Bridge (Oakley Street at Chelsea Embankment)
The Albert Bridge, constructed upon the suspension principle, was opened in 1873; it formed a useful communication between Chelsea and Battersea Park. Cadogan Pier, close to the bridge, served as a landing-place for passengers on the river steamboats. [cxxx]
Site of Army Clothing Depot (Dolphin House, Grosvenor Road, between St. George’s Square and Claverton Street)
Not far from St. George's Square stood an extensive range of buildings, known as the Army Clothing Depôt—one of the largest institutions that has ever been established for the organization and utilization of women's work. "Previous to the year 1857," observes a writer in the Queen newspaper, "all the clothes for the British army were made by contractors, whose first thought seemed to be how to amass a fortune at the expense of the makers and the wearers of the clothes primarily, and of the British public indirectly. But in that year the Army Clothing Depot was established, somewhat experimentally, in Blomberg Terrace, Vauxhall Road; the experiment answering so well, that an extension of the premises became imperative. In 1859, this depot was opened, although since then it was largely increased. The whole of the premises occupied about seven acres, the long block of buildings on the one side being used as the Government stores, while the corresponding block consisted of the factory. The main feature of the latter is a large glass-roofed central hall of three stories, with spacious galleries all round on each story.[cxxxi]
Also on this site was the Cubitt Works. This large establishment, which flourished for many years at Thames Bank, was that of Mr. Thomas Cubitt. The large engagements which resulted in the laying-out and erection of Belgrave Square were commenced by Mr. Cubitt, in 1825. Mr. Cubitt died towards the close of 1855. "Through life," observes a writer in the Builder, "he had been the real friend of the working man; and among his own people he did much to promote their social, intellectual, and moral progress. He established a workman's library; school-room for workmen's children; and by an arrangement to supply generally to his workmen soup and cocoa at the smallest rate at which these could be produced, assisted in establishing a habit of temperance, and superseding, to a great extent, the dram-drinking which previously existed among them. Although his kindness was appreciated by many, yet at times his motives have been misconstrued, and unkind remarks have been made. In alluding to these, he has often said to one who was about him and possessed his confidence, 'If you wait till people thank you for doing anything for them, you will never do anything. It is right for me to do it, whether they are thankful for it or not.' To those under him, and holding responsible situations, he was most liberal and kind. He was a liberal benefactor at all times to churches, schools, and charities, in those places with which he was connected, and always valued, in a peculiar degree, the advantages resulting to the poor from the London hospitals. "Mr. Cubitt was a man of unassuming demeanour, and bore his great prosperity with becoming modesty. One instance of his equanimity occurred when his premises were unfortunately burnt down, in the year before his death. He was in the country at the time, and was immediately telegraphed for to town. The shock to most minds, on seeing the great destruction which occurred, attended with pecuniary loss to the amount of£30,000, would have been overpowering. Mr.Cubitt's first words on entering the premises, however, were, "Tell the men they shall be at work within a week, and I will subscribe £600 towards buying them new tools." [cxxxii]
St. George’s Square (St. George’s Square and Lupus Street)
St. George's Square, with its trees and shrubs, presents a healthful and cheering aspect, almost bordering on the Thames, just above Vauxhall Bridge. It covers a considerable space of ground, and is bounded on the north side by Lupus Street—a thoroughfare so called after a favorite Christian name in the Grosvenor family, perpetuating the memory of Hugh Lupus, Earl of Chester after the Norman Conquest. St. Saviour's Church, which was built in 1865, is in the decorated style of Gothic architecture, and with its elegant tower and spire forms a striking object, as seen from the river. [cxxxiii]
St. James the Less Church (Moreton Street, between Vauxhall Bridge Road and Tachbrook Street)
The Church of St. James the Less was built in 1861 with the designs of Mr. G. E. Street, R.A. The edifice was founded by the daughters of the late Bishop of Gloucester and Bristol (Dr. Monk) as a memorial to their father, who was also a Canon of Westminster. It is constructed of brick, with dressings of stone, marble, and alabaster; and it consists of a nave, side aisles, a semi-circular apse, and a lofty tower and spire. The roof of the chancel is groined, and is a combination of brick and stone. A very considerable amount of elaborate detail pervades the interior. The chancel is surrounded by screens of brass and iron, and over the chancel-arch is a well-executed fresco painting, by Mr. G. F. Watts, R.A., of "Our Saviour attended by Angels." Some of the windows are filled with stained glass. The building, including the decorations, cost upwards of £9,000. [cxxxiv]
St. Barnabas-Pimlico Church (St. Barnabas Street and Pimlico Road)
Built in the severest Early English style, this had acquired some celebrity as "St.Barnabas, Pimlico." It was built between 1848 and 1850 as a chapel of ease to St. Paul's, Knightsbridge, under the auspices of its then incumbent, the Reverend W.J. E. Bennett. The church gained some notoriety during the earlier part of the Ritualistic movement, and, indeed, the services were not allowed to be carried on without sundry popular outbursts of indignation. Of late, however, this church had ceased to occupy the public attention, having been fairly eclipsed by other churches, which are marked by a still more "advanced" Ritual. The church is a portion of a college founded on St. Barnabas' Day, 1846, and is built upon ground presented by the first Marquis of Westminster. The fabric has a Caenstone tower and spire, 170 feet high, with a peal often bells, the gifts of as many parishioners. [cxxxv]
Site of St. Barnabas Orphanage (6 Bloomfield Terrace)
In Bloomfield Place, close by St. Barnabas' Church, were two or three useful institutions which must not be overlooked. One was St. Barnabas Orphanage, established in 1860 and supported by the ladies living in the immediate neighborhood. Another institution was St. John’s School for girls, which was established in 1859 under the auspices of the Sisterhood of St. John and with the sanction of the Bishop of London. The school was "specially adapted for the children of clergymen, professional men; for those whose parents are abroad, who need home-training and care; also for young ladies desirous of improving their education, or to be fitted for governesses." The orphanage was also under the care of the sisters of St. John. Adjoining the schoolhouse was St. Barnabas' Mission House. [cxxxvi]
Site of Monster Tavern (Cumberland Street and Sutherland Row)
The "Monster" Tavern, at one period an inn of popular resort and for many years the starting point of the "Monster" line of omnibuses, is probably a corruption, perhaps an intentional one, of the "Monastery." Mr. Larwood writes thus, in his History of Sign-boards:—"Robert de Heyle, in 1368, leased the whole of the Manor of Chelsea to the Abbot and Monastery or Convent of Westminister for the term of his own life, for which they were to pay him the sum of £20 a year, to provide him every day with two white loaves, two flagons of convent ale, and once a year a robe of esquire's silk. At this period, or shortly after, the sign of the 'Monastery' may have been set up, to be handed down from generation to generation, until the meaning and proper pronunciation were alike forgotten, and it became the 'Monster.'” “This tavern," he adds, "I believe, is the only one with such a sign." [cxxxvii] The structure was destroyed in 1941 by German bombing during the World War II.
Ebury Bridge (Ebury Bridge, between Buckingham Palace Road and Warwick Way)
A tavern or place of public entertainment in this neighborhood was "Jenny's Whim." This establishment, which bore the name down to the beginning of the 19th century, occupied the site now covered by Ebury Bridge (formerly St. George's Row), near to the bridge itself, which spanned Grosvenor Canal at the north end of the Commercial Road. This bridge was formerly known as the "Wooden Bridge," and also as "Jenny's Whim Bridge”; and down to about the year 1825, a turnpike close by bore the same lady's name. [cxxxviii]
The Grosvenor Canal was opened in 1825, and ran on land in Lord Grosvenor's estate, from the Thames to Grosvenor Basin. The site of the basin is now covered by Victoria Station. The top part of the canal was closed to enable the station complex to be enlarged in 1899. The remaining short length of canal was purchased in 1906 by Westminster City Council. A further section was in-filled in 1927 to provide space for housing. The Council's interest in the canal was sustained, despite its deterioration, because its principal traffic was refuse collected by the authority for disposal. For almost a year from July 1928 the canal was closed for major repairs and improvements to facilitate this important traffic. In the late 1940's and early 1950's other local authorities added their refuse to the traffic carried.[cxxxix]
Chelsea Physic Garden (Swan Walk and Royal Hospital Road)
The Society of Apothecaries desired, in 1673, to obtain a suitable site for their barge house, and no better could be found than that of the present garden at Chelsea. Accordingly, in the same year, they obtained a lease of the land from Charles Cheyne, lord of the manor, at the annual rent of £5. In the following year a subscription was raised among 14 members of the Company to build a wall round the garden, and two years later the resolution above referred to was taken regarding the transfer of plants from Westminster to Chelsea.
The first gardener, whose name was Piggott, left in 1677, and Richard Pratt was appointed in his place, being given lodging and a salary of £30 a year. The garden was already producing herbs for the laboratory, and fruit trees were then planted. In 1680, John Watts, a member of the Company, became Curator, and in 1682 an exchange of plants was made with Dr. Herman, Professor of Botany at Leyden. Soon afterwards, the four cedar trees were planted which were to give the garden so much distinction and beauty. They were at first 3 feet high, and on measuring the two that remained in 1793, Sir Joseph Banks found the larger one to possess a girth of close upon 13 feet.[cxl]
It may be noticed in John Haynes' plan of the Physic Garden, dated 1751, that there is an entrance into the garden near the top of Swan Walk, and exactly opposite to it is a gateway which should lead into the garden of No. 1 Swan Walk. It seems probable that this gate was used by the Curator of the Botanic Garden, Philip Miller, whom the rate-books place in Swan Walk at this period, and if this is so we may fairly claim the house as his residence. Philip Miller seems to have lived in another house in Swan Walk, assessed at£6 less in value, from 1733 to 1740. He was Curator from 1722 to 1771, the year of his death.[cxli]
Site of Old Swan Inn (Swan Walk and Chelsea Embankment)
The name of Swan Walk is derived from the Old Swan Inn which stood at its south end on the river side, and which was converted into a brewery in the 18th century. The inn is mentioned by Pepys (1666), and became famous as the goal of the annual watermen's boat race (instituted by Thomas Doggett in 1715), the scene of one of Rowlandson's sketches, now in the British Museum. It was converted into a brewery later on, and another inn was started, bearing the name "The Old Swan," on a site on the waterside, west of the Physic Garden.[cxlii]
Holland House (Holland Park, Abbottsbury Road)
Holland House, a well-known ancient mansion in this parish, was the manor-house of Abbot's Kensington, and takes its name from Henry Rich, Earl of Holland. It was built by his father-in-law, Sir Walter Cope, in the year 1607, and its remains afford a very good specimen of the architecture of that period. The Earl of Holland greatly improved the house, employing the most eminent artists in their several departments. The stone piers at the entrance of the court (over which are the arms of Rich, quartering Bouldry, and impaling Cope), were designed by Inigo Jones, and executed by Nicholas Stone. The internal decorations were by Francis Cleyne.
The Earl of Holland was twice made a prisoner in his own house, first by King Charles in 1633, upon occasion of his challenging Lord Weston; and a second time, by command of the parliament, after the unsuccessful issue of his attempt to restore the King in August of 1648. The Earl, who was a conspicuous character during the whole of Charles's reign, and frequently in employments of considerable trust, appears to have been very wavering in his politics, and of an irritable disposition. As early as the year 1638, we find him retired to his house at Kensington in disgust, because he was not made Lord Admiral. At the eve of the civil war, he was employed against the Scots; when the army was disbanded, having received some new cause of offence, he retired again to Kensington, where, according to Lord Clarendon, he was visited by all the disaffected members of parliament, who held frequent meetings at Holland House. Sometime afterwards, when the civil war was at its height, he joined the King's party at Oxford; but meeting with a cool reception, returned again to the parliament. On August 6th, 1647, "the members of parliament, who were driven from Westminster by tumults, met General Fairfax at Holland-house, and subscribed to the declaration of the army, and a farther declaration, approving of and joining with the army in all their late proceedings, making null all acts passed by the members since the 6th of July." The Earl of Holland's desertion of the royal cause is to be attributed, perhaps, to his known enmity towards Lord Strafford; he gave, nevertheless, the best proof of his attachment to monarchy, by making a bold though rash attempt to restore his royal master, when his affairs were the most desperate. After making a valiant stand against an unequal force near Kingston upon Thames, he was obliged to quit the field, but was soon afterwards taken prisoner, and suffered death upon the scaffold, by a sentence of the high court of justice. His corpse was sent to Kensington, and interred in the family vault there, on March 10th, 1649. In the month of July following, Lambert, then general of the army, fixed his headquarters at Holland House. It was soon afterwards restored to the Countess of Holland. When the theatres were shut up by the Puritans, plays were acted privately at the houses of the nobility, who made collections for the actors.
The next remarkable circumstance in the history of this mansion is the residence of Addison, who became possessed of it in 1716, by his intermarriage with Charlotte Countess Dowager of Warwick and Holland. It is said that he did not add much to his happiness by this alliance. Mr. Addison was appointed Secretary of State in 1717, and died at Holland House, June 17th, 1719.[cxliii]
Holland House was badly damaged during World War II. One wing was saved and is used as a youth hostel. A remaining section of the front terrace is now used as a distinct backdrop for the park's summertime open-air theatre productions and classical concerts.[cxliv]
Site of Campden House (Hornton Street and Gloucester Walk)
Campden House, another well-known mansion in this parish, was built in or about the year 1612, by Sir Baptist Hickes, whose arms (with that date) and those of his sons-in-law, Edward Lord Noel and Sir Charles Morison, were in a large bay window in the front. Sir Baptist Hickes was created Viscount Campden in 1628, with remainder to his son-in-law, Edward Lord Noel, who succeeded him in this mansion. Baptist, the third Lord Campden, was a zealous royalist, and a great sufferer, during the civil war. Having paid the sum of 9000 pounds as a composition, he was allowed to enjoy his estates, and he appears to have resided chiefly at Campden House during the protectorate of Cromwell. Charles the Second ate with him there, about a fortnight after his restoration. In 1662, an act of parliament was passed for settling Campden House at Kensington upon Baptist Viscount Campden, and his heirs forever. Montagu Bertie, the brave and loyal Earl of Lindsey, whose filial piety at the battle of Edghill will ever immortalize his name, died at Campden House, the seat of his son-in-law, in the July of 1666. In1691, this house was hired of the Noel family by Queen Anne, then Princess of Denmark, who resided there about five years with her son the Duke of Gloucester. [cxlv]
Site of Kensington Gravel Pits (Queensway and Bayswater Road)
This must be understood as a vague name for an undefined district, lying partly to the north and partly to the south of the Bayswater (previously Uxbridge) Road; indeed, the greater part was on the north side: this is evident from the fact that the house belonging to Lord Craven, at Craven Hill, which was borrowed by Queen Anne as a nursery for her children, is mentioned by contemporary writers as being "situated at Kensington Gravel Pits." Several local tradesmen's tokens, dated in 1660 to 1670, at the Gravel Pits, are engraved by Faulkner. Since the disappearance of the actual gravel pits, their name seems to have been superseded by the joint influence of the new streets on Notting Hill and in Bayswater.
The spot, in fact, has long been held in high repute for the salubrity of the air, and it had become a noted place for the residence of artists. The neighborhood, too, had long been a favorite haunt and home of laundresses; and no wonder, for Faulkner, in his History of Kensington, speaks of an overflowing spring on the Norland House Estate as "peculiarly soft, and adapted to washing," the same water being "leased to three persons, who pay each seven shillings a week for it, and retail it about the neighbourhood at a halfpenny a pail."
These were really gravel pits half a century ago, and the inequality of the surface bore testimony to the fact. Sir A. Calcott's house was in a hollow, artificially made, and his garden was commanded from above by that of his next-door neighbor, Mr. Thomas Webster, then a rising artist, but who retired from the Royal Academy in 1876.[cxlvi]
Kensington Palace (Kensington Palace Gardens at Kensington High Street)
Kensington Palace, so called from its contiguity to this place, stands within the parish of St. Margaret, Westminster. Built in the early 1600’s, it was the seat of Sir Heneage Finch, afterwards Earl of Nottingham, and Lord Chancellor of England, whose son, the second Earl, sold it to King William very soon after his accession to the throne. This palace was the frequent residence of King William and his royal consort, Queen Anne, and King George the First. These monarchs (George I. excepted, who died at Hanover) all drew their last breath within its walls, as did George Prince of Denmark, Queen Anne's consort, in 1708. Kensington-palace is a large irregular edifice, built at various times. The state apartments consist of a suit of twelve rooms.
Kensington gardens were originally only 26 acres; Queen Anne added 30 acres, which were laid out by her gardener, Mr. Wife; but the principal addition was nearly 300 acres out of Hyde Park, which were laid out by Bridgman. They are now three miles and a half in circumference. The broad walk, which extends from the palace along the south side of the gardens, is in the spring a very fashionable promenade, especially on Sunday mornings. Kensington gardens have been the subject of several poems. [cxlvii]
Kensington Parish Church (Kensington Church Street and Kensington High Street)
The parish church, dedicated to St. Mary, is situated near the road side. It is a brick structure, consisting of a chancel, nave, and two aisles, separated by wooden pillars, with Corinthian capitals. At the west end is a low embattled tower of brick, with a wooden turret. The body of the old church was pulled down, and rebuilt about the year 1694, the tower being left standing. The expense was defrayed partly by subscription. The new building was so ill constructed, that in the year 1704 it was found necessary to take the greater part of it down again, and to strengthen the walls. In 1772, the church underwent a complete repair, when the old tower was pulled down, and the present erected in its room. The chancel-window, ornamented with figures of St. Peter, St. Paul, St. John, and St. Andrew, in stained glass, was given by Mr. Tanner Arnold, and his niece Mary Green.
On the south side of the altar, against the east wall, is the monument of Edward Henry, Earl of Warwick and Holland, who died in 1721. His effigies, in white marble, are represented in a Roman habit, sitting and leaning with his right arm upon an urn. [cxlviii]
St. Petersburgs Place (St. Petersburg Place and Moscow Road)
A new range of buildings, to the north-east of Orme Square, was erected about 1815, called St. Petersburg Place, Moscow Road, Coburg Place, etc. These names commemorate the visit of the Allied Sovereigns, in 1814. [cxlix]
Orme Square (Bayswater Road, between Orme Court and St. Petersburg Place)
Orme Square, which abuts upon the Bayswater Road, overlooking Kensington Gardens, is named after a Mr. Orme, formerly a print seller in Bond Street, who purchased a considerable space of ground lying to the west of Craven Hill, upon which the Square is built. [cl]
Site of Portobello Farm (Portobello Road and Golborne Road)
Portobello Farm was marked in the maps of the neighborhood as lately as 1830: it was named by its then owner at the time of the capture of that city by Admiral Vernon. It then stood in the midst of open fields, in which the cows and sheep grazed and pigs were fed. In what is now Portobello Road, skirting the eastern end of Ladbroke Square, stood a convent of the Little Sisters of the Poor. The "sisters" themselves fed off the scraps left by the paupers whom they support by going round to the doors of London houses for broken victuals. Upwards of a hundred poor persons were daily supported by the "sisters" in this benevolent manner. The head-quarters of this charity were at Hammersmith, where the chief institution will be described in its proper place. There was a pretty walk this way across to Kensal Green until about 1860. [cli]
Grand Union Canal (Great Western Road, between Harrow Road and the Westway)
The Grand Junction (later the Grand Union) Canal was the London's principal link with the rest of the UK's canal system. Although the somewhat circuitous route to Birmingham via the river Thames and the Oxford Canal came first, it was the Grand Junction Canal which really provided the transport infrastructure to bring goods from the industrial conurbations of the north and midlands to the capital. The Act of Parliament to authorize its construction was passed in 1793 and work started in the same year. The famous canal engineer William Jessop played a superintendent role as Chief Engineer, with James Barnes as the engineer responsible for most of the construction work. The Company's chairman was William Praed whose name is commemorated by the street named after him outside Paddington Station.
The Grand Junction was a busy route throughout its commercial life, although the struggle of competition with the railways was a constant problem from the mid-19th century onwards. In the 1920's, discussions took place between the Grand Junction, Regent's and Warwick Canal companies with a view to a merger. An Act of Parliament was required to authorize this, passed in 1928, with the merger taking place on January 1st, 1929. The Regent's Canal Company bought the other two companies, paying £801,442.13 for the Grand Junction Canal Company.
In the 1930's, the new company, now called the Grand Union Canal Company, worked hard to modernize both the canal and the boats operating on it. Locks were extensively rebuilt to take wide beamed barges, particularly on the Warwick Canal which had previously been for narrow-boats only. There was financial support from the government for this work, which helped to relieve unemployment in the great depression of the 1930's. The company had a wide beamed motor barge built, the Progress, as an experiment with the intention of achieving greater efficiency to compete with railways and the growing alternative of road transport. They also tried out new designs of motor narrow-boats which could pull an unpowered "butty". The Progress was not a success but the new designs of narrow-boat were, and a large fleet was built for the Grand Union Canal Carrying Company, a subsidiary of the Grand Union Canal Company. One of these was Coronis, now in the London Canal Museum
Nationalized along with other canals in 1948, the Grand Junction route was one of the last in Britain to keep commercial traffic alive, albeit in steep decline through the 1950's when road transport developed considerably. It has always remained open to traffic and is now well used by leisure craft.[clii]
Craven Hill Gardens (Craven Hill Gardens and Leinster Gardens)
The houses in Craven Road and Craven Hill Gardens stand on the site of a field which was given about the year 1720 in exchange for the "Pest-field," near Golden Square; and it may be the reverse of comforting to the inhabitants to know that, under an old agreement between Lord Craven and the parochial authorities, the plot of ground in question may be taken for the purpose of a burial ground, in case London should ever again be visited with the plague; unless, indeed, this liability has been done away with by the Act which enforces extra-mural interments. This land was not used during the cholera of 1849; and at the present time, as we have shown above, a grand London square, called Craven Gardens, alone indicates the site of the Pest-house fields. The property, which belonged in former times to one Jane Upton, and was called Upton Farm, was purchased by the trustees of this charity-estate for £1,570. [cliii]
St Thomas Street
St. Thomas Street on the east side of Borough High Street takes its name from St. Thomas's Hospital, which for over six centuries occupied ground on the north side of the way. The street is not shown on the earliest plan of the area circa 1542 but it was probably in use soon after, for in the reign of Edward VI the chapel of the hospital was made the parish church of the newly created small parish of St. Thomas's. Most of St. Thomas's parish was included in the Metropolitan Borough of Bermondsey under the Act of 1899, but the southern side of St. Thomas Street west of Guy's Hospital, and the greater part of the hospital was incorporated with Southwark.
This terrace of four-story brick houses was built for St. Thomas's Hospital by a contractor, Mr. Johnson, in 1819, at a cost of about 7,000 British pounds. The houses are plain in design, but there is a moulded stone cornice between the second and third floors and at first floor level the window sills are carried through to form a string course. The Grapes (No. 2), which forms part of the terrace, was originally two houses.
The residents in these houses and, indeed, most of the houses in St. Thomas Street, have mainly been persons connected with the two great hospitals there. [cliv]
Sir Samuel Wilks House (2 St. Thomas Street) (formerly 17 and 18)
Sir Samuel Wilks, baronet and physician, occupied the former No. 17 from 1854 to 1860. He studied at Guy's Hospital and held several appointments there including those of physician, curator of the museum and lecturer on pathology. He edited the hospital reports from 1854 to 1865 and was joint author with G. T. Bettany of the standard history of the hospital. He occupied No. 14 (formerly No. 11) from 1861 to 1869. He died at Hampstead in 1911.[clv]
Charles Aston Key House (12 St. Thomas Street)
From 1821 to 1823, this was the residence of Charles Aston Key, a surgeon. He was born in Southwark and became a pupil at Guy's in 1814 and married the niece of Astley Cooper in 1818. He became demonstrator of anatomy at St. Thomas's and later full surgeon at Guy's. He was one of the first surgeons in London to use ether as an anesthetic and his success in operations gained him a great reputation. His son was Sir Astley Cooper Key, the admiral.
From 1831 to 1833, this was the residence of John Flint South, a surgeon. He was son of a Southwark druggist, and Sir James South, the astronomer, was his half-brother. In 1814 he was apprenticed to Henry Cline, the younger, at St. Thomas's Hospital. He became lecturer on anatomy there, and later, surgeon. He was the author of several works on surgery.
From 1834 to 1835, John Hilton, a surgeon, took up residence here. He entered Guy's Hospital as a student in 1824, and rose to be professor of human anatomy and surgery there in 1860. His dissections of the human body were reproduced in wax and kept in the anatomical museum.
From 1880 to 1884, this was the home of Frederick Henry Horatio Akbar Mahomed, a physician. He was the son of the keeper of a turkish bath. He studied at various hospitals, including Guy's and became medical registrar at the latter. In 1881, he was elected assistant physician to Guy's. He died in 1884 at his house in Manchester Square.
John Keats is stated to have lodged over the shop of a tallow chandler named Markham in St. Thomas Street in 1815, when he was a student at Guy's Hospital. Unfortunately, no rate books for St. Thomas's parish have been found for the early part of the 19th century and it has not been possible to establish the position of this shop. [clvi]
Old Kent Road (Old Kent Road and Tower Bridge Road)
The branch of the ancient Watling Street, which extended from Dover to Canterbury, and thence through Faversham and Rochester to London, was the road followed by nearly all travelers from the days of the Romans, the days of pilgrimages and crusades, and thence again until the formation of railways diverted their steps into another track. Along this road travelled Charles II and a gay train of cavaliers, on his Restoration and return, by way of Dover to London, in May of 1660.
In the days nearer to our own, when there were no railroads, even this unfashionable thoroughfare was used by the most distinguished travelers. Stothard, the painter, for instance, tells us that, happening to be one evening at an inn on this road, he met Pitt and Dundas (afterwards Lord Melville), who had been obliged to rest there for the night on their way from Walmer to London.
The Old Kent Road, known as Kent Street Road until the end of the last century, was a continuation of Kent Street, in the Borough, of which we have already spoken, and was the highway from Kent to the metropolis. There were but few houses in the Kent Road a century ago. Rocque's Map, published in 1750, shows the thoroughfare lined with hedgerows, bespeaking its rural character in the days of George II.[clvii]
Licensed Victuallers' Asylum (Asylum Road, between Old Kent Road and Gervase Street)
In 1827, the Licensed Victuallers' Asylum was founded, on six acres of freehold land lying just off the Old Kent Road. It consists of a group of one story houses, chapel, chaplain's residence, board and court rooms, library, &c., set round two green lawns. The Duke of Sussex was its first patron in1827, and he was succeeded by the Prince Consort, on whose death the Prince of Wales assumed the office. The idea of establishing an institution wherein the distressed members of the licensed victuallers' trade, and their wives or widows, might be enabled to spend the latter part of their days in peace and quietness, was conceived by the late Mr. Joseph Proud Hodgson, in the year 1826, when he called a meeting of several influential gentlemen in the trade, and ventilated his views; and, after serious consideration, it was determined that a society should be formed under the title of the Licensed Victuallers' Asylum.[clviii]
The popularity of the asylum was such that by 1927 there were more than 200 residential sites there, having started with only 27, and with all applications now being vetted to decide whom was most entitled to a spot. The ornate buildings took eighteen years to construct, each block began to take in people as it was completed, with the entire complex being completed in 1866, including a chapel whose stained glass windows depicted events in the life of Christ. The finished institution was the largest of its type in London. The large gate that adorns the front of the complex was not erected until 1927, when it was designed and constructed to celebrate the centenary of the asylum.
Like most buildings in this area, it failed to survive both world wars unscathed. The central chapel in particular was worst hit and with funding at something of a low, the owners were unable fully to restore it following World War II. By 1960, the brewing industry decided that the complex no longer met their purpose, more because they needed to expand the site further and the scope was not there in the Asylum Road site. Instead, they took their operation off to Denham in Buckinghamshire, selling the buildings to Camberwell Council. The council made the decision to retain the site as residential units, and also decided to change the name from the Licensed Victuallers Asylum. They picked Caroline Gardens, named after a former resident called Caroline Seeker. She was the former wife of a Royal Marine, James Seeker, who was said to be the man who caught Nelson after he was wounded at Trafalgar.[clix]
Christ Church of England-Old Kent Road (676-680 Old Kent Road, Peckham)
This church was originally located on the opposite side of the road. The first structure was completed in 1838. When the South Metropolitan Gas Company was extended, the first church was demolished and the current structure was built in 1868.[clx]
Camberwell Public Library No. 1 (682 Old Kent Road)
This structure was built as "Camberwell Public Library, No. 1" in 1890—a gift of Sir George Livesey, born in 1834, the Company Secretary of the South Metropolitan Gas Company. At this time, gas was London's main source of heat and light and the gas industry was a highly competitive one. While Livesey turned the S.M.G.C. into the largest gas company in South London, his employees' welfare policies were pioneering and he founded institutions, such as the library, for local people. He was knighted in 1902 for his charitable acts, and died in 1908.
The library continued to serve local people as a lending library until 1966, despite being badly damaged during the Blitz. The building was then converted into a museum and reopened in 1974 by Poet Laureate, Sir John Betjeman. Since 1974, the Livesey has developed into an interactive children's museum, showing temporary hands-on exhibitions. The museum staged a series of varied shows with such diverse subjects as "The Great Rubbish Show", "Air Aware" and "Number Crunching". In 2008, the museum was shut down by the Southwark Council.
Site of the South Metropolitan Gas Company (709 Old Kent Road)
The operations of the South Metropolitan Gas Company once extend over thirteen square miles, from the New Kent Road southwards as far as Croydon parish, taking in considerable portions of Newington, St. George the Martyr, a small part of Bermondsey, nearly all Camberwell, a large portion of Lambeth, and all Streatham. The company had altogether about 170 miles of main-pipes; it consumed annually about 84,000 tons of coal, and supplied about 800,000,000 feet of gas in a year. The number of retorts was about 500, and the seven gas-holders were capable of storing nearly 4,000,000 feet of gas; while the greatest quantity made in a day somewhat exceeded that amount. This gas company was founded in 1833, for the supply of cannel gas, and incorporated in 1842, with an authorized capital of £200,000. In 1853 the south side of the Thames was divided into districts, which arrangements were sanctioned by Parliament in the Metropolis Gas Act, 1860. The company first supplied gas in 1834; and after four years 'trial it was convincingly proved that to supply cannel gas made from the common coal was a financial mistake, and therefore cannel gas was abandoned in 1838.[clxi]
Thomas A Becket Pub (320 Old Kent Road)
This structure is currently the home of the Nolias Gallery. Previously, it was the Thomas A Becket Pub. The pub gained its name for its proximity to St. Thomas à Watering. St. Thomas à Watering was once the boundary of the City liberties, and in the "olden time," when the lord mayor and sheriffs "in great state" crossed the water to open Southwark Fair and to inspect the City boundaries, the City magistrates continued either to St. George's Church, Newington Bridge, or "to the stones pointing out the City liberties at St. Thomas à Watering." The precise situation was as near as possible that part of the Old Kent Road which is intersected by the Albany Road, and the memory of the place is still kept alive by St. Thomas's Road, close by, and by the tavern-signs in the neighborhood. "At the commencement of the present century," writes Mr. Blanch, in his history of "Ye Parishe of Cam[b]erwell," "there was a stream here which served as a common sewer, across which a bridge was built; and in going from Camberwell into Newington or Southwark, it was not unusual for people to say they were going over the water. The current from the Peckham hills was at times so strong as to overflow at least two acres of ground."
St. Thomas à Waterings was situated close to the second milestone on the Old Kent Road, and was so called from a brook or spring, dedicated to St. Thomas à Becket. Chaucer's pilgrims of The Canterbury Tales (1386) passed it on their way to the shrine of St. Thomas à Becket at Canterbury:
"And forth we riden a litel more than pas,
Unto the watering of Seint Thomàs,
And then our host began his hors arrest."
Ben Jonson, in The New Inn, makes mention of the spot in the following lines:—
"These are the arts
Or seven liberal deadly sciences,
Of pagery, or rather paganism,
As the tides run! to which if he apply him,
He may perhaps take a degree at Tyburn
A year the earlier; come to read a lecture
Upon Aquinas at St. Thomas à Waterings."
This spot was in the old Tudor days the place of execution for the northern parts of Surrey; and here the Vicar of Wandsworth, his chaplain, and two other persons of his household, were hung, drawn, and quartered in 1539 for denying the supremacy of Henry VIII in matters of faith. On October 3rd, 1559, a "nuw payre of galows was sett up at Sant Thomas of Watering;" and on the February 12th, 1651, five men were arraigned in Westminster Hall, three for burglary and two for “cutpurses." They were sentenced to be hanged at “Sant Thomas of Watering: one was a gentyllman." One of the quarters of Sir Thomas Wyatt, who was beheaded for rebellion in April of 1554, was exposed at this place; and on the 18th of June, 1556, a younger son of Lord Sandys was executed here for robbing a cart, coming from a fair, at Beverley. The booty was estimated at about four thousand pounds.
In 1559, five men were executed here. Macbyn, in his Diary, recorded the execution of Captain Jenkes and Misters Warde, Walles, and Beymont. They were sentenced for “for a grett robere done." John Henry, the author of some of the "Martin Mar-Prelate Tracts," was hung here in 1593; and Franklin, one of the agents implicated in the murder of Sir Thomas Overbury, was executed at the same place in 1615. The last persons executed at St. Thomas à Watering were a father and son, who suffered the penalty of the law for murder about the year 1740.[clxii]
Site of Bricklayer’s Arms Station (Old Kent Road, Tower Bridge Road, and New Kent Road)
The oldest of the inns in the Old Kent Road, perhaps, was one near the Bricklayers' Arms Station, which rejoices in the somewhat singular sign of "The World Turned Upside Down." The house was supposed to be upwards of two hundred years old, and down to about 1840 its sign-board represented a man walking at the South Pole. It may have been first set up after the discovery of Australia, Van Diemen's Land, or Terra del Fuego; but Mr. Larwood, in his work on "Sign-boards," interprets it as "meaning a state of things the opposite of what is natural and usual: a conceit in which," he adds, "the artists of former ages took great delight, and which they represented by animals chasing men, horses riding in carriages, and similar conceits and pleasantries. "The old sign-board was blown down many years ago; and in 1868, the house itself was in great part rebuilt and wholly new-fronted. [clxiii]
Henry Wood Hall (Trinity Church Square, Trinity Street, Newington)
This structure was originally the Holy Trinity Church. The body of the structure is a parallelogram, and is divided into two stories by a plain course. The interior presents a vast unbroken area, roofed in one span, and the ceiling is paneled. The galleries, resting on Doric pillars, extend round three sides of the church, and the altar-screen, situated below the eastern window, consists of a pediment surmounting four slabs, inscribed with the Decalogue. The first stone of the edifice was laid by the Archbishop of Canterbury in June of 1823, and the building was consecrated in December of the following year. The ground on which the church is built was given by the corporation of the Trinity House, which possessed considerable property in the vicinity. [clxiv]
The church was slightly damaged in World War II and after 1944 the main aisle was no longer used. Weddings and funerals took place in the side chapel and the crypt until the church was closed as unsafe in 1961. In 1973, when plans to convert it into an orchestral rehearsal hall were well under way, the building burnt overnight in a spectacular ﬁre, which destroyed most of the interior. It was reconstructed as Henry Wood Hall.[clxv]
Site of Horsemonger Lane Gaol (Harper Road and Swan Street)
This structure was the prison and place of execution for the county of Surrey. It was a substantially-built structure, chiefly of brick, arranged upon the approved plan of John Howard, the prison philanthropist. It was of a quadrangular form, with three stories above the basement, and was completed for the reception of prisoners in1798, and had accommodation for 300 prisoners. This prison not being a house of correction, the average duration of imprisonment undergone by each prisoner is very short. Instruction was confined to the juvenile prisoners, who are assembled in classes for two hours daily. The number of attendances during the first six months of 1875, was 751; the number of prisoners confined during 1875, was 3,465; and the greatest number of prisoners at any one time was 165.
In 1802, Colonel Despard and about thirty of his accomplices were arrested at the "Oakley Arms" public-house in Lambeth, on a charge of treasonable conspiracy, intending to dethrone the king and subvert the Government. In the following February, they were tried by a special commission, held in the Sessions' House adjoining the prison, and the colonel and six of his colleagues were hung and beheaded here. It may be added that the "hurdle" on which the colonel was drawn from the cell in which he was last confined to the place of execution—in conformity with the sentence formerly passed upon criminals convicted of high treason—remained in the gaol until the 1870s, and was regarded as an object of curiosity.
This place had its romance, for Leigh Hunt was for two years (1812–1814) imprisoned here for libelously styling the Prince Regent, afterwards George IV, an "Adonis of fifty;" and here it was that Moore and Lord Byron paid that memorable visit to "the wit in the dungeon," when the noble poet saw him for the first time in his life. Mr. Cyrus Redding, in his "Recollections," says:—"I remember paying Leigh Hunt a visit in Horsemonger Lane Jail, a miserable low site. I missed Byron and Moore by only about half an hour, on the same errand. Horace Smith and Shelley used to be visitors there, and many others of Hunt's friends. He was composing 'Rimini,' a copy of which he gave me, and which I still possess. His apartment, on the ground floor, was cheerful for such a place, but that only means a sort of lacquered gloom after all. I thought of his health, which seemed by no means strong. I am certain, if the place was not unwholesome, it lay close upon the verge of insalubrity. Hunt bore his confinement cheerfully, but he must have had unpleasant moments. He was naturally lively, and in those days I never knew a more entertaining companion. For such a one to be alone for weary, dreary hours, must have been punishment enough even to satisfy an Ellenborough or a Jeffries."
Down to the passing of the Act by which executions ceased to take place in public, the scaffold for the execution of criminals at this gaol was erected upon the roof of the gateway; and the roadway in front, during these "exhibitions," became the scene of the wildest depravity. Charles Dickens, who was present at the execution of the Mannings on November 13th, 1849, gives us the following description of what he saw:—"I was a witness," he writes, "of the execution at Horsemonger Lane this morning. I went there with the intention of observing the crowd gathered to behold it, and I had excellent opportunities of doing so at intervals all through the night, and continuously from daybreak until after the spectacle was over. I believe that a sight so inconceivably awful as the wickedness and levity of the immense crowd collected at that execution could be imagined by no man, and could be presented in no heathen land under the sun. The horrors of the gibbet and of the crime which brought the wretched murderers to it faded in my mind before the atrocious bearing, looks, and language of the assembled spectators. When I came upon the scene at midnight, the shrillness of the cries and howls that were raised from time to time, denoting that they came from a concourse of boys and girls already assembled in the best places, made my blood run cold. As the night went on, screeching, and laughing, and yelling in strong chorus of parodies on negro melodies, with substitutions of 'Mrs. Manning' for 'Susannah,' and the like, were added to these. When the day dawned, thieves, low prostitutes, ruffians, and vagabonds of every kind, flocked on to the ground, with every variety of offensive and foul behaviour. Fightings, faintings, whistlings, imitations of Punch, brutal jokes, tumultuous demonstrations of indecent delight when swooning women were dragged out of the crowd by the police with their dresses disordered, gave a new zest to the general entertainment. When the sun rose brightly—as it did—it gilded thousands upon thousands of upturned faces, so inexpressibly odious in their brutal mirth or callousness, that a man had cause to feel ashamed of the shape he wore, and to shrink from himself, as fashioned in the image of the devil. When the two miserable creatures who attracted all this ghastly sight about them were turned quivering into the air, there was no more emotion, no more pity, no more thought that two immortal souls had gone to judgment, no more restraint in any of the previous obscenities, than if the name of Christ had never been heard in this world, and there were no belief among men but that they perished like the beasts. I have seen, habitually, some of the worst sources of general contamination and corruption in this country, and I think there are not many phases of London life that could surprise me. I am solemnly convinced that nothing that ingenuity could devise to be done in this city, in the same compass of time, could work such ruin as one public execution; and I stand astounded and appalled by the wickedness it exhibits. I do not believe that any community can prosper where such a scene of horror and demoralisation as was enacted this morning outside Horsemonger Lane Gaol is presented at the very doors of good citizens, and is passed by, unknown or forgotten." [clxvi]
Site of the Elephant & Castle (Elephant & Castle Interchange, Newington Causeway and New Kent Road)
The "Elephant and Castle" was formerly a well-known coaching house; its sign was the crest of the Cutlers' Company, into whose trade ivory enters largely. This celebrated tavern was situated about one mile and a half from Westminster, Waterloo, and Blackfriars Bridges, and on a spot where several crossroads meet, leading from these bridges to important places in Kent and Surrey. Before railways drove the old stage-coaches from the road, the "Elephant and Castle" was a well-known locality to every traveler going anywhere south of London. Its character, however, has become to a certain extent changed, and it is now chiefly known to the inhabitants of Camberwell, Dulwich, Herne Hill, Kennington, Stockwell, and Clapham. In the Middle Ages, as we are reminded by Jacob Larwood, in his "History of Signs," the elephant was nearly always represented with a castle on his back.
In the early part of the present century this spot had an additional renown. Within a few doors of the old inn, Joanna Southcott set up a meeting-house for her deluded followers. Her disciple, Mr. Carpenter, covered the walls with strange pictures representing, as he said, vision she had received; "thousands of delusionists,"observes a writer in the Dispatch, "visited the chapel, and prayed that old Joanna might speedily be delivered of the expected Shiloh. But though a silver cradle was subscribed for and presented, Nature refused to work a miracle, and no Shiloh came. After a time, Joanna and her friend Carpenter quarrelled. The old woman retired with another disciple, Mr. Tozer, to Duke Street, Lambeth, and there built another chapel, leaving Carpenter in possession of the Newington house. What he preached there we know not; but in fulness of time Joanna died, and then numbers awoke to the delusion, and wondered how they could have believed in the divine mission of the ignorant, quarrelsome old woman."
In 1875, whilst some workmen were engaged in laying down pipes for the water company, a portion of the roadway in front of the "Elephant and Castle," and within a few feet of the curb, was opened, when one of the men came upon what he thought at first was a box, but what in the end proved to be a coffin containing human remains. These were found to be those of a person, it was believed, of some sixteen years of age. All the parts were nearly complete, but, singular to state, there was an absence of either hands or feet. The skull was in a wonderful state of preservation, but on one side there was an indentation, as though a blow had been given causing a fracture. In the coffin was found a clasp-knife, somewhat resembling that carried by sailors. There was also a piece of woolen fabric, upon which were marks believed to be those of blood. The discovery was considered as very singular, considering the frequent alterations that had been made in the roadway for years past. It was believed that the coffin and contents must have been under ground for quite 150 years.[clxvii]
Surrey Gardens (Manor Place and Braganza Street)
Surrey Gardens was formerly known as the Surrey Zoological Gardens. This place of entertainment, which has undergone many vicissitudes, is thus described by a writer in the Era Almanack for 1871: "When Exeter Change ceased to exist, the then proprietor, Mr. Edward Cross, removed his menagerie to the King's Mews at Charing Cross, and soon after obtained possession of the grounds formerly attached to the 'Manor House' at Walworth. The grounds comprised in all about fifteen acres, which were utilised to their fullest extent, exclusive of a sheet of water covering nearly three acres more. The gardens were approached from Manor Place, Walworth, and there was a second entrance from Penton Place, Kennington Road. The large conservatory, three hundred feet in circumference, and containing upwards of 6,000 feet of glass, was at that time the largest building of its kind in England. This was afterwards used to enclose the cages of the lions, tigers, and other carnivora. In the year 1834 was exhibited here a one horned Indian rhinoceros, for which Cross paid £800; two years later three giraffes were added to his collection. The first picture was 'Mount Vesuvius,' painted by Dawson, in 1837, the lake representing the Bay of Naples, and a display of fireworks serving vividly to illustrate the eruption, which was nightly repeated in the presence of admiring crowds, and served as the chief attraction of the place for upwards of two years. Then followed, in 1839, a representation of 'Iceland and Mount Hecla;' in 1841, the 'City of Rome,' which occupied five acres, and was painted on a surface upwards of 250,000 feet square; in 1843,the 'Temple of Ellora;' in 1844, 'London during the Great Fire of 1666;' in 1845, the 'City of Edinburgh.' In 1846 'Vesuvius' was reproduced; in 1848 there was a revival of 'Rome;' in 1849 there was the 'Storming of Badajoz,' with 'new effects of real ordnance.' In this same year M. Jullien organised a series of promenade concerts on four evenings in each week, the admission remaining fixed, as before, at a shilling. The fireworks were always a great attraction of the gardens. In 1850 was exhibited 'Napoleon's Passage over the Alps;' in this picture were represented some fifty thousand men in motion, who, in the front, appeared of life-size, and who, in fact, were living men, but who were made, by an optical illusion, to dwindle gradually at different distances to the veriest specks which the eye could track along the zigzag line of ascent towards the summit of the Alpine Pass, where stood the monastery of St. Bernard, ready to receive the weary and half-frozen troops and their imperial master. On the death of Mr. Cross the proprietorship and management of the gardens devolved on his secretary and assistant, a man named Tyler, who conducted them for some years, when the property became vested in a Limited Liability Company. In 1856 the gardens were put up to auction, and the Surrey Music Hall was erected upon a portion of the grounds. The gardens were used in 1856 for the purpose of entertaining the Guards with a public dinner after their return from the Crimea; and again, in 1862, they were re-opened with a picture of the 'City and Bay of Naples,' showing Vesuvius in the distance. But the fitful taste of the public did not care for the revival; and though a variety of fresh amusements in succession was announced and provided, yet it was found that the place had lost its popularity to a degree which was irretrievable, and accordingly the gardens were closed. The grounds were afterwards more advantageously occupied, as the temporary Hospital of St. Thomas, before its removal to Lambeth Walk."
The Surrey Music Hall mentioned above—a large oblong building—was admirably adapted for the purposes for which it was built. At each corner were octagonal towers containing staircases, originally crowned by ornamental turrets. An arcade surrounded the ground-floor, whilst to the first and second floors are external galleries covered by verandas. The great hall, which held 12,000 persons, exclusive of the orchestra, cost upwards of £18,000. It was twenty feet longer and thirty feet wider than the Great Room at Exeter Hall.
In June of 1861, shortly after being vacated by Mr. Spurgeon, the Music Hall was destroyed by fire. It was, however, rebuilt, and for a time was occupied as a temporary hospital during the demolition of St. Thomas's Hospital at London Bridge and the erection of the new building near Westminster Bridge. [clxviii]
Beehive Tavern (Penrose Street and Carter Street)
In 1779, there was a landlord at "The Bee Hive" Tavern in Walworth named Keen, after whom Keen's Row is named. At the end of the last century, Mr. Keen built a large mansion on his property called Walworth House: some years afterwards this house came into the hands of Mr. Carter, a medical man with a large practice. Mr. Carter cut off a portion of his grounds for building purposes, and the street erected there was called Carter Street. On one side of it, "The Bee Hive Tavern” was also erected; and it had for a time the double name of "The Bee Hive and Cricketers," when the landlord of the Tavern was a Mr. Groom. The ground adjoining the Tavern was not then built upon; it was called Wheeler's Fields and Lorrimore or Lothammoore. The gardens attached to the Tavern were laid out by a Mr. Bendal as a market garden, but afterwards as a place of resort, and extended over an area of five acres. The old Tavern was a long low building with a railed gallery, covered with a verandah along its front. The floor of this gallery formed the roof of the bar, and between the windows of the house were suspended large turtle shells. In the Tavern, there used to be kept an "ale yard," a long glass vessel, out of which it was very hard to drink without splashing the face. Round the gardens were wooden arbours where people drank tea. In these grounds, in 1799, on Monday, September 2nd, the Volunteers were presented with a set of colors; and when peace was proclaimed the flags were hung above the Lord's Table in old Newington Church.
Bendal used to live in a little cottage near a maze which he had made: it is described as looking like a mansion in a toy city. Near the cottage was a stream with a bridge connecting the house with Wheeler's Fields. In these grounds, in 1824, was exhibited the balloon and oar in which Mr. Harris and Miss Stocks ascended from the Eagle Tavern, City Road, on May 25th. The balloon descended near Beddington, and Harris was found suffocated by an escape of the gas. The old Tavern and maze and bridge over the stream bring back days now long departed. Dickens, in his" Tale of Two Cities," makes the faithful old clerk live in Walworth, in just such a toy house with a bridge as described above. In the "Bee Hive" grounds, the Montpelier Club played its matches; and perhaps it was the strongest club- on this side of the Thames.[clxix]
Aged Pilgrims’ Friend Asylum (116 Sedgmoor Place, Camberwell)
Of the many valuable institutions with which London abounds, few deserve a higher place in the estimation of the philanthropist (though few are less known) than the Aged Pilgrims' Friend Society. It was established in the year 1807, for the purpose of giving life-pensions of ten guineas and five guineas per annum to poor, aged, and infirm Protestants of either sex, and of every denomination. The almshouses here were commenced in 1834. The edifice is of brick, with stucco mouldings and ornaments, having an embattled centre, flanked by two towers. A low pointed gateway leads through this part of the structure to a quadrangle with a lawn in the centre, and surrounded by buildings in the same style.[clxx]
Behind the almshouses is a quadrangle that has a memorial to Peacock who was buried in a vault beneath the courtyard when he died in 1844. The Almshouses were modernised in 1961 and are now flats.[clxxi]
Site of Grove Hill Estate (Grove Hill Road and Camberwell Grove)
At the beginning of the 19th century, there lived at Grove Hill Dr. John Lettsom, one of the most extraordinary men of his day. As a Quaker physician he was most successful, realizing sometimes as much as £12,000 a year. He was as liberal and philanthropic as he was wealthy. At Grove Hill, he entertained some of the most eminen tliterati of his time. He used to sign his prescriptions "I. Lettsom." This signature occasioned the following epigram:
"When any patients call in haste,
I physics, bleeds, and sweats 'em;
If after that they choose to die,
Why, what cares I?
I let's 'em."
Dr. John Coakley Lettsom was the son of a West Indian planter, and was born in the year 1744. Having completed his education in England, he was apprenticed to a Yorkshire apothecary. He afterwards returned to the West Indies, and settled as a medical practitioner at Tortola. After about five or six months, he again found his way into Europe. In 1769, he was admitted a licentiate of the Royal College of Physicians of London, and in the following year elected a Fellow of the Society of Antiquaries. Dr. Lettsom's rise in his profession was rapid; but whilst realizing a handsome fortune, he was not forgetful of the wants of his needy brethren, and the poorer order of clergy and struggling literary men received from him not only gratuitous advice, but substantial aid; whilst his contributions to charitable institutions placed him in the front rank of earnest and practical philanthropists. Dr. Lettsom deserves also to be remembered as the original proprietor of the sea-bathing Infirmary at Margate, which dates from 1792 or thereabouts. Numerous anecdotes have been published about the celebrated physician, but the following will sufficiently illustrate his proverbial generosity, which we tell on the authority of Mr. Blanch:—"As he was travelling on one occasion in the neighborhood of London, a highwayman stopped his carriage; but from the awkward and constrained manner of the intruder, the doctor correctly imagined the young man was somewhat of a novice in his new vocation, and that he was an outlaw more from necessity than from choice; and so it turned out. The doctor interested himself in his behalf, and eventually obtained him a commission in the army. On one of his benevolent excursions, the doctor found his way into the squalid garret of a poor woman who had seen better days. With the language and deportment of a lady, she begged the physician to give her a prescription. After inquiring carefully into her case, he wrote on a slip of paper to the overseers of the parish: 'A shilling per diem for Mrs. Moreton. Money, not physic, will cure her.'" Unhappily, though Dr. Lettsom had been successful in his profession, his later years were darkened with adversity.
Dr. Lettsom's house is called by Priscilla Wakefield, in 1809, "an elegant villa." She is at the pains of describing it as follows:—"The front is adorned with emblematical figures of Flora and the Seasons. One of the chief ornaments of the house is a noble library, in which are tastefully disposed the busts of many distinguished literary characters. The gardens and pleasure-grounds are laid out in a pleasing manner, and display a variety of statues and models of ancient temples. That of the Sibyls is on the model of one at Tivoli, and is supported on the trunks of eighteen oak-trees, around which are entwined ivy, virgin's bower, honeysuckle, and other climbing shrubs."
The author of "The British Traveller," in describing the parish in 1819, makes no mention of anybody or anything in Camberwell further than this, that it contained the residence of the "late famous Dr. Lettsom." The house is described in Manning and Bray's "History of Surrey" as "standing on a considerable eminence, rising gradually for about three-quarters of a mile from the village of Camberwell, and passing through an avenue of elms retaining the name of Camberwell Grove.” [clxxii]
After Lettsom sold the estate, it began to be built over for housing, initially from 1819 by William Whitten.From 1840, the house was used as a girls' school called Pelican House, but it was later demolished by railway engineer William Chadwick who bought Lettsom's mansion in the 1890s. A small portion of the estate survived and was saved from further development by the Lettsom Gardens Association in 1980. Lettsom Gardens is a haven for nature with grassland and two areas of woodland that have a number of trees including mulberries possibly descended from those planted by Dr Lettsom. Adjacent are Camberwell Gardens Guild allotments.[clxxiii]
Camberwell Grove (Camberwell Grove, between Grovelands Close and Grove Park)
Camberwell Grove is said to be the spot on which George Barnwell murdered his uncle: an event which furnished Lillo with the plot of his tragedy. Fountain Cottage—which was until very recently commemorated by Fountain Terrace, a name which the Metropolitan Board of Works have thought fit to abolish—was fixed upon as the residence of the unfortunate uncle. A writer, at the commencement of the present century, informs his readers that "in the Grove (at Camberwell) was committed that tragic act, recorded by Lillo, in the drama of George Barnwell." And, again, in the European Magazine for June of 1803, it is recorded that "at the fatal spot where this murder was committed rises a stream of limpid water, which falls into the canal (at Fountain Cottage) through a vase on which a naiad, in ornamental stone, reclines. It is this spring," the writer further tells us, with an amount of simplicity and ignorance which is charming, "which gives the name of Camberwell to the village so called!" In the "Memoirs of George Barnwell, by a descendant of the family," published in 1810, the author, in purporting to give "a full, true, and particular account" of the whole affair, fixes upon Camberwell Grove as the residence of the uncle and the scene of the murder. Maurice, the historian of Hindostan, in his poem entitled "Grove Hill," thus apostrophizes this touching and romantic story:
"Ye towering elms, on whose majestic brows
A hundred rolling years have shed their snows,
Admit me to your dark, sequester'd reign,
To roam with contemplation's studious train!
Your haunts I seek, nor glow with other fires
Than those which friendship's ardent warmth inspires;
No savage murderer with a gleaming blade—
No Barnwell to pollute your sacred shade!" [clxxiv]
The Grove House (26 Camberwell Grove)
In the last century, the Camberwell Tea Gardens, attached to a place of public entertainment called the Grove House, were largely patronized by the lads and lasses of the metropolis. The assembly room—which is now known as Camberwell Hall—had been the scene of many local balls, which can scarcely, however, be styled fashionable. Charles Dickens, in his "Sketches by Boz," gives an amusing account of a ball held here by certain "aspiring" local residents. Fêtes of all kinds were held within the spacious grounds of Grove House. With the Grove House Tavern is associated the history of the Camberwell Club, which, like all similar associations of the 18th century, was exclusively social. The club—which numbered among its members clergymen, lawyers, and merchants—held its meetings at this famous house of entertainment; and, as Mr. Blanch informs us, "snug dinners, stray balls, and quarterly feasts were the principal duties which the members were called upon to perform; and right well did they acquit themselves, if report be true." [clxxv]
Thomas Hood House (181 Camberwell New Road)
Towards the close of the year 1840, Thomas Hood—the author of "The Song of the Shirt"—took up his residence in Camberwell; the house to which he first brought his family was No. 8, South Place, now 181 Camberwell New Road. He afterwards removed to No. 2, Union Row (now 266 High Street), where he occupied the drawing room floor. Hood, who was a real wit and humorist in the best sense of the word, was born in London in 1798. His father was a native of Scotland, and for many years acting partner in the firm of Vernor, Hood, and Sharpe, extensive booksellers and publishers. "There was a dash of ink in my blood," he writes; "my father wrote two novels, and my brother was decidedly of a literary turn, to the great disquietude, for a time, of an anxious parent." Young Hood finished his education at Wanostrocht's Academy, at Camberwell; and removed thence to a merchant's counting-house in the City.
Mr. Hood's first work was anonymous—his "Odes and Addresses to Great People"—a little, thin, mean-looking sort of a foolscap sub-octavo of poems, with nothing but wit and humor to recommend it. Coleridge was delighted with the work, and taxed Charles Lamb by letter with the authorship. His next work was "A Plea for the Midsummer Fairies," a serious poem of infinite beauty, full of fine passages and of promise. The "Plea" was followed by "Whims and Oddities"—the forerunner of the Comic Annual. Then came the "Epping Hunt" and the "Dream of Eugene Aram;" "Tylney Hall," a novel; and "Hood's Own; or, Laughter from Year to Year," a volume of comic lucubrations, "with an infusion of New Blood for General Circulation." His "Song of the Shirt" has been sung through the whole length and breadth of the three kingdoms. During the first year of his residence at Camberwell, he was much amused at witnessing "all the fun of the fair," which then annually ran riot at the latter end of August. In a letter, written from "2, Union Row, High Street, Camberwell," about this time, Hood says: "We have much more comfortable lodgings, and the 'busses pass the door constantly, being in the high road, fifty or a hundred yards townwards of the 'Red Cap,' at the Green. I have a room to myself, which will be worth £20 a year to me—for a little disconcerts my nerves. "In another letter from this place, dated April 13th, 1841, Hood writes:—"Camberwell is the best air could have." At the close of this year he removed to St. John's Wood, where he died about four years later, at the early age of forty-seven. [clxxvi]
Camberwell House (30 Peckham Road)
This was one of the two asylums licensed for the reception of lunatics in Camberwell. This asylum, known as Camberwell House, with its surrounding pleasure and garden grounds, occupied a space of some twenty acres, part of which is laid out in a park-like manner, the remainder being kept for the use of the patients who take an interest in garden pursuits. The principal building, formerly known as Alfred House, was erected by Mr. Wanostrocht for a school, which he conducted for many years with eminent success. The house was afterwards used by the Royal Naval School. The Royal Naval School was projected by Captain Dickson; was started by voluntary contributions, headed by the handsome donation of £10,000 from the late Dr. Bell; and had for its object the education of the sons of those naval and marine officers whose scanty incomes did not allow them to provide a first-rate education for their boys. Its office was represented, from 1831 to 1833, by a second-floor room in Jermyn Street, St. James's; and here its founders and projectors regularly met on board days, and worked for the advancement of the interests of the Royal Naval School. They were famous men who went up those stairs to the humble committee-room in Jermyn Street—men whose names are household words amongst us now, and whom history will remember. William IV, "the Sailor King," was interested in this school, and met there Yorke, Blackwood, Keats, Hardy, Codrington, and Cockburn—brave admirals and famous "old salts," some of whom could recollect what a struggle it was to live like a gentleman once, and bring up their boys as gentlemen's sons, on officer's pay. Alfred House was for a time the institution which up rose from the committee's first deliberations, from voluntary contributions, and unaided by that Government grant which it deserved as an impetus in the first instance, and which to this day, and for reasons inexplicable to all connected with the service and the school, it has been unable to obtain. [clxxvii]
St. John’s Church (Waterloo Road, opposite Waterloo Station)
This church was built in 1823 and 1824. The site of this church having been a swamp and horse-pond, an artificial foundation of piles had to be formed before any portion of the superstructure could be raised. The edifice, which is anything but ecclesiastical in character, is built of brick, with stone dressings; the plan of the basement comprehends not only the church, but a terrace in front of it—the former is a parallelogram, the latter forms a transept at the west end, the whole of the area being laid out in catacombs. The terrace was rendered necessary to fill up the space between the church and the road, which is considerably raised to meet the level of Waterloo Bridge.
St. John's Church contains one memorable tomb, that of Elliston, the comedian, whose name is so intimately connected, as we have seen, with transpontine performances. Those who have read Charles Lamb's reminiscences of Elliston, in his "Ellistoniana," and his address "to the shade of Elliston," will not need to be reminded how great an actor he was, though in the main a comedian. He was well educated, and never forgot the knowledge of Latin that he acquired during his youth. "Great wert thou," writes Charles Lamb, "in thy life, Robert William Elliston, and not lessened in thy death, if report speaks truly, which says thou didst direct that thy mortal remains should repose under no inscription but one of pure Latinity." He was born in Bloomsbury in 1774, and was educated at St. Paul's School, being originally intended for the University. In his boyhood, however, he was brought into contact with Charles Mathews, and both being smitten with a love of the drama, made their first effort on private boards, on the first floor of a pastry-cook's shop in Bedford Street, Covent Garden, along with a daughter of Flaxman, the sculptor. Having played in public at Bath, York, and other towns in the provinces, Elliston made his first appearance in London at the Haymarket in 1796. He was a most joyous and light-hearted man, excellent alike in tragedy and comedy, and unrivalled in farce; and he enjoyed a long lease of popular favor. In his capacity as manager he would often favor the audience with a rich specimen of the grandiloquent style—a style immortalized by Charles Lamb in one of his delightful Essays. He died in 1831.[clxxviii]
Victoria Palace Theatre (Old Vic) (Waterloo Road and The Cut)
The building of Waterloo Bridge, which was commenced in 1811, and was completed six years afterwards, led to the erection of this theatre, which was originally called the "Coburg," in compliment to Prince Leopold of Saxe Coburg (afterwards King of the Belgians), the husband of the Princess Charlotte. The first stone was laid by the prince, by proxy, in October of 1817, and the theatre was opened on Whit-Monday in the following May. No doubt, a desire on the part of dramatists and performers to escape from the vexatious restrictions then imposed by the Lord Chamberlain on theatres within his jurisdiction was largely instrumental in procuring the erection of this and of the Surrey Theatre. The builder of the structure was an ingenious carpenter, a Frenchman, named Cabanelle, who arranged it after the fashion of a minor French theatre, nearly circular in shape, decorating the interior with strong contrasts of colour. Few persons, in all probability, are aware that the foundations of the theatre are extensively composed of the stones of the old Savoy Palace in the Strand, which were cleared away in order to form Lancaster Place.[clxxix]
One of the few subscribers that came forward to back the scheme for building the Victoria Theatre, was one Serres, a marine painter, whose name became known to the world through a little piece of Court scandal. He made interest with Prince Leopold of Saxe Coburg, and the Princess Charlotte, in order to procure a licence for its establishment. "Dominic Serres and his two daughters," observes a writer in a newspaper, in January, 1837, "lived in a first floor, next to the fire-engine station, opposite to the stage-door of the Victoria Theatre. One died there: she was a short, dumpy woman; the younger was horribly deaf. Their niece, Johanna, daughter of J. T. Serres, and Olivia, Duchess of Lancaster, married, and has children living at the second or third house in Gibson Street. The surviving aunt has since gone to live with her." The attempt of the Serres family to obtain recognition of the title of Duchess of Lancaster was brought before a court of law, and finally exposed in 1870.[clxxx]
Royal Infirmary for Women and Children (Waterloo Road and Stamford Street)
This institution was originally established at St. Andrew's Hill, in the City, in 1816, but was removed to Lambeth in 1823. The Duke of Kent assisted in founding the infirmary, and the Queen had long been an annual subscriber; and the Prince of Wales, on whose estate as Duke of Cornwall the hospital stands, had allowed the committee to purchase the freehold on advantageous terms. In 1875, the building was enlarged and considerably improved. The institution, which was supported by donations and subscriptions, at first received children only, to whom it afforded relief for diseases of all kinds, from the time of birth until fourteen years of age, being open, in cases of emergency, to all first applications for admission without any recommendation. There were in 1877 fifty beds and cots in the hospital, and an asphalt playground on the roof for convalescent patients. During the preceding year, 232 in-patients (children) were received, and 6,550 out-patients (women and children) visited. There were, during the same period, 1,430 visits paid by the resident medical officer to sick children at home. In 1877, the Princess Louise (Marchioness of Lorne) formally re-opened the infirmary on the completion of the enlargement mentioned above, when one of the wards—hitherto known as the "Hamilton Ward," from having been founded at the expense of Mr. Francis Hamilton, one of the vice-presidents—was, at the request of that gentleman, re-named the "Louise Ward."[clxxxi]
The current Lombardic Renaissance-style hospital dates from a rebuilding of 1903 to 1905. On the rebuilding of the Hospital, the name of the Royal Waterloo Hospital for Children and Women was chosen. In 1948, the hospital became part of the National Health Service as one of the Saint Thomas' Hospital Group, providing beds for children, general medical and surgical, skin and psychiatric patients. It was also used for the training of medical students. The Royal Waterloo Hospital closed on July 27th, 1976.[clxxxii]
Battersea Power Station (West end of Cringle Street, west of Nine Elms Lane)
In the UK during the 1920s, electricity was supplied by numerous private companies who built small power stations for individual industries with some of the surplus power generated going to the public supply. There was a bewildering variety of incompatible systems, high cost and jealous competition between the numerous companies. This chaotic situation caused Parliament to decree that electricity generation should be a single unified system under public ownership. It was to be another 30 years before the electricity supply was nationalized.
In the interim the formation of the London Power Company was a response by private owners to delay the imposition of public ownership. Set up in 1925, it took up Parliament’s recommendation that electricity generation should be in fewer, larger power stations. This led directly to the building of the first super station, to produce 400,000 kilowatts, in Battersea. The proposal to build a large power station on the south bank of the River Thames at Battersea in 1927 caused a storm of protest that raged for years. Questions were raised in Parliament about pollution which might harm the paintings in the nearby Tate Gallery and the parks and "noble buildings of London".
Sir Giles Gilbert Scott was commissioned to design the building. His other buildings include Liverpool Cathedral, Bankside Power Station, Waterloo Bridge and the classic red telephone box.The building is in fact a steel girder frame and Sir Giles designed the exterior brick cladding and the tower-like bases of the four chimneys. It is the largest brick building in Europe.
In effect, Battersea is two power stations and the familiar silhouette of four chimneys did not appear until 1953 and for the first 20 years the building had a long rather than four-square appearance, with a chimney at each end. But even this appearance caused positive comments, described as a temple of power and to rank as a London landmark equal with St. Paul's Cathedral. In 1939, a survey of celebrities voted it their 2nd favorite building when canvassed by the Architects Journal.
The construction of 'B' Station was begun a few months after World War II to bring Battersea to a total capacity of 509 megawatts and the 3rd largest power station in the U.K. This huge project, begun by the London Power company 30 years before, was to be completed by the British Electric Authority when the electricity supply was nationalized in 1948. Battersea "B" station began operating in 1953 and had the highest thermal efficiency of all power stations and provided one fifth of London’s total electricity supplies, (28 other stations generated the rest).[clxxxiii]
The power station was shut down in 1983. The structure is currently listed as a Grade II by English Heritage and listed on their Heritage at Risk Register (http://www.english-heritage.org.uk/caring/heritage-at-risk). The water pumping station, built in 1846 is linked to development of Battersea Power Station. An application to demolish the pumping station was approved in November of 2010.
Before the construction of the power station, this was the site of the large works of the London Gas Company, established in 1833. Though situated on the south of the Thames, the company was not wrongly named, for its pipes were carried across Vauxhall Bridge, and extended over a considerable distance of Pimlico, which they supplied.[clxxxiv]
Nine Elms Pier (Kirtling Street, north of Cringle Street)
Nine Elms pier was so called from some lofty trees which formerly grew there but were cut down before the South-Western Railway marked the spot for its own. The South-Western Railway originally had its London terminus here, the line not being allowed to be brought direct into London; but upon the extension of the line to the Waterloo Road, in the year 1848, the old station was converted into a goods depot. The railway works here covered a vast extent of ground on either side of the main line, and gave employment to a large number of hands. Mr. T. Miller, in his "Picturesque Sketches of London" (1852), writes:—"Wandsworth had set out in good earnest to reach Lambeth, and would soon have been near the Nine Elms Station had not Government stopped its career by stepping in between them at Battersea Fields." [clxxxv]
Price’s Candle Factory (York Road and Plough Road)
Price's candle factory was for many years one of the most interesting sights in London. The works covered upwards of thirteen acres of ground, six of which were under cover, and they gave employment to about one thousand hands. [clxxxvi]
William Wilson and his partner discovered in 1830 a new raw material and a scientific process that would allow them to manufacture a candle gave a brighter cleaner light than tallow but was not as expensive as beeswax. The firm they set up, Edward Price and Company, would make candles from coconuts. Wilson took out a license on an 1829 patent for the hydraulic separation of coconut fats, the partners built a candle factory at Vauxhall on the Thames in South West London, a crushing mill just up river at Battersea and invested in 1,000 acres of coconut plantation in Sri Lanka. The initial results were not that impressive, but the infant company had a couple of good breaks: in 1831 candle tax was abolished and by 1835 it had developed better chemical processes to obtain solid fats.
Up until the 1970's, Price's had an international reputation for designing and manufacturing candle-making machinery; this ceased in 1980 and the engineering workshop space was vacated. Increasing production costs, the logistics of transporting raw materials into and goods out of a central London location and the increase in value of what is now a prime riverside location led the company to reconsider its position. In 1998, it relocated its UK candle manufacture to Bicester in Oxfordshire, and in 2001, Price’s Head Office moved to Bedford to join the Distribution Centre. On the original site, a Price’s retail shop remains, sharing the Wilsons' original Battersea site with elegant riverside apartment blocks and a heliport. [clxxxvii]
York House, which stood near the water-side, on the spot now occupied by Price's Candle Factory, and is kept in remembrance by York Road, is supposed to have been built about the year 1475 by Lawrence Booth, Bishop of Durham. The estate was annexed by him to the see of York, of which he was afterwards archbishop, as a residence for himself and his successors when they had occasion to be near the Court. [clxxxviii]
Christ Church (Union Grove, south of Wandsworth Road at Larkhall Park)
Christ Church, at South Battersea, is an elegant decorated structure; it was built by subscription, and opened in 1849. [clxxxix]
Lambeth Hospital (108 Landor Road) (South Western Hospital)
This hospital was built in 1869-70 by the Managers of the Metropolitan Asylum District under the provisions of the Metropolitan Poor Act, 1867, for the reception of patients suffering from fever and smallpox. It consists of two symmetrically arranged groups of stock brick buildings of two and three storys joined by a wide central corridor. The blocks run approximately east and west across the long site, which extends north and south, and are plain and unprepossessing. The original northerly group was designed by Thomas Henry Wyatt, and the southerly group by Frederick Marrable. William Howard was the contractor for both blocks.[cxc]
St. Andrew's C.E. Primary School (Lingham Street and Landor Road)
At a public meeting in 1815 it was decided to establish a school to be known as the Stockwell and Brixton Auxiliary Parochial School; it was to be managed on the Aladras system and on the principles of the Church of England in union with the National Society. The foundation stone was laid by the Archbishop of Canterbury on June 9th, 1818, and the school was opened on October 25th, 1818, with 150 boys and 100 girls. The cost of the building was 1,000 British pounds. The school was restored and enlarged at the end of the 19th century. The original hall is now in the centre of the group with later buildings flanking it on each side. The Lingham Street facade is of two storys in red brick with stone mullioned and transomed windows grouped in horizontal bands across the front; it is crowned with a heavily bracketed cornice and has swept parapets over its two terminal and two medial projections. An Infants' School was opened in 1838. [cxci]
Highview Primary School (Plough Road at St. Johns Hill)
This London School Board building dates from 1890. This institution began as the Battersea Grammar School in 1700.
Site of Royal Freemason’s School for Girls (Strath Terrace and Bolingbroke Grove)
This institution was founded in 1788, and was originally located in St. George's Fields; but was removed to this site on St. John's Hill in the 1870’s. It was established for the purpose of educating and maintaining the daughters of poor or deceased Freemasons. The school, which stands near Clapham Junction Station, and close by the side of the railway, was a red-brick building, of Gothic architecture, and was erected in 1852 from the designs of Mr. Philip Hardwicke; it was chiefly noticeable for its great central clock tower, and watch-towers at the corners. [cxcii] The Peabody Estate now occupies the site.
Battersea Bridge (Connecting Beaufort Street and Battersea Bridge Road at the Thames)
This structure known as Battersea Bridge connects the older portion of the parish with the oldest part of Chelsea. For more than a century prior to 1874—when certain alterations were effected upon it by its new proprietors, the Albert Bridge Company—this ancient timber obstruction, by custom and courtesy called abridge, had been an object almost of dread to all who were in the habit of navigating the above bridge portion of the "silent highway." The history of the bridge stretches away considerably into the past, and taken in connection with the ferry which it was built to supersede, and which belonged to the original proprietors of the bridge, it is directly traceable to the commencement of the seventeenth century. As a rule, river bridges have generally been preceded by ferries, and to this rule Battersea Bridge forms no exception. A ferry which preceded it was in full operation when James I came to the throne, and presumably belonged to the Crown, in as much as by royal letters patent, and for the sum of £40, the king gave "his dear relation Thomas, Earl of Lincoln, and John Eldred and Robert Henley, Esquires, all that ferry across the River Thames called Chelchehith Ferry, or Chelsey Ferry." Some adjacent lands were included in the grants, and the grantees had the power to convey their rights to "our very illustrious subject, William Blake." The Earl of Lincoln was the owner of Sir Thomas More's house in Chelsea, he having purchased it from Sir Robert Cecil. In 1618 the earl sold the ferry to William Blake, who also had a local interest in Chelsea, inasmuch as he owned Chelsea Park, which had once belonged to Sir Thomas More, and was at one time known as the Sand Hills. This park was sold by Blake to the Earl of Middlesex in 1620.
In 1766, Earl Spencer obtained an Act of Parliament which empowered him to build a bridge at his own expense at the ferry, and to secure land for the approaches. The tolls named in the Act are one halfpenny for foot passengers and four pence for a cart drawn by one horse. The framers of the Act appear to have contemplated the possibility of the bridge being only a fragile structure, as special powers are granted to the earl to sue watermen injuring it by boat or vessel. Provision is also made on behalf of the public by a clause which enacts that in the event of a tempest or unforeseen accident rendering the bridge "dangerous or impracticable," the earl shall provide a convenient ferry, charging the same tolls as on the bridge. The bridge, however, was not constructed until several years after the Act of Parliament had been obtained, and between the years 1765 and 1771 it is on record that the ferry produced an average rental of £42 per annum. In the latter year, Lord Spencer associated with himself seventeen gentlemen, each of whom was to pay £100 as a consideration for the fifteenth share in the ferry, and all the advantages conferred on the earl by the Act of 1766. They were also made responsible for a further payment of £900 each towards the construction of a bridge. A contract was entered into with Messrs. Phillips and Holland to build the bridge for £10,500. The works were at once commenced, and by the end of 1771 it was opened for foot passengers, and in the following year it was available for carriage traffic. Money had to be laid out in the formation of approach roads, so that at the end of 1773 the total amount expended was £15,662.
For many years the proprietors realized only a small return upon their capital, repairs and improvements absorbing nearly all the receipts. In the severe winter of 1795, considerable damage was done to the bridge by reason of the accumulated ice becoming attached to the piles, and drawing them on the rise of the tide; and in the last three years of the eighteenth century no dividends were distributed. In 1799, one side of the bridge was lighted with oil lamps, and it was the only wooden bridge across the Thames which at that time possessed such accommodation. In 1821, the dangerous wooden railing was replaced by a handrail of iron; and in 1824 the bridge was lighted with gas, the pipes being brought over from Chelsea, although Battersea remained unlighted by gas for several years afterwards.
Until 1873 the bridge remained in the hands of the descendants or friends of the original proprietors. In that year, however, the bridge came into the possession of the Albert Bridge Company. [cxciii] In 1890, a new wrought-iron bridge, designed by J.W. Bazalgette, was constructed.
St. Mary’s Church Battersea (Battersea Church Road, north of Westbridge Road)
The present church, occupying a fine situation on the river's brink, facing up stream, with a vestry window under the Church’s western portico, which was one of Turner's favorite points of observation, dates only from 1777, when it superseded the old church, said to have been a twin sister to Chelsea Old Church on the other side of the river. It is a poor building, with an ungraceful spire of greenish copper, but it must have looked meaner still before the Doric portico was added, in 1823. Five years after it came into use, there was celebrated at its altar the marriage of William Blake, the artist-mystic, to Catherine Boucher, the daughter of a Battersea market gardener. The painted glass in the east window was transferred from the old church, in which it was inserted in 1650 by the St. Johns, lords of the manor, by way of blazoning to the world their relationship with the Tudors: hence the portraits of Henry VII, Margaret Beauchamp, and Queen Elizabeth. Some of the old monuments in the old church were also preserved, among them that of Oliver St. John, Viscount Grandison, the first member of the family to settle at Battersea, and that of his descendant, Henry St. John, Viscount Bolingbroke, the statesman and political philosopher, Battersea’s most distinguished son, who was both baptized and buried in the old church in 1751. The monument, the work of Roubilliac, also commemorates Lord Bolingbroke's second wife, Mary, Marchioness of Villette, niece of Madame Maintenon. Another monument, reared to the glorification of Sir Edward Wynter, an officer of the East India Company in the reign of Charles II, is a remarkable specimen of the latitude exercised by the writers of tombstone literature.[cxciv]
"Alone, unarm'd, a tiger he oppressed,
And crushed to death the monster of a beast;
Twice twenty Moors he also overthrew
Singly on foot; some wounded; some he slew;
Dispersed the rest. What more could Sampson do?"
Henry St. John was born at Battersea in 1678 and was educated at Eton, where he became acquainted with Sir Robert Walpole, and where a rivalship was commenced which lasted through life. At an early age he was distinguished for his talents, fascinating manners, and remarkable personal beauty; and he left college only to continue a course of the wildest profligacy. On his elevation to the peerage, in 1712, his father's congratulation on his new honors was something of the oddest:—"Ah, Harry!" said he, "I ever said you would be hanged; but now I find you will be beheaded!" Three years later, having been impeached for high treason, Bolingbroke fled to Calais; and shortly afterwards, by invitation of Charles Stuart, he visited him at Lorraine, and accepted the post of his Secretary of State, which caused his impeachment and attainder. In 1723, he was permitted to return home, and his estates were restored to him; but the House of Lords was still closed against him. In 1736, he again visited France, and resided there until the death of his father, when he retired to the family seat here for the rest of his life. He died of a cancer in the face in 1751. [cxcv]
Battersea Park (Along the Thames, between Albert Bridge and Chelsea Bridge)
Battersea Park was laid out on the former Battersea Fields. In the 1850’s, the locality was one of the darkest and dreariest spots in the suburbs of London. A flat and unbroken wilderness of some 300 acres, it was the resort of costermongers and "roughs," and those prowling vagabonds who call themselves "gipsies." The week-day scenes here were bad enough; but on Sundays they were positively disgraceful, and to a great extent the police were powerless, for the place was a sort of "no man's land," on which ruffianism claimed to riot uncontrolled by any other authority than its own will. Pugilistic encounters, dog-fights, and the rabble coarseness of a country fair in its worst aspect were "as common as blackberries in the autumn." But at length the "strong arm of the law" interfered, and the weekly "fair"—if such it might be called—was abolished by the magistrates in May of 1852.
Duels have sometimes been fought in Battersea Fields, the lonely character of the neighbourhood causing it to be selected for this special purpose. One of the most noted of these "affairs of honour" took place in 1829. In that year, the Duke of Wellington got into "hot water" for the part he had taken in the passing of the Catholic Relief Bill. Abuse fell upon him fast and furious; and the young Earl of Winchilsea—one of the leaders of the anti-Catholic party—went so far as to publish a violent attack on his personal character. The duke having vainly endeavored to induce the earl to retract his charges, sent him a challenge, and the combatants met in Battersea Fields on the 21st of March, but fortunately separated without injury to either. Lord Winchilsea, after escaping the duke's shot, fired in the air, and then tendered the apology which ought to have been made at the outset.
The park, which was opened to the public in 1858, contains about 185 acres ornamentally laid out with trees, shrubs, flower-plots, and a sheet of water. For the land £246,500 was paid, and the laying-out made the total cost amount to £312,000. The Avenue is one of the principal features, and forms the chief promenade of the park. The trees are English elms. [cxcvi]
Lambeth Palace (Lambeth Palace Road at Lambeth Bridge)
Lambeth Palace (or as it was originally called the Manor of Lambeth or Lambeth House) has been the London residence of the Archbishop of Canterbury for nearly eight hundred years. The south bank of the Thames was an attractive choice for the location of an Archbishop's Palace, with its proximity to Westminster and the Royal Court.
Stephen Langton is thought to have been the first Archbishop to live at Lambeth in the thirteenth century. Prior to this it was traditional for the Archbishop to live in Canterbury. Langton's Chapel, and below it the Crypt, form the oldest part of Lambeth Palace today. All of the other buildings that exist within the Palace grounds have been added, expanded and altered over the centuries to suit changes in fashion and purpose.
While the Archbishop's residence at Lambeth had a great entrance from the 1320's, the imposing gateway - Morton's Tower - that can be seen today was not built until 1490. Morton's Tower is still used as the main entrance into Lambeth Palace although this, the Guard Room, the Chapel and Crypt are the only sections of Lambeth Palace that have survived from this time.
The Great Hall at Lambeth Palace currently houses much of the Lambeth Palace Library. It has been built and re-built many times over the centuries, not least as a result of damage during the English Civil War and the London blitz.[cxcvii]
Battersea Polytechnic Institute (Battersea Park Road, between MacDuff Road and Forfar Road)
Designed by Mr. Edward Mountford, the architect, of the Town Hall, and opened in 1892, the Polytechnic occupies the site of the Albert Palace, which was an even more conspicuous failure than the Alexandra Palace on the other side of London. It was because the Prince Consort had favored the idea of re-erecting the Exhibition building of 1851 in Battersea Park that this ill-starred undertaking-built on land bought from the Government, a little to the south of the park, with the materials of a Dublin Exhibition-was named after him. It was opened in 1885, with the Connaught Hall for its chief feature. Three years later it was closed, and was allowed to cumber the earth, a melancholy ruin, until at last it was pulled down.
The forerunner of the University of Surrey, the Battersea Polytechnic Institute was founded in 1891 and first admitted students in 1894. The school began concentrating on science and technology from about 1920 and taught day and evening students for degrees of the University of London. Its academic reputation steadily grew to the point in 1956 where it was one of the first colleges to be designated a 'college of advanced technology'. It was renamed Battersea College of Technology in 1957.
By the beginning of the 1960s, the College had virtually outgrown its main building in Battersea Park Road and in 1962 it had already decided to move to Guildford. Shortly afterwards, in 1963, the Robbins Report proposed that Battersea College, along with the other colleges of advanced technology, should expand and become a university awarding its own degrees. The green field site for the University-designate was acquired from Guildford Cathedral, Guildford Borough Council and the Onslow Village Trust in 1965, and the move from Battersea was completed in 1970.[cxcviii]
Horatio Myers and Company Factory (Vauxhall Walk and Jonathan Street)
Horatio Myer founded this business in 1876. It employed 19 people and had an annual turnover of £6,000. Through the reign of Queen Victoria into the 20th Century and through two world wars, Myer’s continued to grow and prosper. From the iron bedsteads of the Victorian era to the first divan beds, Myer’s were at the forefront of bed design and technology. In 1962, the Huntingdon site was opened, employing 70 people and producing 750 bed sets a week. From 1962 to 1982, Huntingdon and Vauxhall continued to manufacture beds and other furniture including display cabinets and coffee tables. In 1982, the Vauxhall plant was closed and all production was transferred to Huntingdon.[cxcix]
Site of Vauxhall Walk Wesleyan Chapel and School (Southwest corner of Vauxhall Walk and Jonathan Street)
The Chapel, which stood back from the road, was built in yellow-stock brick in Gothic style with lancet windows. The approach was flanked by the Boys' and Girls' Schools of rag-stone. Tablets in the gables stated that the Chapel and Boys' and Girls' Schools were built respectively in 1841, 1849 and 1852.[cc]
Adelaide Lodge (47 Tulse Hill)
On the east side of the road the only surviving example of early buildings in this area is No. 47, formerly No. 13 and known as Adelaide Lodge, later occupied by Sir Henry Tate's Nurses' Home, which was probably erected about 1824. It is a two-story stock brick building with a semi-basement, and has been much altered and enlarged.[cci]
10 Downing Street, 51.503407, -0.1278032
22 Brompton Square, 51.497881, -0.1689151
25 Knightsbridge, 51.502676, -0.1538757
Adelaide Lodge, 51.453775, -0.1130636
Aged Pilgrims' Friend Asylum, 51.476537, -0.082441
Albert Bridge, 51.482377, -0.16677
Aldgate Pump, 51.513174, -0.0777977
Alexandra Palace, 51.593439, -0.1308657
Bag O' Nails, 51.498172, -0.1440854
Barnard's Inn, 51.517839, -0.1094528
Battersea Bridge, 51.481035, -0.1724547
Battersea Park, 51.478965, -0.1572492
Battersea Polytechnic Institute, 51.475307, -0.1525985
Battersea Power Station, 51.48168, -0.1444654
Beehive Tavern, 51.486533, -0.0986901
Belgrave Square, 51.499227, -0.1534895
Bell Yard, 51.513738, -0.1115838
Blythe House, 51.496488, -0.2138506
Bromley Recreation Ground, 51.526629, -0.013323
Brompton Church, 51.496857, -0.1687212
Brook Green, 51.496051, -0.2194873
Brook's Club, 51.506781, -0.1395682
Brunel's Thames Tunnel, 51.504366, -0.0560634
Brunswick Wharf, 51.508366, 0.00250569
Bull and Last Inn, 51.558796, -0.1485687
Camberwell Grove, 51.468081, -0.0846621
Camberwell House Asylum, 51.473805, -0.080172
Camberwell Library No. 1, 51.481943, -0.0622987
Cambridge House, 51.50563, -0.1451956
Canonbury Tower, 51.544238, -0.0987727
Charles Aston Key House, 51.504875, -0.0886387
Charles Lefevre House, 51.519676, -0.1296067
Chelsea Bridge, 51.484566, -0.1498191
Chelsea Embankment, 51.483193, -0.1672101
Chelsea Physic Garden, 51.484959, -0.1626176
Christ Church, 51.472145, -0.1322607
Christ Church Greyfriars Garden, 51.515708, -0.0990779
Christ Church of England-Old Kent Road, 51.482059, -0.06276
Church of the Holy Trinity, 51.494651, -0.2163736
Cocoa Tree, 51.506357, -0.139397
Craven Hill Gardens, 51.512706, -0.1825532
Cremorne Gardens, 51.479805, -0.1786707
Cromwell House, 51.56969, -0.1430473
Dalling Row, 51.493045, -0.2354384
Downing St, London SW1A 2, 51.503134, -0.1261946
Dr. Johnson House, 51.515066, -0.1081459
Ebury Bridge, 51.490351, -0.1488227
Elephant & Castle, 51.495245, -0.1005941
Euston Station, 51.528822, -0.1343332
Fairseat, 51.570039, -0.1447541
Finsbury Park, 51.570476, -0.0962962
Fulham Palace, 51.471609, -0.216672
Fulham Palace Road Cemetery, 51.480061, -0.216382
Glen Terrace, 51.500374, -0.0094119
Grand Union Canal, 51.522685, -0.2014451
Grove Terrace, London NW5 1, 51.556959, -0.1464366
Gunpowder Square, London EC4A 3, 51.515165, -0.107321
Hampstead Road Bridge, 51.541284, -0.145013
Haymarket Theatre, 51.508393, -0.130762
Henry Wood Hall, 51.498458, -0.0939696
High View Primary School, 51.461845, -0.1745263
Highgate Archway, 51.570616, -0.1383336
Highgate Cemetery, 51.565708, -0.1450774
Highgate Infirmary, 51.567119, -0.1424342
Highgate School, 51.571449, -0.14959
Holland House, 51.502505, -0.203632
Holly Village, 51.562737, -0.1463498
Horatio Myers Factory, 51.490037, -0.1202662
Hoxton Hall, 51.531759, -0.0801582
Ireton House, 51.569735, -0.1431391
Isle House, 51.503427, -0.0073266
Islington Workhouse, 51.570093, -0.128646
Jacob's Island, 51.500791, -0.0689172
Kensington Church, 51.502167, -0.1915392
Kensington Palace, 51.50519, -0.1881042
Lambeth Hospital, 51.466411, -0.1239407
Lambeth Palace, 51.494965, -0.1204764
Lauderdale House, 51.569492, -0.1437663
Licensed Victuallers' Asylum, 51.479351, -0.0604662
Limehouse Cut, 51.512341, -0.0316201
Lincoln's Inn, 51.516152, -0.1146278
London & Northwestern Railway, 51.543316, -0.151612
London City & Midland Bank Bldg, 51.513915, -0.1025894
Marlborough House, 51.504722, -0.1361038
Nazareth House, 51.493339, -0.2170359
Nelson House, 51.503291, -0.0074106
Nicholas Clagett House, 51.500487, -0.1333966
Nine Elms Pier, 51.482701, -0.1380902
Old Kent Road, 51.493571, -0.084698
Orme Square, 51.51038, -0.189731
Parliament Hill, 51.559858, -0.1566821
Paterson House, 51.500484, -0.1335494
People's Palace, 51.522969, -0.0400077
Port of London Authority Building, 51.509967, -0.0779891
Preston's Road, 51.503677, -0.0079425
Price's Candle Factory, 51.467265, -0.1782512
Ratcliffe Highway, 51.50909, -0.0674967
Royal Infirmary for Women and Children, 51.505306, -0.113281
Sir Samuel Wilks House, 51.505172, -0.0893762
Site of Alexandra Orphanage, 51.57106, -0.1280123
Site of Army Clothing Depot, 51.485563, -0.1356438
Site of Baynard's Castle, 51.511077, -0.1024424
Site of Bedford Arms, 51.536687, -0.140726
Site of Black Bull Tavern, 51.51786, -0.1085088
Site of Black Friars, 51.512798, -0.1018013
Site of Bricklayers' Arms Station, 51.494381, -0.0855765
Site of Burlington House, 51.470724, -0.2096993
Site of Campden House, 51.504728, -0.1956207
Site of Canal Dockyard, 51.500706, -0.0082815
Site of Carlton House, 51.506402, -0.1317239
Site of Cheapside Cross, 51.514222, -0.094664
Site of Cheapside Standard, 51.513946, -0.0931369
Site of Counters Bridge and Creek, 51.49616, -0.2076855
Site of Craven Cottage, 51.474601, -0.2203001
Site of Curtain Theatre, 51.523156, -0.0790277
Site of Fisher House, 51.538698, -0.0988358
Site of Fulham Workhouse, 51.48767, -0.221555
Site of Grove Hill Estate, 51.46579, -0.0823454
Site of Holcroft's, 51.472019, -0.2106322
Site of Horsemonger Lane Gaol, 51.49837, -0.0959055
Site of Kensington Gravel Pits, 51.510398, -0.1867495
Site of King's Arms Tavern, 51.505753, -0.054298
Site of Knightsbridge, 51.502259, -0.158424
Site of Lalla Rookh House, 51.588224, -0.1353848
Site of Lud Gate, 51.51399, -0.102475
Site of Monster Tavern, 51.489507, -0.1459697
Site of Mother Red Cap Pub, 51.539122, -0.1423309
Site of Munster House, 51.474529, -0.207604
Site of Old Swan Inn, 51.484149, -0.160821
Site of Pears Soap Store, 51.516637, -0.128396
Site of Peterboro House, 51.473822, -0.1965386
Site of Pier Hotel, 51.483579, -0.1675405
Site of Portobello Farm, 51.521012, -0.2096084
Site of Royal Freemason's School for Girls, 51.461538, -0.1711372
Site of Smith & Barber Factory, 51.501699, -0.165565
Site of St Marys Church, 51.587596, -0.1158618
Site of St. Barnabas Orphanage, 51.490027, -0.152753
Site of St. Matthew's Church, 51.534996, -0.1360002
Site of St. Thomas More's Residence, 51.483463, -0.1749014
Site of Tattersall's Yard, 51.501139, -0.1625032
Site of the South Metropolitan Gas Company, 51.481543, -0.061294
Site of Vauxhall Walk Wesleyan Chapel, 51.489883, -0.1198389
St. Andrews Primary School, 51.467654, -0.121138
St. Barnabas-Pimlico Church, 51.490511, -0.1519429
St. George's Hospital, 51.502649, -0.1524996
St. George's Square, 51.488459, -0.1351677
St. James Square, 51.507208, -0.1352953
St. John's Church, 51.504377, -0.1120901
St. Joseph's Almshouses, 51.494507, -0.2161408
St. Luke's Church, 51.485525, -0.1640398
St. Mary le Bow Church, 51.513782, -0.0933814
St. Mary's Church Battersea, 51.476503, -0.175437
St. Paul's Cathedral, 51.513799, -0.0983839
St. Paul's Church Shadwell, 51.509639, -0.0515436
St. Petersburg Place, 51.512334, -0.1909822
Statue of Richard Cobden, 51.534744, -0.1388383
Surrey Gardens, 51.486178, -0.100789
The Crab Tree, 51.481882, -0.2232244
The Gate House, 51.571412, -0.1500663
The Golden Lion, 51.469782, -0.2101042
The Grove, 51.569615, -0.1517182
The Grove House, 51.472302, -0.0881272
The Gun Public House, 51.501832, -0.0077466
Thomas A Becket Pub, 51.487964, -0.0765925
Thomas Carlyle House, 51.483999, -0.1696678
Thomas Hood House, 51.478132, -0.1030081
Tower Hill, 51.509575, -0.074175
Tower of All Hallows Staining Church, 51.5116, -0.0804088
Tower of London, 51.508086, -0.0760674
Victoria Palace Theatre, 51.502171, -0.1095254
Watergate, 51.508086, -0.1229688
Whitbread Brewery Building, 51.520913, -0.0909997
White's Club, 51.507426, -0.1402985
William Dodd House, 51.500729, -0.13155
[i] National Magazine, vol. 35, 1912; pg. 704-705.
[ii] ‘The Parish of St. Giles-In-The-Fields (Part II)’, Survey of London, Volume V; Sir Laurence Gomme and Philip Norman; London City Council, Spring Gardens, London, 1914; pg. 158
[iii] 'Lincoln's Inn', Old and New London: Volume 3 (1878), pp. 51-58: http://www.british-history.ac.uk/report.aspx?compid=45132
[iv] Scribner’s Magazine Guide-Twelve Short Excursions Around London; Charles Scribner’s Sons, 1910: pg. 35
[v] Barnard’s Inn Hall; Gresham College; http://www.gresham.ac.uk/about-us/barnards-inn-hall/barnards-inn-hall
[vi] National Magazine, vol. 35, 1912; pg. 724.
[vii] 'Ludgate Hill', Old and New London: Volume 1 (1878), pp. 220-233: http://www.british-history.ac.uk/report.aspx?compid=45038
[viii]'Ludgate Hill', Old and New London: Volume 1 (1878), pp. 220-233: http://www.british-history.ac.uk/report.aspx?compid=45038
[ix] 'Baynard's Castle-Bear Alley, London Wall', A Dictionary of London (1918): http://www.british-history.ac.uk/report.aspx?compid=63021
[x] 'Cheapside: The central area', Old and New London: Volume 1 (1878), pp. 332-346: http://www.british-history.ac.uk/report.aspx?compid=45047
[xi] 'Black Dog Alley - Black Horse Yard', A Dictionary of London (1918): http://www.british-history.ac.uk/report.aspx?compid=63034
[xii] Scribner’s Magazine Guide-Twelve Short Excursions Around London; Charles Scribner’s Sons, 1910: pg. 33.
[xiii] City parish churches: Christ Church Newgate Street (remains); geograph; http://www.geograph.org.uk/photo/559749
[xiv] Brewery, Conservation Area Character Study; http://www.cityoflondon.gov.uk/NR/rdonlyres/FFC808DD-1CEE-4814-BCEB-06E5977F1C8F/0/DP_PL_BreweryCA.pdf
[xv] 'Cheapside: The central area', Old and New London: Volume 1 (1878), pp. 332-346: http://www.british-history.ac.uk/report.aspx?compid=45047
[xvi] 'Cheapside: The central area', Old and New London: Volume 1 (1878), pp. 332-346: http://www.british-history.ac.uk/report.aspx?compid=45047
[xvii] 'Cheapside: The central area', Old and New London: Volume 1 (1878), pp. 332-346: http://www.british-history.ac.uk/report.aspx?compid=45047
[xviii] Pump of Death; Spitalfields Life; The Gentle Author, March 9th, 2011; http://spitalfieldslife.com/2011/03/09/the-pump-of-death/
[xix] Scribner’s Magazine Guide-Twelve Short Excursions Around London; Charles Scribner’s Sons, 1910: pg. 40.
[xx] Scribner’s Magazine Guide-Twelve Short Excursions Around London; Charles Scribner’s Sons, 1910: pg. 40.
[xxi] ‘The Parish of St. Leonard, Shoreditch’, Survey of London, Volume VIII; Sir James Bird and Philip Norman; London County Council, B.T. Batsford, Ltd. 1922; pg. 61
[xxii] Marie Lloyd: Locations-Hoxton Hall; Richard Armitage Online.com; http://www.richardarmitageonline.com/marie-lloyd/marie-lloyd-locations-hoxton.html
[xxiii] ‘The Parish of St. Leonard, Shoreditch’, Survey of London, Volume VIII; Sir James Bird and Philip Norman; London County Council, B.T. Batsford, Ltd. 1922; pg. 191
[xxiv] 10 Trinity Square; Estates Gazette; http://www.estatesgazette.com/talkingproperty/wikis/london/10-trinity-square.aspx
[xxv] “The Cane That Wounded Royalty”, New York Times, January 15th, 1899.
[xxvi] Scribner’s Magazine Guide-Twelve Short Excursions Around London; Charles Scribner’s Sons, 1910: pg. 29.
[xxvii] Cox, Montagu H., Norman, P; Survey of London, Volume X, The Parish of St. Margaret, Westminster Part I; B.T. Batsford, Ltd., 1926; pg.
[xxviii] Cox, Montagu H., Norman, P; Survey of London, Volume X, The Parish of St. Margaret, Westminster Part I; B.T. Batsford, Ltd., 1926; pg.
[xxix] Cox, Montagu H., Norman, P; Survey of London, Volume X, The Parish of St. Margaret, Westminster Part I; B.T. Batsford, Ltd., 1926; pg.
[xxx] Survey of London, Volume XIV, pg. 106-112
[xxxi] Survey of London, Volume XIV, pg. 113-121
[xxxii] Carlton House Terrace; The Royal Society; http://royalsociety.org/about-us/history/carlton-house-terrace/
[xxxiii] Scribner’s Magazine Guide-Twelve Short Excursions Around London; Charles Scribner’s Sons, 1910: pg. 21
[xxxiv] Scribner’s Magazine Guide-Twelve Short Excursions Around London; Charles Scribner’s Sons, 1910: pg. 43-44.
[xxxv] 'St. James's Street, East Side', Survey of London: volumes 29 and 30: St James Westminster, Part 1 (1960), pp. 433-458.
[xxxvi] 'St. James's Street, West Side, Past Buildings', Survey of London: volumes 29 and 30: St James Westminster, Part 1 (1960), pp. 459-471.
[xxxvii] Scribner’s Magazine Guide-Twelve Short Excursions Around London; Charles Scribner’s Sons, 1910: pg. 41.
[xxxviii] Scribner’s Magazine Guide-Twelve Short Excursions Around London; Charles Scribner’s Sons, 1910: pg. 42.
[xxxix] Scribner’s Magazine Guide-Twelve Short Excursions Around London; Charles Scribner’s Sons, 1910: pg. 43.
[xl] Scribner’s Magazine Guide-Twelve Short Excursions Around London; Charles Scribner’s Sons, 1910: pg. 43-44.
[xli] The Ratcliffe Highway Murders, December 1811; Thames Police; http://www.thamespolicemuseum.org.uk/h_ratcliffehighwaymurders_1.html
[xlii] The Ratcliffe Highway Murders, December 1811; Thames Police; http://www.thamespolicemuseum.org.uk/h_ratcliffehighwaymurders_3.html
[xliii] 'Shadwell', The Environs of London: volume 3: County of Middlesex (1795), pp. 383-390: http://www.british-history.ac.uk/report.aspx?compid=45444
[xliv] 'Brunswick Wharf', Survey of London: volumes 43 and 44: Poplar, Blackwall and Isle of Dogs (1994), pp. 593-600: http://www.british-history.ac.uk/report.aspx?compid=46538&strquery=
[xlv]'Limehouse', The Environs of London: volume 3: County of Middlesex (1795), pp. 236-241: http://www.british-history.ac.uk/report.aspx?compid=45437
[xlvi] 'Tudor House, St. Leonard's Street', Survey of London: volume 1: Bromley-by-Bow (1900), pp. 21-23: http://www.british-history.ac.uk/report.aspx?compid=74444
[xlvii] 'Southern Blackwall: The Canal Dockyard area', Survey of London: volumes 43 and 44: Poplar, Blackwall and Isle of Dogs (1994), pp. 601-607: http://www.british-history.ac.uk/report.aspx?compid=46539
[xlviii] 'Southern Blackwall: The Canal Dockyard area', Survey of London: volumes 43 and 44: Poplar, Blackwall and Isle of Dogs (1994), pp. 601-607: http://www.british-history.ac.uk/report.aspx?compid=46539
[xlix] 'Southern Blackwall: Coldharbour', Survey of London: volumes 43 and 44: Poplar, Blackwall and Isle of Dogs (1994), pp. 607-624: http://www.british-history.ac.uk/report.aspx?compid=46540
[l] 'Southern Blackwall: Coldharbour', Survey of London: volumes 43 and 44: Poplar, Blackwall and Isle of Dogs (1994), pp. 607-624: http://www.british-history.ac.uk/report.aspx?compid=46540
[li] 'Southern Blackwall: Coldharbour', Survey of London: volumes 43 and 44: Poplar, Blackwall and Isle of Dogs (1994), pp. 607-624: http://www.british-history.ac.uk/report.aspx?compid=46540
[lii] 'Southern Blackwall: Coldharbour', Survey of London: volumes 43 and 44: Poplar, Blackwall and Isle of Dogs (1994), pp. 607-624: http://www.british-history.ac.uk/report.aspx?compid=46540
[liii] Scribner’s Magazine Guide-Twelve Short Excursions Around London; Charles Scribner’s Sons, 1910: pg. 46
[liv] 'Canonbury', Old and New London: Volume 2 (1878), pp. 269-273: http://www.british-history.ac.uk/report.aspx?compid=45096&strquery=canonbury tower
[lv] 'Islington', Old and New London: Volume 2 (1878), pp. 251-268: http://www.british-history.ac.uk/report.aspx?compid=45095&strquery=
[lvi] 'Highgate: Part 1 of 2', Old and New London: Volume 5 (1878), pp. 389-405: http://www.british-history.ac.uk/report.aspx?compid=45245
[lvii] TQ2987: Highgate: Archway Bridge; geograph; http://www.geograph.org.uk/photo/513791
[lviii] 'Highgate: Part 1 of 2', Old and New London: Volume 5 (1878), pp. 389-405: http://www.british-history.ac.uk/report.aspx?compid=45245
[lix] 'Highgate: Part 1 of 2', Old and New London: Volume 5 (1878), pp. 389-405: http://www.british-history.ac.uk/report.aspx?compid=45245
[lx] WMHD Walks-Health and Medicine Trails Route 1; Islington NHS; www.islington.nhs.uk/icope_Docs/NORTH%20MAP.pdf
[lxi] 'Highgate: Part 1 of 2', Old and New London: Volume 5 (1878), pp. 389-405: http://www.british-history.ac.uk/report.aspx?compid=45245
[lxii] 'Highgate: Part 1 of 2', Old and New London: Volume 5 (1878), pp. 389-405: http://www.british-history.ac.uk/report.aspx?compid=45245
[lxiii] 'Hornsey, including Highgate: Buildings of Highgate', A History of the County of Middlesex: Volume 6: Friern Barnet, Finchley, Hornsey with Highgate (1980), pp. 135-140: http://www.british-history.ac.uk/report.aspx?compid=22520
[lxiv] 'Highgate: Part 1 of 2', Old and New London: Volume 5 (1878), pp. 389-405: http://www.british-history.ac.uk/report.aspx?compid=45245
[lxv] 'Highgate: Part 1 of 2', Old and New London: Volume 5 (1878), pp. 389-405: http://www.british-history.ac.uk/report.aspx?compid=45245
[lxvi] 'Hornsey, including Highgate: Buildings of Highgate', A History of the County of Middlesex: Volume 6: Friern Barnet, Finchley, Hornsey with Highgate (1980), pp. 135-140: http://www.british-history.ac.uk/report.aspx?compid=22520
[lxvii] 'Highgate: Part 2 of 2', Old and New London: Volume 5 (1878), pp. 405-428: http://www.british-history.ac.uk/report.aspx?compid=45246
[lxviii] 'Highgate: Part 2 of 2', Old and New London: Volume 5 (1878), pp. 405-428: http://www.british-history.ac.uk/report.aspx?compid=45246
[lxix] 'Highgate: Part 2 of 2', Old and New London: Volume 5 (1878), pp. 405-428: http://www.british-history.ac.uk/report.aspx?compid=45246
[lxx] 'Highgate: Part 2 of 2', Old and New London: Volume 5 (1878), pp. 405-428: http://www.british-history.ac.uk/report.aspx?compid=45246
[lxxi] 'Highgate: Part 2 of 2', Old and New London: Volume 5 (1878), pp. 405-428: http://www.british-history.ac.uk/report.aspx?compid=45246
[lxxii] 'Hornsey', Old and New London: Volume 5 (1878), pp. 428-437: http://www.british-history.ac.uk/report.aspx?compid=45247Ire
[lxxiii] 'Hornsey', Old and New London: Volume 5 (1878), pp. 428-437: http://www.british-history.ac.uk/report.aspx?compid=45247Ire
[lxxiv] History of Hornsey Parish Church; St. Marys with St. George Hornsey Parish Church; http://hornseyparishchurch.co.uk/about-us/history-of-hornsey-parish/
[lxxv] 'Hornsey', Old and New London: Volume 5 (1878), pp. 428-437: http://www.british-history.ac.uk/report.aspx?compid=45247Ire
[lxxvi] 'Hornsey', Old and New London: Volume 5 (1878), pp. 428-437: http://www.british-history.ac.uk/report.aspx?compid=45247Ire
[lxxvii] 'Hornsey, including Highgate: Growth from the mid 19th century', A History of the County of Middlesex: Volume 6: Friern Barnet, Finchley, Hornsey with Highgate (1980), pp. 111-122: http://www.british-history.ac.uk/report.aspx?compid=22518&strquery=lalla rookh
[lxxviii] 'Hornsey', Old and New London: Volume 5 (1878), pp. 428-437: http://www.british-history.ac.uk/report.aspx?compid=45247Ire
[lxxix] Volume XIX, Old St. Pancras and Kentish Town (The Parish of St. Pancras, Part II); County Council Survey of London, Sir George Gater and Walter H. Godfrey; London County Council, 1938, pg. 35-36
[lxxx] Volume XIX, pg. 36-37
[lxxxi] 'Camden Town and Kentish Town', Old and New London: Volume 5 (1878), pp. 309-324: http://www.british-history.ac.uk/report.aspx?compid=45239
[lxxxii] 'Camden Town and Kentish Town', Old and New London: Volume 5 (1878), pp. 309-324: http://www.british-history.ac.uk/report.aspx?compid=45239
[lxxxiii] 'Camden Town and Kentish Town', Old and New London: Volume 5 (1878), pp. 309-324: http://www.british-history.ac.uk/report.aspx?compid=45239
[lxxxiv] 'Camden Town and Kentish Town', Old and New London: Volume 5 (1878), pp. 309-324: http://www.british-history.ac.uk/report.aspx?compid=45239
[lxxxv] 'Euston Station and railway works', Survey of London: volume 21: The parish of St Pancras part 3: Tottenham Court Road & neighbourhood (1949), pp. 107-114: http://www.british-history.ac.uk/report.aspx?compid=65189&strquery=camden lock
[lxxxvi] 'Euston Station and railway works', Survey of London: volume 21: The parish of St Pancras part 3: Tottenham Court Road & neighbourhood (1949), pp. 107-114: http://www.british-history.ac.uk/report.aspx?compid=65189&strquery=camden lock
[lxxxvii] 'Paddington: Communications', A History of the County of Middlesex: Volume 9: Hampstead, Paddington (1989), pp. 174-181: http://www.british-history.ac.uk/report.aspx?compid=22660&strquery=camden lock
[lxxxviii] 'The western suburbs: Knightsbridge', Old and New London: Volume 5 (1878), pp. 15-28: http://www.british-history.ac.uk/report.aspx?compid=45219&strquery=knightsbridge
[lxxxix] 'The western suburbs: Knightsbridge', Old and New London: Volume 5 (1878), pp. 15-28: http://www.british-history.ac.uk/report.aspx?compid=45219&strquery=knightsbridge
[xc] 'The western suburbs: Knightsbridge', Old and New London: Volume 5 (1878), pp. 15-28: http://www.british-history.ac.uk/report.aspx?compid=45219&strquery=knightsbridge
[xci] 'The western suburbs: Knightsbridge', Old and New London: Volume 5 (1878), pp. 15-28: http://www.british-history.ac.uk/report.aspx?compid=45219&strquery=knightsbridge
[xcii] 'The western suburbs: Knightsbridge', Old and New London: Volume 5 (1878), pp. 15-28: http://www.british-history.ac.uk/report.aspx?compid=45219&strquery=knightsbridge
[xciii] 'The western suburbs: Knightsbridge', Old and New London: Volume 5 (1878), pp. 15-28: http://www.british-history.ac.uk/report.aspx?compid=45219&strquery=knightsbridge
[xciv] ‘The western suburbs: Belgravia', Old and New London: Volume 5 (1878), pp. 1-14: http://www.british-history.ac.uk/report.aspx?compid=45218
[xcv] ‘The western suburbs: Belgravia', Old and New London: Volume 5 (1878), pp. 1-14: http://www.british-history.ac.uk/report.aspx?compid=45218
[xcvi] ‘The western suburbs: Belgravia', Old and New London: Volume 5 (1878), pp. 1-14: http://www.british-history.ac.uk/report.aspx?compid=45218
[xcvii] 'Knightsbridge South Side: East of Sloane Street: Hyde Park Corner to Wilton Place', Survey of London: volume 45: Knightsbridge (2000), pp. 21-28: http://www.british-history.ac.uk/report.aspx?compid=45896
[xcviii] ‘The western suburbs: Belgravia', Old and New London: Volume 5 (1878), pp. 1-14: http://www.british-history.ac.uk/report.aspx?compid=45218
[xcix] 'Hammersmith', Old and New London: Volume 6 (1878), pp. 529-548: http://www.british-history.ac.uk/report.aspx?compid=45297
[c] Our History; Nazareth House Care Home and Children’s Nursery; http://www.nazarethhouselancaster.co.uk/history.html
[ci] 'Hammersmith', Old and New London: Volume 6 (1878), pp. 529-548: http://www.british-history.ac.uk/report.aspx?compid=45297
[cii] 'Hammersmith', Old and New London: Volume 6 (1878), pp. 529-548: http://www.british-history.ac.uk/report.aspx?compid=45297
[ciii] 'Counter's Bridge and Creek', Survey of London: volume 6: Hammersmith (1915), pp. 122: http://www.british-history.ac.uk/report.aspx?compid=98080
[civ] 'Hammersmith', Old and New London: Volume 6 (1878), pp. 529-548: http://www.british-history.ac.uk/report.aspx?compid=45297
[cv] P.O. Savings Bank; The British Postal Museum and Archive; http://postalheritage.org.uk/page/savingsbank
[cvi] 'Hammersmith', Old and New London: Volume 6 (1878), pp. 529-548: http://www.british-history.ac.uk/report.aspx?compid=45297
[cvii] 'Counter's Bridge and Creek', Survey of London: volume 6: Hammersmith (1915), pp. 122: http://www.british-history.ac.uk/report.aspx?compid=98080
[cviii] ‘The Parish of Hammersmith’, Survey of London: Volume 6: James Bird and Philip Norman; London County Council, Spring Gardens, London, 1915; pg. 115
[cix] 'Fulham', The Environs of London: volume 2: County of Middlesex (1795), pp. 344-424: http://www.british-history.ac.uk/report.aspx?compid=45415&strquery=Fulham
[cx] 'Fulham: Introduction', Old and New London: Volume 6 (1878), pp. 504-521: http://www.british-history.ac.uk/report.aspx?compid=45295&strquery=
[cxi] History; Fulham Palace; http://www.fulhampalace.org/about/history/
[cxii] 'Fulham: Introduction', Old and New London: Volume 6 (1878), pp. 504-521: http://www.british-history.ac.uk/report.aspx?compid=45295&strquery=
[cxiii] 'Fulham: Introduction', Old and New London: Volume 6 (1878), pp. 504-521: http://www.british-history.ac.uk/report.aspx?compid=45295&strquery=
[cxiv] 'Fulham: Introduction', Old and New London: Volume 6 (1878), pp. 504-521: http://www.british-history.ac.uk/report.aspx?compid=45295&strquery=
[cxv] 'Fulham: Introduction', Old and New London: Volume 6 (1878), pp. 504-521: http://www.british-history.ac.uk/report.aspx?compid=45295&strquery=
[cxvi] Fulham, Middlesex; The Workhouse, the history of an institution…; http://www.workhouses.org.uk/Fulham/
[cxvii] 'Fulham: Introduction', Old and New London: Volume 6 (1878), pp. 504-521: http://www.british-history.ac.uk/report.aspx?compid=45295&strquery=
[cxviii] 'Fulham: Introduction', Old and New London: Volume 6 (1878), pp. 504-521: http://www.british-history.ac.uk/report.aspx?compid=45295&strquery=
[cxix] 'Fulham: Introduction', Old and New London: Volume 6 (1878), pp. 504-521: http://www.british-history.ac.uk/report.aspx?compid=45295&strquery=
[cxx] 'Fulham: Introduction', Old and New London: Volume 6 (1878), pp. 504-521: http://www.british-history.ac.uk/report.aspx?compid=45295&strquery=
[cxxi] History of Munster House; Hammersmith & Fulham News; http://www.lbhf.gov.uk/Directory/News/History_of_Munster_House.asp
[cxxii] Hutton, Lawrence; Literary Landmarks of London; T. Fisher Unwin, 1888; pg. 224-225.
[cxxiii] 'Chelsea', Old and New London: Volume 5 (1878), pp. 50-70: http://www.british-history.ac.uk/report.aspx?compid=45222&strquery=
[cxxiv] 'Chelsea', Old and New London: Volume 5 (1878), pp. 50-70: http://www.british-history.ac.uk/report.aspx?compid=45222&strquery=
[cxxv] Pier Hotel, Oakley Street, Chelsea, London; Saatchi Gallery; http://www.saatchi-gallery.co.uk/dealers_galleries/FullSizeArtWork/dg_id/402/image_id/91431/imageno/1
[cxxvi] 'Chelsea', Old and New London: Volume 5 (1878), pp. 50-70: http://www.british-history.ac.uk/report.aspx?compid=45222&strquery=
[cxxvii] 'Chelsea', Old and New London: Volume 5 (1878), pp. 50-70: http://www.british-history.ac.uk/report.aspx?compid=45222&strquery=
[cxxviii] 'Chelsea', Old and New London: Volume 5 (1878), pp. 50-70: http://www.british-history.ac.uk/report.aspx?compid=45222&strquery=
[cxxix] 'Chelsea', Old and New London: Volume 5 (1878), pp. 50-70: http://www.british-history.ac.uk/report.aspx?compid=45222&strquery=
[cxxx] 'Chelsea', Old and New London: Volume 5 (1878), pp. 50-70: http://www.british-history.ac.uk/report.aspx?compid=45222&strquery=
[cxxxi] 'Pimlico', Old and New London: Volume 5 (1878), pp. 39-49: http://www.british-history.ac.uk/report.aspx?compid=45221
[cxxxii] 'Chelsea', Old and New London: Volume 5 (1878), pp. 50-70: http://www.british-history.ac.uk/report.aspx?compid=45222&strquery=
[cxxxiii] 'Pimlico', Old and New London: Volume 5 (1878), pp. 39-49: http://www.british-history.ac.uk/report.aspx?compid=45221
[cxxxiv] 'Pimlico', Old and New London: Volume 5 (1878), pp. 39-49: http://www.british-history.ac.uk/report.aspx?compid=45221
[cxxxv] 'Pimlico', Old and New London: Volume 5 (1878), pp. 39-49: http://www.british-history.ac.uk/report.aspx?compid=45221
[cxxxvi] 'Pimlico', Old and New London: Volume 5 (1878), pp. 39-49: http://www.british-history.ac.uk/report.aspx?compid=45221
[cxxxvii] 'Pimlico', Old and New London: Volume 5 (1878), pp. 39-49: http://www.british-history.ac.uk/report.aspx?compid=45221
[cxxxviii] 'Pimlico', Old and New London: Volume 5 (1878), pp. 39-49: http://www.british-history.ac.uk/report.aspx?compid=45221
[cxxxix] London’s Minor Canals-Smaller Navigations of London; London Canal Museum; http://www.canalmuseum.org.uk/history/minor.htm
[cxl] 'Paradise Row, south side: The Physic Garden', Survey of London: volume 2: Chelsea, pt I (1909), pp. 15-22: http://www.british-history.ac.uk/report.aspx?compid=74501
[cxli] 'Paradise Row, south side: Nos. 67-69 Royal Hospital Road and No. 1 Swan Walk', Survey of London: volume 2: Chelsea, pt I (1909), pp. 11-12: http://www.british-history.ac.uk/report.aspx?compid=74499
[cxlii] 'Paradise Row, south side: Nos. 2-4 Swan Walk', Survey of London: volume 2: Chelsea, pt I (1909), pp. 13-14: http://www.british-history.ac.uk/report.aspx?compid=74500
[cxliii] 'Kensington', The Environs of London: volume 3: County of Middlesex (1795), pp. 170-230: http://www.british-history.ac.uk/report.aspx?compid=45435&strquery=
[cxliv] Holland Park; Royal Borough of Kensington and Chelsea; http://www.rbkc.gov.uk/leisureandlibraries/parksandgardens/yourlocalpark/hollandpark.aspx
[cxlv] 'Kensington', The Environs of London: volume 3: County of Middlesex (1795), pp. 170-230: http://www.british-history.ac.uk/report.aspx?compid=45435&strquery=
[cxlvi] 'Notting Hill and Bayswater', Old and New London: Volume 5 (1878), pp. 177-188: http://www.british-history.ac.uk/report.aspx?compid=45230&strquery=kensington+gravel+pits
[cxlvii] 'Notting Hill and Bayswater', Old and New London: Volume 5 (1878), pp. 177-188: http://www.british-history.ac.uk/report.aspx?compid=45230&strquery=kensington+gravel+pits
[cxlviii] 'Kensington', The Environs of London: volume 3: County of Middlesex (1795), pp. 170-230: http://www.british-history.ac.uk/report.aspx?compid=45435&strquery=
[cxlix] 'Notting Hill and Bayswater', Old and New London: Volume 5 (1878), pp. 177-188: http://www.british-history.ac.uk/report.aspx?compid=45230&strquery=kensington+gravel+pits
[cl] 'Notting Hill and Bayswater', Old and New London: Volume 5 (1878), pp. 177-188: http://www.british-history.ac.uk/report.aspx?compid=45230&strquery=kensington+gravel+pits
[cli] 'Notting Hill and Bayswater', Old and New London: Volume 5 (1878), pp. 177-188: http://www.british-history.ac.uk/report.aspx?compid=45230&strquery=kensington+gravel+pits
[clii] The Grand Junction Canal, London’s Long Distance Link; London Canal Museum; http://www.canalmuseum.org.uk/history/grandjun.htm
[cliii] 'Notting Hill and Bayswater', Old and New London: Volume 5 (1878), pp. 177-188: http://www.british-history.ac.uk/report.aspx?compid=45230&strquery=kensington+gravel+pits
[cliv] ‘Bankside (The Parishes of St. Saviour and Christchurch Southwark); Survey of London, Volume XXII; Sir Howard Roberts and Walter H. Godfrey; London County Council, The County Hall, London, 1950; pg. 34
[clv] ‘Bankside (The Parishes of St. Saviour and Christchurch Southwark); Survey of London, Volume XXII; Sir Howard Roberts and Walter H. Godfrey; London County Council, The County Hall, London, 1950; pg. 34
[clvi] ‘Bankside (The Parishes of St. Saviour and Christchurch Southwark); Survey of London, Volume XXII; Sir Howard Roberts and Walter H. Godfrey; London County Council, The County Hall, London, 1950; pg. 34
[clvii] 'The Old Kent Road', Old and New London: Volume 6 (1878), pp. 248-255: http://www.british-history.ac.uk/report.aspx?compid=45279
[clviii] 'The Old Kent Road', Old and New London: Volume 6 (1878), pp. 248-255: http://www.british-history.ac.uk/report.aspx?compid=45279
[clix] Granting Asylum; Southwark News, January 9th, 2008; http://www.southwarknews.co.uk/00,news,8472,466,00.htm
[clx] 'The Old Kent Road', Old and New London: Volume 6 (1878), pp. 248-255: http://www.british-history.ac.uk/report.aspx?compid=45279
[clxi] 'The Old Kent Road', Old and New London: Volume 6 (1878), pp. 248-255: http://www.british-history.ac.uk/report.aspx?compid=45279
[clxii] 'The Old Kent Road', Old and New London: Volume 6 (1878), pp. 248-255. http://www.british-history.ac.uk/report.aspx?compid=45279
[clxiii] 'The Old Kent Road', Old and New London: Volume 6 (1878), pp. 248-255. http://www.british-history.ac.uk/report.aspx?compid=45279
[clxiv] 'The Old Kent Road', Old and New London: Volume 6 (1878), pp. 248-255. http://www.british-history.ac.uk/report.aspx?compid=45279
[clxv] Holy Trinity Church; Trinity Newington Residents Association; http://www.tnra.net/index.php?nuc=content&id=99
[clxvi] 'The Old Kent Road', Old and New London: Volume 6 (1878), pp. 248-255. http://www.british-history.ac.uk/report.aspx?compid=45279
[clxvii] 'Newington and Walworth', Old and New London: Volume 6 (1878), pp. 255-268: http://www.british-history.ac.uk/report.aspx?compid=45280
[clxviii] 'Newington and Walworth', Old and New London: Volume 6 (1878), pp. 255-268: http://www.british-history.ac.uk/report.aspx?compid=45280
[clxix] The History of Kennington and its neighborhood; Montgomery, Henry; H.S. Gold, 1889; pg. 169-170.
[clxx] 'Camberwell', Old and New London: Volume 6 (1878), pp. 269-286: http://www.british-history.ac.uk/report.aspx?compid=45281
[clxxi] Aged Pilgrims’ Friend Society Home; London Gardens Online; http://www.londongardensonline.org.uk/gardens-online-record.asp?ID=SOU002
[clxxii] 'Camberwell', Old and New London: Volume 6 (1878), pp. 269-286: http://www.british-history.ac.uk/report.aspx?compid=45281
[clxxiii] Lettsom Gardens; London Gardens Online; http://www.londongardensonline.org.uk/gardens-online-record.asp?ID=SOU049
[clxxiv] 'Camberwell', Old and New London: Volume 6 (1878), pp. 269-286: http://www.british-history.ac.uk/report.aspx?compid=45281
[clxxv] 'Camberwell', Old and New London: Volume 6 (1878), pp. 269-286: http://www.british-history.ac.uk/report.aspx?compid=45281
[clxxvi] 'Camberwell', Old and New London: Volume 6 (1878), pp. 269-286: http://www.british-history.ac.uk/report.aspx?compid=45281
[clxxvii] 'Camberwell', Old and New London: Volume 6 (1878), pp. 269-286: http://www.british-history.ac.uk/report.aspx?compid=45281
[clxxviii] 'Lambeth: Waterloo Road', Old and New London: Volume 6 (1878), pp. 407-425: http://www.british-history.ac.uk/report.aspx?compid=45289
[clxxix] 'Lambeth: Introduction and the transpontine theatres', Old and New London: Volume 6 (1878), pp. 383-407: http://www.british-history.ac.uk/report.aspx?compid=45288&strquery=Victoria+Palace
[clxxx] 'Lambeth: Waterloo Road', Old and New London: Volume 6 (1878), pp. 407-425: http://www.british-history.ac.uk/report.aspx?compid=45289
[clxxxi] 'Lambeth: Waterloo Road', Old and New London: Volume 6 (1878), pp. 407-425: http://www.british-history.ac.uk/report.aspx?compid=45289
[clxxxii] Royal Waterloo Hospital; Archives in London and the M25 Area; http://www.aim25.ac.uk/cgi-bin/vcdf/detail?coll_id=11815&inst_id=118&nv1=search&nv2=basic
[clxxxiii] History of the Construction; Battersea Power Station Community Group; http://www.batterseapowerstation.org.uk/hist1.html
[clxxxiv] 'Vauxhall (continued) and Battersea', Old and New London: Volume 6 (1878), pp. 467-479: http://www.british-history.ac.uk/report.aspx?compid=45292&strquery=
[clxxxv] 'Vauxhall (continued) and Battersea', Old and New London: Volume 6 (1878), pp. 467-479: http://www.british-history.ac.uk/report.aspx?compid=45292&strquery=
[clxxxvi] 'Vauxhall (continued) and Battersea', Old and New London: Volume 6 (1878), pp. 467-479: http://www.british-history.ac.uk/report.aspx?compid=45292&strquery=
[clxxxvii] A History of Price’s Candles; Price’s Patent Candles Ltd.; http://www.prices-candles.co.uk/history/historydetail.asp
[clxxxviii] A History of Price’s Candles; Price’s Patent Candles Ltd.; http://www.prices-candles.co.uk/history/historydetail.asp
[clxxxix] A History of Price’s Candles; Price’s Patent Candles Ltd.; http://www.prices-candles.co.uk/history/historydetail.asp
[cxc] ‘Parish of St. Mary Lambeth, Part Two Southern Area; Sheppard, F.H.W.; Survey of London, Volume XXVI; The Athlone Press, University of London, 1956; pg. 95.
[cxci] ‘Parish of St. Mary Lambeth, Part Two Southern Area; Sheppard, F.H.W.; Survey of London, Volume XXVI; The Athlone Press, University of London, 1956; pg. 95.
[cxcii] A History of Price’s Candles; Price’s Patent Candles Ltd.; http://www.prices-candles.co.uk/history/historydetail.asp
[cxciii] A History of Price’s Candles; Price’s Patent Candles Ltd.; http://www.prices-candles.co.uk/history/historydetail.asp
[cxciv] W. W. Hutchings, Ford Madox Ford; London town past and present, Volume 2; Cassell and company, Limited, 1909; pg. 1022-23
[cxcv] A History of Price’s Candles; Price’s Patent Candles Ltd.; http://www.prices-candles.co.uk/history/historydetail.asp
[cxcvi] A History of Price’s Candles; Price’s Patent Candles Ltd.; http://www.prices-candles.co.uk/history/historydetail.asp
[cxcvii] History of Lambeth Palace; Archbishop of Canterbury; http://www.archbishopofcanterbury.org/pages/the-history-of-lambeth-palace.html
[cxcviii] The History of the University; University of Surrey; http://www.surrey.ac.uk/about/history/
[cxcix] About Us; Myer’s Comfortable Beds; http://www.myersbeds.co.uk/about_us.html
[cc] 'Vauxhall Walk', Survey of London: volume 23: Lambeth: South Bank and Vauxhall (1951), pp. 145: http://www.british-history.ac.uk/report.aspx?compid=47061&strquery=vauxhall
[cci] Survey of London, Volume XXVI, pg. 159