While every effort has been made to insure accuracy, neither the author nor the publisher assume legal responsibility for any consequences arising from the use of this book or the information it contains.
All maps are by the author.
American Auto Trail
Florida’s U.S. Highway 27
All Rights Reserved. Copyright © 2012 Lyn Wilkerson
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without the permission in writing from the author.
This guide, along with the various others produced by Lyn Wilkerson and Caddo Publications USA, are based on the American Guide Series. Until the mid-1950’s, the U.S. Highway System provided the means for various modes of transport to explore this diverse land. To encourage such explorations, the Works Projects Administration under President Franklin D. Roosevelt and the Federal Writers Project created the American Guide Series. This series of books were commissioned by the Federal Government to capture the culture and history of the United States and provide the direction necessary for travelers to explore it. Each state created a commission of writers who canvassed their respective territories for content to submit. The preliminary works were then sent to Washington D.C. for final assembly in to a standard format. The result was a travel guide for each state. The series spread to include guides for important cities as well. After the State Guides were complete, the concept of a national guide was developed. However, it would not be until 1949, with the backing of Hastings House Publishing, that a true national guide would be created. Through several rounds of condensing, the final product maintained much of the most essential points of interest and the most colorful material.
To quote from the California edition of the American Guide Series, “romance has been kept in its place. . .” The intent of this guide is to provide information about the historic sites, towns, and landmarks along the chosen routes, and to provide background information and stories for what lies in-between. It is not our desire to dramatize the history or expand on it in any way. We believe that the character and culture of this state, and our country as a whole, can speak for itself. The guide has been created, not for just travelers new to the city, but for current residents who may not realize what lies just around the corner in their own neighborhood. The goal of Caddo Publications USA is to encourage the exploration of the rich history that many of us drive by on a regular basis without any sense it existed, and to entertain and educate so that history will not be lost in the future.
U.S. Highway 27 descends into Florida through the hills lining the Ochlockonee River. South of Tallahassee, the highway crosses into the flat, ranch and farm lands of the northern peninsula.
Georgia State Line
Havana (6 miles south of Georgia Line on U.S. 27)
This town was named for the Cuban capital.
Side Trip to Dr. Malcolm Nicholson Plantation Home (State Road 12 West)
Dr. Malcolm Nicholson Plantation Home (3.5 miles west on SR 12, opposite Lion Trail)
Located just north of this point is the Dr. Malcolm Nicholson Plantation Home. Built in the 1820's, it is one of the oldest remaining structures in Gadsden County. Nicholson was born in the Carolinas in 1790. He moved to Georgia and then to North Florida where, like many frontier practitioners he combined his activities as a physician and planter. He was one of the commissioners who chose Quincy as the county seat of Gadsden County, and a member of the group which selected the site for the Capitol in Tallahassee. Dr. Nicholson was appointed by the citizens of Gadsden County in 1836 to petition the President of the United States for protection against Creek and Seminole raids on the Florida frontier. He was a stockholder in the Union Bank and served that institution as an appraiser. Dr. Nicholson died in 1840 and is buried in the Nicholson Family Cemetery near here.
Lake Jackson (8.5 miles south of Havana on U.S. 27)
In this vicinity was the Indian village of Anhayea. Here the Spanish explorer Hernando de Soto and his men spent the fall and winter of 1539 and 1540. Since twelve priests accompanied the Spaniards, it is probable that the first Christmas service in the United States was celebrated here. In his march through this district in 1818, General Andrew Jackson burned 300 Indian houses, confiscated 3,000 bushels of corn, and drove off 1,000 head of cattle.
Tallahassee (8.5 miles south of Lake Jackson on U.S. 27)
Seven hundred years ago, the rolling country around Tallahassee was the seat of one of the most advanced Indian cultures of Eastern North America. The society was organized into classes, the highest of which consisted of chiefs and their families. The main chief lived at the place now called Lake Jackson Indian Mounds. Less important chiefs lived at smaller sites, one of which was located directly across the lake on Rollins Point. The Indians constructed large flat-topped earthen mounds at places like these, and then built their important structures on top. The ordinary people in society were farmers, who grew corn, beans, and squash. They lived in houses near their fields, but they visited the chiefs from time to time in order to participate in religious ceremonies and to donate food or labor. The Indians of this area traded with people as far away as the Great Lakes. Chiefs used some trade items, such as embossed copper plates and carved shell pendants, as badges of office. The descendants of these people lived nearby and called themselves Apalachee.
The Indian meaning of Tallahassee is ‘Old Town,’ the name of the capital of the Apalachee Indians. Their settlement was flourishing when De Soto and his men reached it in 1539. Following the Spanish explorer’s departure in the spring of 1540, the territory was visited by missionaries and soldiers.
In 1633, two Franciscan friars, led by a guardian from St. Augustine, arrived in the Apalache region to begin missionary work. The rich farming land became a source of food supply for St. Augustine. Fort San Luis, built about 1640, served as headquarters for seven missionary settlements. Supply journeys were made by land from San Luis, and by water from San Marcos on the Gulf Coast. Although the Indian population dominated, Spanish settlers moved in rapidly. The development of an extensive trade with Cuba ended with the English occupation of Florida.
Little was accomplished by the English between 1763 and 1783. The Tallahassee area was officially identified as the dividing line between East and West Florida. Repeated raids by Indians south of the border brought Andrew Jackson into the area in 1818, where in retaliation he burned many villages.
During the American War of Independence, the Marquis de Lafayette came from France to the United States to offer not only his personal services as a major general in the Continental Army but also some $200,000 of his private fortune to the American cause. A few years after his return to France, General Lafayette met with personal difficulties during the French Revolution which left him in dire financial circumstances. In gratitude for General Lafayette's generous aid during the American Revolutionary War, the U.S. Congress granted the French hero approximately $24,000 in 1794 and later, in 1803, some land in Louisiana. In 1824, Lafayette returned to America for a visit. Because he was still in financial difficulty, an appeal was made to the American nation for more assistance. The Congress and people of the United States remembered their debt to this man and recognized his continued support of the new Republic during recent decades. Therefore, he was presented with another $200,000 and an entire township (thirty-six square miles) of land to be selected at his discretion. General Lafayette decided upon land near this Tallahassee home of his new friend, Richard K. Call, Florida's delegate to the U.S. Congress. Colonel John McKee of Alabama, an experienced land buyer, was delegated to travel to Florida and select a township. On July 4th, 1825, President John Quincy Adams signed a warrant granting to Lafayette the chosen township, which lay adjacent to the new town of Tallahassee. It was bounded on two sides by the recently surveyed prime meridian and base line and was termed Township One North, Range One East. General Lafayette never visited his land in Florida. By 1855, all the land included in the Lafayette Township (over 23,000 acres) had been sold to individual buyers.
After 1822, when the Territorial legislative body was formed, meetings were held alternately in St. Augustine and Pensacola. In 1824, a site was chosen about a mile southwest of an area known as the Old Tallahassee Fields. The new government seat was approved that year. No opposition was made by the Indians to the building of the government house for the new territory. Despite that, Governor Duval, learning that Neamathala, a chief of the Seminole, was inciting his people to revolt, persuaded the Indians to evacuate the territory. After the Indians’ departure, settlers came in rapidly. In November of 1825, Tallahassee was incorporated as a city. In January of 1826, the cornerstone of the Statehouse was laid. Tallahassee frustrated every attempt to remove the seat of government to a more centralized portion of the State ever since.
During this era, leading families from other Southern states, attracted by the possibilities for cotton culture, migrated here. In 1824, Prince Achille Murat came from Washington and bought a large plantation near Tallahassee. Murat, before the overthrow of his father, the King of Naples, bore the title of Prince Royal of the Two Sicilies. Shortly afterwards, he met and married Mrs. Catherine Willis Gray, a grandniece of George Washington.
Tallahassee progressed industrially and culturally up to the time of the American Civil War. It was the center of cotton marketing even prior to the building, in 1834, of Florida’s first railroad, the Tallahassee & St. Marks’ Railroad. The railroad operated by mule power during its first years. Repeated attempts by Union troops on the coast to penetrate this section were repulsed by Confederate forces.
Following the war, families from Alabama, Georgia, and the Carolinas came to Tallahassee in increasing numbers. As other sections of the State were populated, however, Tallahassee became less of a marketing center. Northern politicians gained in power during Reconstruction. For the first time, Blacks held political office. Jonathan Gibbs, a young Black man from Philadelphia, served four years under Governor Reed as Secretary of State. In 1872, he was named the first State superintendent of education. He served until his death, two years later. Throughout these years, Blacks served in the State legislature, 19 holding seats at one time.
Points of Interest:
State Capitol (S. Monroe Street and W. Pensacola Street)
The first two sessions of the territorial legislature were held at St. Augustine and Pensacola. The hazards of traveling between cities 400 miles apart prompted legislators in 1824 to locate a new capital at Tallahassee, between the two cities. Log buildings that housed the government made way in 1826 for a two-story masonry structure. This was succeeded in 1845 by what is now the core of the present historic capitol. A dome and wings were added in 1902, and further additions made in 1923, 1936 and 1947. The building was listed in the National Register of Historic Places in 1973 and restored to its 1902 appearance in 1982. This was the only Southern capitol that did not fall into the hands of Northern troops during the American Civil War.
The Columns (N. Adams Street and W. Park Avenue)
Built in 1835, this is one of the oldest houses in the city.
Presbyterian Church 1832 (N. Adams Street and W. Park Avenue)
This is the oldest church in the city and one of the finest of its denomination in the State.
St. John’s Episcopal Church 1881 (N. Monroe Street and Call Street)
The granite slabs forming the window sills and steps were taken from Andrew Jackson’s arsenal at Chattahoochee. Francis Eppes, a Territorial official and grandson of Thomas Jefferson, was an early vestryman.
Williams Home 1831 (217 N. Calhoun Street)
The Groves 1825 (N. Adams Street and 1st Avenue)
The house, later a hotel, was built by Richard Keith Call, an early Territorial governor, on his 640-acre estate. The house is called ‘The Home of the Tallahassee Girl,’ because it furnished the locale for a novel, The Tallahassee Girl, written by Maurice Thompson in 1881.
Florida State University (W. Tennessee Street and Woodward Avenue)
The State legislature in 1857 provided for the establishment of two State colleges, one to be located east, and the other west of the Suwannee River. The latter was established in Tallahassee that year and became the Florida State College. It continued as such until 1905, when by an act of the legislature male students were removed to Gainesville.
Florida Agricultural and Mechanical College (Martin Luther King Jr. Boulevard and Palmer Avenue)
Opened as a State Normal School in 1887, it was moved to the present site in 1891, on land formerly the plantation of Territorial Governor William P. Duval. It was placed under the management of the State Board of Control in 1905 as a coeducational college. It received its present name in 1909.
On May 26th, 1956, two Florida A&M University students, Wilhelmina Jakes and Carrie Patterson boarded a crowded Tallahassee city bus and sat in the only seats available, in the front next to a white female passenger. The bus driver ordered them to the back of the bus, but they refused. Outraged, the driver pulled the bus over and called the police. The two students were arrested and charged with “placing themselves in a position to incite a riot.” The next night a cross was burned on their lawn. In response, students, led by SGA President Brodes Hartley, held a mass meeting and voted to stop riding city buses. This sparked the ten-month-long Tallahassee Bus Boycott, the second major successful economic protest of the Civil Rights Movement. Other citizens embraced the boycott. Local religious leaders and community members founded the Inter-Civic Council (ICC) and elected Reverend C.K. Steele, pastor of Bethel Missionary Baptist Church, as president. The ICC expanded the boycott, which ended in March of 1957.
Site of Fort San Luis (Los Robles Park, Thomasville Road)
This fort was erected by the Spanish in 1640 and abandoned after the invasion of the English in 1704. Portions of the foundations were still intact as late as 1824. A cannon, part of the armament of the fort, was fired in Tallahassee on January 8th, 1825, to celebrate the 10th anniversary of Andrew Jackson’s victory at New Orleans.
Site of Mission of San Luis de Talimail (Los Robles Park, Fernando Drive and Cortez Street)
Franciscans founded this mission in 1633. In 1656, the friars accused Governor Diego de Roboledo of causing an Indian uprising by paying them for only 25 of the 96 days of labor they had spent in building the fort at San Luis. The friars were further irritated when the governor stationed an armed guard at the fort, saying that it served only to alienate the Indians.
Bellevue (Tallahassee Museum, 3945 Museum Drive)
Home of Prince and Princess Achille Murat, this plantation was named for a hotel in Brussels where they spent many happy days. Built about 1831 by Samual Duval, nephew of Governor Duval, for his bride Ellen Willis, sister of the Princess, it was later owned by Governor Bloxham.
Prince Achille Murat was the nephew of Napoleon Bonaparte and the son of General Jochaim Murat, King of Naples. He settled in Florida in 1825, and as attorney,
county judge, and director of Tallahassee's Union Bank, he played an active role in public life. Princess Catherine Willis Murat was the great grandniece of George Washington. Their
plantations, "Lipona" and "Econchatti," were centers of social activity. Twin marble obelisks mark their graves in St. John's Episcopal Cemetery. The Murat seal is on the surrounding
Old City Cemetery (Call Street and MacComb Street)
The present boundaries of the Old City Cemetery were established by the Florida Territorial Council in 1829. Many pioneers and their slaves are buried here, although some early Tallahasseans were buried several hundred feet east of this site. The cemetery also contains graves of Confederate and Union troops (White and African-American). Some of the fatalities from the Battle of Natural Bridge in 1865, which marked the end of the ill-fated Northern attempt to seize the capital during the War Between the States, are interred here.
Union Bank (Adams Street and College Avenue)
Built around 1830 for William Williams and owned briefly by Benjamin Chaires, the Union Bank Building was the probable site of two earlier banks. Their charters were purchased by the Union Bank, created February 13th, 1833, by the Territorial Council and formally opened January 16th, 1835, with John G. Gamble as president. It was capitalized at $1,000,000 and became territorial Florida's major bank. The Panic of 1837, Indian wars, and unsound banking practices led to its closing in 1843. It was purchased by William Bailey and Isaac Mitchell in 1847, then after the Civil War by the Freedmen's Bank. Its later uses were as a church and the site of various business enterprises.
The Tallahassee Democrat (277 N. Magnolia Drive)
This newspaper was established on March 3rd, 1905, by John G. Collins as "The Weekly True Democrat." Milton A. Smith bought the paper in 1908. On April 6th, 1915, he made it "The Daily Democrat." Tallahassee's first newspaper was the "Florida Intelligencer", founded February 19th, 1825, nine months before city was incorporated. The Capital never has been without an alert, vigorous press.
St. Clement’s Chapel Church of the Advent (815 Piedmont Drive)
Built in the town of Lloyd in 1890, this Episcopal chapel was dedicated as St. Clement's Church on June 14th, 1895, by Edwin Gardner Weed, 3rd Bishop of Florida. William Betton of Tallahassee designed and built the structure at a cost of $3,500. The furnishings are the original ones, including the pine pews and reed organ. The Bishop's Chair, oldest in Florida, dates from 1838 and is the only one in existence that the first five Bishops of Florida all used. The chapel was moved to this site and rededicated on November 29th, 1959, by Edward Hamilton West, 5th Bishop of Florida.
The Mission of San Pedro Y San Pablo de Patale (Chaires Cross Road and Buck Lake Road)
In 1633, the province of Apalachee in Spanish Florida received its first full-time resident missionaries. The Franciscan Mission of San Pedro y San Pablo de Patale, which was located in this vicinity, was one of the first missions with a resident priest to be established in the region after that date. Like other Spanish missions in Florida, this outpost of Spanish domination was designed to convert and "civilize" the Indians. It also served as a center for the civil and military authority of Spain on the frontier. Archeological investigations at the site in 1971 revealed the structural remains of the mission church and other buildings and a cemetery for the burial of Christians containing some 64 graves.
The mission of Patale evidently continued as an important segment of the mission system until its destruction in June of 1704. By that time, the colonial rivalry between Spain and England had become very keen. In 1703 and 1704, Colonel James Moore of South Carolina led an English expedition to destroy the Spanish Apalachee missions. On June 23rd, 1704, Patale was attacked and captured by the English who then used the mission as a base of operations. A counterattack by the Spanish and their Indian allies in July resulted in another victory for the English. After this, the Patale mission site seems to have been abandoned.
Lewis Bank (215 S. Monroe Street)
Founded in 1856 by B.C. Lewis as a private banking business, the oldest bank in Florida has grown with the city and section, in size and services rendered. Since its founding, sons have followed fathers in the profession.
Tallahassee Regional Airport (Capital Circle SW)
In October of 1940, hundreds of laborers began clearing swampland for temporary quarters for Dale Mabry Army Air Base, named in honor of a young Tallahassee dirigible pilot who died in 1922 after serving in World War I. In 1941, America entered World War II. The need for a place to train pilots prompted the Federal government to set a 90-day completion deadline. Eventually, the base became a nearly self-sufficient city, with several runways, barracks, officers’ quarters, mess hall, hangers, a hospital, a church and a bowling alley. Some sections of the base’s asphalt runway are still visible, as are several concrete tie-down pads. Over 8,000 pilots from Europe, China and the United States trained here in P-39s, P-40s, P-47s and P-51s. Over a dozen pilots died in accidents while learning how to fire at targets such as a giant, plywood “bull’s eye” at Alligator Point to the south. During 1943, 79,000 family members came to Tallahassee, then a town of 16,000, to visit pilots-in-training. The base was deactivated in 1945 and served as a commercial airport until 1961, when Tallahassee Regional Airport opened.
Plantation Cemetery at Betton Hills (Betton Road and Winthrop Park, between Thomasville Road and Centerville Road)
The site is all that remains of a much larger cemetery for African Americans dating from the pre-Civil War era through the 1940’s. It was the main burial ground for black slaves and servants from the Betton Plantation as well as other surrounding plantations. The plantation system grew in North Florida as cotton plantations to the north depleted their soil from overuse. Prominent early plantations in this region included Goodwood, Waverly, and Live Oak. Turbett Betton was a prominent Tallahassee merchant who purchased roughly 1,200 acres from the Lafayette estate, lying between Thomasville and Centerville Roads. Shortly after Betton’s death in 1863, the land was purchased by Guy Winthrop. The emancipation of the slaves ruined the cotton industry and many planters turned their land into quail hunting plantations. In 1945, the Winthrop family began subdividing the property for a new housing community called Betton Hills. Henry Watson, buried at the back of the lot with his wife, was one of Winthrop’s servants. However, most of the burials were marked with a simple wooden cross or flowers, and so no longer remain. Evidence of a burial site is marked by elongated depressions in the earth covered with altered vegetation.
Jacksonville, Pensacola & Mobile Railroad Depot (918 Railroad Avenue)
The Jacksonville, Pensacola & Mobile Railroad Company Freight Depot, built in 1858, is one of the oldest railroad buildings in Florida and the oldest still used as a passenger rail station. The one-story depot was built when Tallahassee was the center of Florida’s cotton trade. By 1885, the two-story addition was added. Middle Florida (now North Florida), with its rich agriculture lands, grew rapidly in the 19th century. By 1890, Leon County was the top producer of livestock, sweet potatoes, corn and cotton in the state. With cotton in great demand, Tallahassee was the region’s commercial hub, shipping 16,686 bales of ginned cotton in 1860. Wagons brought the cotton from local plantations to be processed. It then went by rail to the coast for shipping. A new rail line between Pensacola and Jacksonville provided access to ports and made transporting both freight and passengers easier. In 1905, a passenger station was built across from the original one. It was used continuously until 1971 when, for the first time in 113 years, passenger service ended. Tallahassee was a freight only stop until 1992 when passenger services resumed, with the old freight depot used as the passenger station.
Governor W.D. Bloxham House (410 North Calhoun Street)
This Federal-style building was constructed in 1844. In 1881, Mary C. Bloxham, Governor Bloxham’s wife, acquired the property. Governor Bloxham, the owner of a plantation west of Tallahassee, used the house as a town residence during his two terms as governor, 1881-1885 and 1897-1901. The house was used by Governor Edward A. Perry, 1885-1889. In 1911, when Governor Bloxham died, Gertrude M. Bloxham, his second wife, became its owner and in 1913 sold it. A number of ownerships and uses followed, including as a rooming house and hotel. Governor Bloxham’s career of public service was extensive and included representing Leon County in the Florida House of Representatives, serving as Florida’s Secretary of State and Comptroller and as United States Surveyor-General for Florida. He was a popular war veteran, having organized an infantry company in Leon County in 1862 and served as its commander throughout the Civil War. Governor Bloxham, Florida’s first native-born governor, is remembered for founding the Florida Normal and Agricultural College for Colored Students, now Florida A & M University, and for restoring to fiscal solvency Florida’s Internal Improvement Trust Fund by selling four million acres in the Everglades.
John Gilmore Riley House (419 E. Jefferson Street)
John Gilmore Riley was born in 1857, the son of Sarah and James Riley. He was not formally educated, but was instructed by his Aunt Henrietta. Riley became principal of Lincoln Academy, Tallahassee’s first local high school for African Americans in 1893 and served until retiring in 1926. Riley died in 1954, the same year that the Brown vs. Board of Education Supreme Court decision was rendered. Records indicate that the site on which the Riley House sits was sold to John Gilmore Riley by Aaron Levy on August 17th, 1885 for $125. The two-story wood frame house was built in 1890.
Knott House (301 E. Park Avenue)
Evidence points to George Proctor, a free black man, as the probable builder of this structure in 1843. The house was a wedding gift for Catherine Gamble, the bride
of attorney Thomas Hagner. In 1865, the house was used as a temporary Union Headquarters by Brigadier General McCook. On May 20th, 1865, McCook read the Emancipation
Proclamation from the front steps of the house, declaring freedom for all slaves in the Florida Panhandle. After the Civil War a locally prominent physician, George Betton, bought the house,
bringing with him a young buggy driver named William Gunn, a former slave. When Gunn expressed an interest in learning medicine, Betton funded his study at medical school and helped him
establish a practice in Tallahassee. Gunn became Florida’s first black physician. In 1928, the Knott family acquired the house, had the front columns added and lived here until 1985.
William Knott served the State of Florida for over 40 years as its first State Tax Auditor, as Comptroller, and Treasurer. His wife Luella Knott was an artist, musician, and poet. The
sale of alcohol was banned in the state’s capital for over fifty years, in part because of Mrs. Knott’s involvement with the temperance movement.
John W. Martin House (1001 DeSoto Street)
John Martin was born in Plainfield, Marion County, Florida on June 21st, 1884. He was admitted to the Florida Bar in 1914. He joined the Democratic Party and toured the state making speeches in support of President Woodrow Wilson before and during World War I. From 1917 until 1923, Martin served three terms as Mayor of Jacksonville. In 1924, he ran and was elected Florida’s 24th Governor, serving from January 1925 until January 1929, during the height and collapse of the Florida Real Estate Boom. Martin was the first candidate to solicit the women’s vote. At the bottom of his political advertisements was the phrase “The Ladies are Especially Invited.” During his administration he proposed a change in the state constitution to allow the state to provide direct assistance to public elementary schools. This was ratified by the voters in 1926. Wildlife conservation programs were also begun in the state, with the restocking of quail and deer and the establishment of fish hatcheries. Martin’s house, called Apalachee,” was constructed in the early 1930’s on his 27 acres. Martin moved back to Jacksonville where he lived until his death in January of 1958.
Old Bradfordville School (3439 Bannerman Road)
The Bradfordville School is a one-room school house built between 1884 and 1893, where many generations of children, in elementary to eighth grade classes, received their primary education. It is an example of one-room schools once scattered throughout the area that gave rural children educational opportunities that would otherwise not have been available. The school was originally located at the intersection of Thomasville and Bradfordville Roads on property owned by the Lester family. In 1906, it was purchased by the Leon County Board of Public Instruction for the sum of $1.00. Declining attendance forced its closure in 1930. In 1940, ownership was transferred to the Leon County Commission. The building has been moved twice in an attempt to preserve it. The first move was in 1997 when a road expansion was planned for Thomasville Road. The second was in 2005 when the land was sold and it was moved to its present site. The building is currently used as a community center under the management of Leon County.
Side Trip to Fort Braden (State Road 20 West)
Fort Braden (16 miles west on SR 20 at Patchwork Lane)
Fort Braden was established in 1839 as a military outpost during the Second Seminole War (1835-1842). At the end of the war the fort was abandoned, but the small farming community that had developed nearby continued. A school in the Fort Braden area was first mentioned in an 1847 Tallahassee Floridian article reporting tax collections at the Fort Braden schoolhouse. Early education in rural Leon County was provided at small, one-room schools. Yet over the next 80 years, many of these schools were built in Fort Braden and around the county. In 1926, the four-classroom Fort Braden School was constructed, featuring an inset entrance and double doors with molded accents. The school served as an education facility and community center for the next 66 years until 1993 when the new Fort Braden School replaced it. Today, the Old Fort Braden School continues to serve the citizens of Fort Braden as a community center.
Junction with State Road 154 (10 miles south of Tallahassee on U.S. 27)
Side Trip to Chaires (State Road 154 North)
Chaires (1 mile north on SR 154)
The community of Chaires was established in the 1820’s during Florida’s Territorial Period (1821-1845). The community is named after Green Hill Chaires, who, along with his two brothers, Benjamin and Thomas Peter, came from Georgia and established vast plantations in Eastern Leon County. Chaires’ plantation eventually grew to 20,000 acres with a home on Lake Lafayette. It was later destroyed and his wife, two of his children and several of his slaves were massacred in 1839 during the Second Seminole Indian War (1835-1842). He then built a house called “Evergreen” and his brother, Thomas Peter, built a house called “Woodlawn.” In 1851, Green Chaires built the state’s first plank road, which connected upland plantations to the Gulf Coast shipping communities of Newport and St. Marks. The establishment of Railroad Station #1 in 1857 and the Chaires Post Office in 1858 contributed to the sense of community. By the turn of the century, Chaires was the commercial hub for the area, with a cotton gin and packinghouse, public schools, stores and churches. In December of 2000, it was listed on the National Register of Historic Places.
Junction with State Road 59 (6 miles south of SR 154 on U.S. 27)
Side Trip to Lloyd (State Road 59 North)
Lloyd (5 miles north on SR 59)
Lloyd’s Creek normally flows north, but when Lake Miccosukee, into which the creek empties, fills with water during the rainy season, the stream flows south to disappear in a sink. The old mill on its bank was once used by General William Bailey for grinding corn. The creek and town were named for W.F. Lloyd of New York, who moved here from Tallahassee in the early 1860’s, to establish a large cotton plantation and open a general store.
Capps (6.5 miles south of SR 59 on U.S. 27)
Point of Interest:
Asa May House/Rosewood (U.S. Highway 19)
This residence was built in 1836 for Burwell McBride shortly after he moved to Jefferson County from South Carolina. He was the grandfather of Margaret McBride who married Asa May, a wealthy cotton planter. Asa and his wife received the house and land from Margaret's father in 1848. May was one of the wealthiest planters in North Florida, at one time owning more than 3,000 acres of land in Jefferson County alone. Rosewood was listed in the National Register of Historic Places in 1972.
Lamont (6.5 miles south of Capps on U.S. 27)
Originally called Beasley's Store, Lamont was founded in 1848 as the site of a post office and stagecoach station on the Tallahassee to St. Augustine road. The settlement was called "Lick Skillet" after the Civil War, but in 1885 was named Lamont to honor Cornelius Lamont, Vice President during the first administration of President Grover Cleveland (1885-1889). The community thrived after the Atlantic Coast Line Railroad built a line through the town in 1926. Sawmills, turpentine stills, pecan growing and processing watermelon seeds for planting provided employment for the town's residents. Today, Lamont's past is reflected by a former post office, built in 1910, and several historic churches and houses.
Eridu (6.5 miles south of Lamont on U.S. 27)
A wag with a classical bent gave this hamlet a name derived from Eridanus, mythological name of the River Po. In 1863, many Confederate soldiers and men opposed to conscription fled to the wilder portions of this region. They formed themselves into bands, defying both military and civil authorities. A detachment of Confederate cavalry invaded the country. Unable to capture the deserters, they drove off the livestock, looted and burned houses, and took into custody the families of the men they sought.
(16 miles south of Eridu on U.S. 27)
Perry was known as Rosehead when the first post office was established in 1869. Taylor County's 50-mile coastline and shallow coastal waters made it ideal for manufacturing salt for the Confederacy. By 1862, works were in operation at Jonesville (now Adam's Beach) and near the mouth of Blue Creek. Trading on a barter basis, the region furnished salt for adjacent counties and South Georgia. Union forces never destroyed the salt industry and it continued operations until 1868.
Point of Interest:
Perry-Foley Airport (U.S. 19 and SR 362)
During World War II, this airfield was used by the United States Army Air Forces' Third Air Force for training. Developed on 862 acres, Perry Army Air Field became operational on June 9th, 1943, as a sub-base to Dale Mabry Field in Tallahassee, Florida under the authority of the 338th Fighter Group of the 3rd Air Force. USAAF pilots received their final training in P-40 Warhawks, P-47 Thunderbolts, and P-51 Mustangs at Perry AAF prior to joining operational units in the European or Pacific theaters. With the close of hostilities, the last military pilots left Perry AAF in September of 1947. Deeded to Taylor County by the War Assets Administration in April of 1947, the field reverted back to civilian aviation purposes and has been used as a general aviation airfield ever since
Side Trip to Hampton Springs (U.S. Highway 98 West, County Road 356 West)
Hampton Springs (5 miles west on U.S. 98, left on CR 356)
Old residents claimed that the springs were named by Joe Hampton, an early settler, who was directed here by an Indian medicine man before the War Between the States. Because the waters were so beneficial in the treatment of rheumatism and kindred ills, Hampton bought the springs and much of the adjoining land for $10. The South Georgia Railroad later made Hampton Springs its southern terminus, purchasing the resort. The Hampton Springs Hotel was built in 1908 and was destroyed by fire in 1954. The hotel was world renowned for its sulphur springs and baths known for their healing and medicinal powers. The luxurious hotel boasted lush gardens with elaborate fountains and planters. The resort had a covered pool with foot baths fed by the springs, a golf course, tennis courts, stables, casino, grand ballroom, outdoor dance pavilion, and railroad depot. The nine-hole golf course was among the first in the region. The hotel had its own bottling plant and shipped the healing sulphur water nationwide. It also had its own power plant and the majority of the food served in the dining room was grown and raised at the hotel farm. The hotel had a private hunting and fishing lodge on Spring Creek six miles from the hotel site and an excursion boat with a covered launch. From the mid 1930’s to mid-1940’s, the hotel served as barracks for military personnel testing aircraft at Perry-Foley Airport in nearby Perry. Archaeological excavations here revealed the formation of the hotel and outbuildings.
Side Trip to Steinhatchee (U.S. Highway 19 South, State Road 51 South)
Steinhatchee (28 miles south on U.S. 19, 10 miles south on SR 51)
Located at the mouth of the Steinhatchee River, Deadman Bay was on Spanish maps by the early 1500’s. Spanish Conquistador Panfilo de Narvaez came through the area in 1529 followed by Hernando de Soto ten years later. DeSoto crossed the Steinhatchee River at the "Falls." In 1818, General Andrew Jackson (1767-1845) also crossed at the Falls on his way to dispatch the Seminoles who were raiding "white" settlements. In 1838, General Zachary Taylor (1784 -1850) was sent to put down the Seminoles during the Second Seminole War. Fort Frank Brook was established up the Steinhatchee River in the same year and abandoned in 1840. In 1879, James Howard Stephens (1825-1906), a local pioneer, offered land for a post office changing the name from Deadman Bay to Stephensville. In 1931, the community was renamed Steinhatchee after the river. The name Steinhatchee was derived from the Native American "esteen hatchee" meaning river (hatchee) of man (esteen). Steinhatchee's long history of human habitation includes prehistoric man dating from 12,000 BC, pirates from 15th through 18th centuries, loggers in the 1800s, sponge divers in the 1940’s and 1950’s and commercial fishermen, shrimpers, and crabbers today.
Mayo (28 miles south of Perry on U.S. 27)
Established in 1874 by John B. Whitfield, Mayo was named in honor of James M. Mayo, a colonel in the Confederate Army and father of Nathan Mayo, who served as State Commissioner of Agriculture from 1923 to 1960. Mayo became the county seat of Lafayette County in 1892, after the courthouse in the previous county seat at New Troy was destroyed by fire. A two-story wood frame courthouse was completed in 1894 but was moved in 1907 to its current site at the corner of Fletcher and Bloxham Streets to make way for the present Classical Revival style courthouse which was completed in 1909. A small commercial district in the vicinity of the courthouses is noted for its historic turn-of-the-century architecture.
Branford (17.5 miles south of Mayo on U.S. 27)
In the late 19th century, steamboats docked regularly at the old depot in Branford (originally called Rowland's Bluff). Branford was a major port on the Suwannee River at that time. From here, the steam powered vessels carried the region's cotton, lumber, and naval stores to market. In 1882, the depot also became the terminus for the Live Oak & Rowland's Bluff Railroad. Steamboat traffic ended on the Suwannee before 1920, but the depot continued in use as a railroad station for many years. The wrecks of the steamboats "Madison", the "City of Hawkinsville" and others that lie on the river's bottom are reminders of a vanished era. In 1982, the Branford Shrine Club purchased the depot from the S.C.L Railroad and moved it to its present site for use as a club house and community center.
Lake City Junction (10.5 miles south of Branford on U.S. 27 at Junction Road)
Fort White (3 miles south of Lake City Junction on U.S. 27)
The town of Fort White, named for a former Second Seminole War fort built nearby in 1837, was founded in 1870 and flourished briefly after the arrival of the railroad in 1888. Phosphate mining and the growing of citrus and cotton sparked a boom that before 1900 made Fort White the second largest city in Columbia County with a population of nearly 2,000. The boom collapsed when severe freezes in the winter of 1896-1897 destroyed the local citrus industry. Phosphate mining ceased by 1910, and the boll weevil ended cotton farming before World War I. A handful of historic buildings, such as the Old Fort White School (1915) remain from the town's era of prosperity.
Side Trip to O’Leno State Park (County Road 18 East, U.S. Highway 41 South)
O’Leno State Park (6.5 miles east on CR 18, 1 mile south on U.S. 41)
Originally called "Keno", for a variation of lotto gambling, the town was settled in the 1860's. Ecclesiastical and commercial pressure changed the name to "Leno" in 1876. A grist and saw mill, cotton gin, stores, and hotel sprang up in the settlement. Railroad construction bypassed the town, and by the 1890's Leno became a ghost town. The site of old Leno (O'Leno) was purchased by the state as a park and forestry station in 1934.
High Springs (10 miles south of Fort White on U.S. 27)
The northwest region of Alachua County was probably first settled on a permanent basis by English speaking people during the late 1830's. One of the earliest settlements `in the vicinity was Crockett Springs, located about three miles east of present day High Springs. No town developed in the area before the latter part of the nineteenth century. In 1884, the Savannah, Florida, & Western Railroad was extended from Live Oak to Gainesville. A post office and station were established here in that year under the name of Stantaffey, which was a common spelling of the name of the nearby Santa Fe River. The town was also known unofficially as Orion before the name was changed in 1880 to High Springs. In the next few years, High Springs boomed as a result of the development of phosphate mining in the area. In 1892, the town was incorporated. During the next year, the Savannah, Florida, & Western Railroad completed its South Florida Division which connected High Springs with Port Tampa. By the beginning of the twentieth century, High Springs was known as an important railroad center. In later years, High Springs has been the focus for the surrounding agricultural region.
Point of Interest:
Railroad Depot (20 N.W. Railroad Avenue)
This old passenger depot, built in 1910, is all that remains of the vast railroad complex located southwest of downtown that made High Springs a bustling railroad center for nearly 50 years. In 1895, the Plant Railroad System chose the town as the site of its divisional headquarters. Rail yards, workshops, and a roundhouse serviced hundreds of steam engines and cars sent to High Springs to be cleaned and repaired. The importance of High Springs as a rail center declined as diesel engines replaced the old steam locomotives after World War II. Gradually, all of the railroad buildings disappeared, except the depot, which was moved to this site and renovated as a railroad museum in 1994.
Side Trip to Natural Bridge and Bland (U.S. Highway 41 North, Bellamy Road East)
Natural Bridge (6 miles north on U.S. 41, 3 miles east on Bellamy Road)
This natural crossing of the Santa Fe River was part of an old Spanish trail between St. Augustine and Pensacola. The bridge is a limestone formation level with the surrounding terrain. The river disappears at the bottom of a sink hole, follows its course underground, then returns to the surface 3.5 miles south of the bridge. A century ago, trains of covered wagons often camped here for days until excess water drained off the bridge so that they could cross. In 1824, the First session of the 18th United States Congress appropriated $20,000.00 to develop a public road in the Territory of Florida between Pensacola and St. Augustine. It was to follow as nearly as possible on the pre-existing Old Mission Trail. The St. Augustine to Tallahassee segment was contracted to John Bellamy. He completed this in 1826, using Native American guides and his own slaves. The Congressional Record states the following:
Be it enacted that the President of the United States is hereby authorized to cause to be opened, in the Territory of Florida, a public road from Pensacola to St. Augustine, commencing at Deer Point, on the Bay of Pensacola, and pursuing the old Indian Trail to the Cow Ford on the Choctawatchy River; thence direct to the Natural Bridge on the Econfinan River; thence to the Ochese Bluff on the Apalachicola River; thence in the most direct practicable to the site of Fort St. Louis; thence as nearly as practicable, on the old Spanish road to St. Augustine crossing the St. Johns River at Picolata; which road shall be plainly and distinctly marked and shall be the width of twenty-five feet.
Side Trip to Bland (County Road 236 East, County Road 241 North)
Bland (8 miles east on CR 236, 1.7 miles north on CR 241)
This area was called "Bland" by its first and only postmaster, J.L. Matthews, who named it for his son in 1903.
A Spanish Mission was established near here within sight of the Santa Fe River about A.D. 1606 by Franciscan missionaries. The river took its name from the mission, as did the modern town of Santa Fe. At one time, Santa Fe de Toloca was said to be the principal Timucuan Indian mission in a chain that stretched across the interior of la Florida from St. Augustine on the east coast. Archaeological investigations between 1986 and 1989, by the Florida Museum of Natural History at the University of Florida, have revealed traces of a Spanish-style church, a cemetery with Indian burial in Christian fashion, traces of Indian village life, and fragments of seventeenth century Spanish and Indian pottery. The Indians at Santa Fe provisioned the Castillo de San Marcos and the town of St. Augustine with their crops of corn, wheat, and probably peaches, which they carried in baskets strapped to their backs along the Old Spanish Trail. Produce and cattle were also boated down the Santa Fe and Suwannee Rivers to Cuba. Several generations of Timucuans were born and died at this site. Everyday life centered on tending their gardens and studying Roman Catholic doctrine. Their routines were broken by visitations by the Bishop of Cuba, the Indian Rebellion of 1656, epidemics of disease introduced by Europeans, and the influx of other Indian groups. The mission church and village were attacked and burned in 1702 by invading English soldiers and their Indian allies from the Carolinas. The destruction of Santa Fe de Toloca, and the other missions of La Florida, weakened Spain's control and led, ultimately to Florida becoming a United States' possession in 1821.
Santa Fe de Toloca was located at an existing Indian village. This may have been the same village visited by Hernando De Soto's army in 1539; a village called Cholupaha.
Side Trip to Gainesville (U.S. Highway 441 South)
Alachua (6.5 miles south on U.S. 441)
Alachua was founded in 1884 when the Plant System, later part of the Atlantic Coast Line Railroad, was built through this section. The town developed rapidly as a shipping point. An old map indicates that the Creek Indian settlement of Alachua occupied the approximate site of the present community in 1715.
Point of Interest:
Newnansville Cemetery (1.6 miles north on CR 235)
At the end of 1824, Alachua County was organized as a political unit of the new Territory of Florida. The Seminole inhabitants of the Alachua region had recently been ordered to a reservation, and land was available there for white settlers. Early in 1826, a post office was established in this area called "Dell's P.O." It derived its name from the Dell brothers, who had first visited the Alachua region during the Patriot War (1812-14) and had later returned to settle there. In 1828, the settlement near Dell's P.O. was officially made the Alachua County seat and named "Newnansville" in honor of a Patriot War hero, Daniel Newnan. Newnansville became the junction of several important trails through frontier Florida. A marker stands on the site of the Bellamy Road, a cross-Florida route authorized by Congress in 1824 as the first Federal road in the new territory. During the Second Seminole War (1835-42), hundreds of displaced refugee settlers were sheltered at Newnansville and also at Ft. Gilleland, a nearby military post built in 1836.
After the hostilities were concluded, Newnansville prospered as a commercial center for the expanding Middle Florida frontier. The chief products of the area were corn, cotton, and after the Civil War, citrus. Except for a few years between 1832 and 1839, Newnansville served as the Alachua County seat until 1854. In that year, the political center of the county was moved to the new railroad town of Gainesville. During the next three decades, Newnansville slowly declined in population and importance. The community was dealt a final blow in 1884 when the Savannah, Florida & Western Railroad bypassed it. Alachua grew up near that railroad. As the years passed, the residents of Newnansville moved there or elsewhere. By the 1970's, only a few traces remained of the former community. In 1974, the Newnansville Town Site was placed on the National Register of Historic Places as an historic district in recognition of the importance of that nineteenth century community.
Gainesville (21 miles south on U.S. 441)
The Gainesville area was known as Potano Province when De Soto marched through it in 1539. Present-day Gainesville was the center of a large Spanish cattle ranching industry, founded on the labor of native Timuqua Indians, during the 1600’s. LaChua, largest of the ranches, was a Spanish corruption of an Indian word, and in turn was corrupted into "Alachua County." English raids destroyed the Indian civilization and Spanish ranches, although large wild herds of cattle were not uncommon during Seminole War years (1835-1842). The name was changed to Alachua when the Creek Indians took possession upon the English acquisition of Florida in 1763. A white settlement known as Hog Town grew up around a trading post established here in 1830. The name was finally changed to Gainesville in 1853 in honor of General Edmund P. Gaines, a Seminole War leader. Families from Georgia, Alabama, and the Carolinas came to lay out large cotton plantations. Completion of the Florida Railway across the State in the early 1860’s stimulated development. A post office, abolished during the War Between the States, was reestablished in 1866. Stagecoach service was also opened with Ocala.
The first Civil War gunfire in Gainesville's streets came on February 15th, 1864, when a raiding party of 50 men from the 40th Massachusetts Cavalry entered the City to attempt the capture of two trains. The raid was unproductive, for the Union troops were met and repulsed by the Second Florida Cavalry at what is now Main Street at University Avenue. Five days later, the main Federal force was defeated at the Battle of Olustee, 50 miles to the north near Lake City.
A battle was fought in Gainesville on August 17th, 1864, when about 300 occupying Union troops were attacked by Florida Cavalry under Captain J.J. Dickison, called "Florida's most conspicuous soldier." The Union forces were driven from the city after a brisk fight and suffered severe casualties during hard pursuit.
The coming of the Florida Railroad opened up the interior of Florida for both settlement and trading and helped establish Gainesville. On February 1st, 1859, the Florida Railroad entered town and connected Fernandina Beach with Cedar Key by 1861. Built from the northeast along what is now Waldo Road, the rails crossed 13th Street at Archer Road, and continued southwest along Archer Road to Cedar Key.
In 1881, the Florida Southern Railroad reached town from Palatka, Hawthorne and Rochelle, entering at South Main Street from Hawthorne Road and running the length of Main Street to 8th Avenue. A route from Rochelle provided service to Ocala. Three years later, the Savannah, Florida & Western Railroad linked to these tracks, providing service through Alachua to Waycross, Georgia. The two lines merged in 1902, becoming the Atlantic Coast Line Railroad, providing service from Tampa Bay to New York. ACL trains ran in the middle of Main Street stopping for passengers to use the city's hotels. In 1895, the Gainesville & Gulf Railroad built a line to Micanopy along N.W. 6th Street. By 1899, the rails reached south past Fairfield to Emathala and north to Sampson City. The Gainesville & Gulf was sold in 1906 and renamed the Tampa & Jacksonville, or T&J. In 1900, the Seaboard Air Line Railroad (SAL) was established and acquired the old Florida Railroad right-of-way through Gainesville. When the SAL bought the T&J in 1926, it was renamed the Jacksonville, Gainesville & Gulf. This line was abandoned in 1943.
The 19th century Florida roads were sandy, swampy and nearly impassible, so early rail access to two ports dramatically increased Gainesville's prosperity. Railroads provided transportation for outgoing agricultural products and brought in the region's first tourists, creating a demand for hotels, restaurants and other services. As the demand for North Central Florida agriculture grew at the turn of the 20th century, more railroads crisscrossed the region. The last railroad passenger service in Gainesville ended in 1971. The Atlantic Coast Line (ACL) Railroad built a modern depot in 1948 rerouting its trains from Main Street downtown to tracks on Northwest 6th Street. The ACL depot is presently part of the downtown campus of Santa Fe Community College.
Gainesville became an educational center with the establishment in 1867 of an academy, the nucleus of the State Seminary for the region east of the Suwannee River. In 1905, State-supported schools for white males were merged and consolidated as the University of Florida.
Points of Interest:
University of Florida (University Avenue)
Although its beginnings preceded Florida’s admission to the Union, the first college--the College of Arts and Sciences--did not open until 1853. During the War Between the States, the Federal Government, by the Merrill Act, provided lands for institutions in those states that would promote agriculture, the mechanical arts, and military training. An agricultural college was opened in Lake City in 1884, and the Experiment Station was established there later. In 1905, the Florida legislature consolidated all State-maintained colleges into three, of which the University of Florida was one. Until the First World War, its annual enrollment did not exceed 500. During the next 20 years it reached 3,000, with 2,000 attending the co-educational summer sessions.
The University of Florida Campus Historic District and two individual campus buildings were listed in the National Register of Historic Places in 1989 and 1990 in recognition of their architectural and cultural significance and the coherence of the campus plan. The buildings were designed by architects William A. Edwards from 1905 to 1924 and Rudolph Weaver from 1925 to 1939 in the Collegiate Gothic style. The landscape plan was developed in 1926 by Olmsted Brothers, the firm that designed New York's Central Park. The historic campus reflects the university's rich heritage and the significant place it holds in Florida's educational history.
Plaza of the Americas (University of Florida)
This landscaped parkway was dedicated in 1925 to the 21 American Republics.
Law School Mound (University of Florida)
West of the University of Florida Law School is an aboriginal burial mound built around A.D. 1000 by Alachua tradition peoples, ancestors of the Potano Indians who lived in Alachua County in the 16th and 17th centuries. Initially several individuals were buried in a central grave, and a small earthen mound was raised over them. Through time additional burials were laid on the mound's surface and covered with earth. The villagers who built the mound probably lived along the shore of Lake Alice. Well before the mound was built, people of the Deptford Culture, 500 B.C. to A.D. 100, camped on this same location. The remains of their campsite were covered by the mound. First dug in 1881 by a local Gainesville resident, the mound and earlier campsite were excavated by Florida State Museum archaeologists and students in 1976.
John F. Seagle Building (522 W. University Avenue)
A relic of the boom era, this structure was originally intended as a hotel. Miss Georgia Seagle, pioneer resident of the city, later donated the building to the University for administrative offices.
East Florida Seminary (419 1st Street N.E.)
Founded as the Gainesville Academy before the Civil War and later renamed, the East Florida Seminary served Gainesville's need for higher education until the University of Florida was created by the Florida Legislature in 1905. The Seminary school building, erected after an earlier structure burned in 1833, was converted to use as a fellowship hall by the First Methodist Church.
Matheson House (528 S.W. 1st Street)
The Matheson homestead dates from 1857, when Alexander Matheson brought his family from Camden, South Carolina to establish a home on the Sweetwater Branch at the eastern edge of the new town of Gainesville. The present one and a half story Matheson House is believed to incorporate much of the original one story home. Alexander moved his family back to South Carolina in the early years of the Civil War. After the war and settlement of a mortgage foreclosure, the property was acquired by his younger brother, James D. Matheson, who had served as an officer in the Seventh South Carolina Cavalry and surrendered at Appomattox. He moved into the home in 1867 with his new bride, Augusta Florida Steele, daughter of Judge Augustus Steele, founder of Cedar Key, and an influential Florida pioneer during the territorial and early statehood period. James, a prominent businessman and merchant, ran a successful dry goods store and engaged in other commercial enterprises. He was also a trustee of the East Florida Seminary and served on the Alachua County Commission from 1895 to 1899. Elected County Treasurer in 1909, he held that office until his death in 1911. By 1907, James and Augusta had enlarged their home, adding the second floor bedrooms, the distinctive gambrel roof and gabled dormers, a first floor sitting room, and enclosing part of the back porch. Their son, Christopher, born in 1874, continued to live here after completing his education at the East Florida Seminary and the Citadel. He established a law practice in 1900, and served as mayor of Gainesville from 1910 to 1917 and in the Florida Legislature in 1917 and 1919. Ordained a Presbyterian minister in 1919, he left his law practice to serve the ministry in Oklahoma for the next 26 years. During this time, the house was rented to various tenants. On his retirement in 1946, he returned home with his wife, Sarah Hamilton Matheson. She maintained her residence here after his death in 1952 and in 1989 donated the property to the Matheson Historical Center, Incorporated.
Bailey House (1121 N.W. 6th Street)
This is one of the oldest houses in the city of Gainesville. It was constructed about 1850 by Major James B. Bailey, a prominent citizen of Alachua County. Bailey was a leading proponent of moving the county seat away from Newnansville to a new place, later known as Gainesville, part of which was to be located on his own plantation. The Bailey House was entered in the National Register of Historic Places in 1972.
Hogtown Settlement/Fort Hogtown (34th Street NW and 8th Avenue NW)
Near this site was located Hogtown, one of the earliest settlements in Alachua County. It was originally an Indian village which in 1824 had fourteen inhabitants. Hogtown settlement is also mentioned in documents of the early nineteenth century which discuss land grants issued by the Spanish crown during the Second Spanish Period in Florida's history (1783-1821). In the late 1820's, Hogtown became a white settlement as American pioneers occupied Indian land from which the Seminoles had been removed by the terms of the Treaty of Moultrie Creek. In 1854, the town of Gainesville was founded on a site located a few miles east of Hogtown.
During the Second Seminole War (1835-42), a settler's fort was built at the Hogtown settlement near this site. Shortly before the onset of that war, men from the Hogtown settlement and from Spring Grove, a community located about four miles to the west, organized a volunteer company of mounted riflemen, the Spring Grove Guards. Spring Grove was at that time the seat of justice in Alachua County (1832-1839). For several months, members of the Guards periodically paraded and patrolled the countryside to protect the inhabitants against Indians. The fort at Hogtown was one of more than a dozen Second Seminole War forts located in or near present-day Alachua County.
Fort Clarke (9121 W. Newberry Road)
Near this site was located Fort Clarke, originally a U.S. Army post during the Seminole War, and afterwards a settlement. The name is preserved in Fort Clarke Church. At this site crossed the early settlement and military road connecting the old county seats at Newnansville (near present-day Alachua) and Spring Grove with Micanopy. Fort Clarke was named for a U.S. Army officer.
Haile Homestead (8500 Archer Road)
One of the oldest houses in Alachua County, the Historic Haile Homestead was the home of Thomas Evans Haile, his wife Esther Serena Chesnut Haile and 14 of their children. The Hailes came here from Camden, South Carolina in 1854 to establish a 1,500-acre Sea Island Cotton plantation which they named Kanapaha. Enslaved black craftsmen completed the 6,200-square-foot mansion in 1856. The 1860 census showed 66 slaves living here. The Hailes survived bankruptcy in 1868 and turned the property into a productive farm, growing a variety of fruits and vegetables including oranges. Serena Haile died in 1895; Thomas in 1896. The Homestead, which passed to son Evans, a prominent defense attorney, became the site of house parties attended by some of Gainesville’s most distinguished citizens. The Hailes had the unusual habit of writing on the walls; all together over 12,500 words with the oldest writing dating to the 1850's. The Homestead was placed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1986. A restoration was completed in 1996. Still partly owned by descendants of Evans Haile, the Homestead is one of the few remaining homesteads built by Sea Island cotton planters in this part of Florida.
Newberry (13 miles south of High Springs on U.S. Highway 27)
Only after about 1870 did phosphates become an important world industry. In Alachua County, phosphates were discovered late in the 1870's, but as in other regions of Florida, the major developments in phosphate mining and processing began about 1889. The western part of Alachua County contained the major local deposits of rock phosphates. Mines began to spring up after 1890, and by 1893, the Savannah, Florida, & Western Railway, already active in the area, extended its tracks southward from High Springs through the phosphate producing territory. As a result of the mining activity and the appearance of the railroad, a new settlement appeared. A post office was established on March 19th, 1894, under the name of Newtown; on August 1, the name was changed to Newberry. Most probably the new name was intended to honor Newberry, South Carolina, as many people had moved to North Florida from that town in the nineteenth century. The town of Newberry was incorporated in 1895. Phosphates continued to be the area's most important industry until the events of World War I reduced the market for the mineral. The region was later noted for its watermelon production and for other agricultural crops.
Archer (10 miles south of Newberry on U.S. Highway 27)
When Europeans first arrived in this area in the 16th century, the inhabitants were Timucuan Indians. In 1774, traveling botanist William Bartram visited Seminole Indians nearby. In the 1850's, a town called Deer Hammock was established here, probably in anticipation of the construction of the Florida Railroad from Fernandina to Cedar Key. Upon completion of the railroad to Deer Hammock in 1859, the name of the town was changed in honor of James T. Archer, Florida's Secretary of State (1845-49) and advocate of internal improvements. The Archer post office was established the same year. In May of 1865, the remnants of the Confederate treasury, removed from captured Richmond and conveyed by baggage train into Florida, were hidden at Cotton Wood, the Archer plantation of David Yulee, just prior to Union seizure at Waldo. In the contested presidential election of 1876, the votes of the Archer precinct for the Republican candidate were among those challenged but allowed to stand, thus securing the victory of Rutherford B. Hayes over Samuel J. Tilden. The town of Archer was incorporated in 1878. Among new arrivals in the 1880's were Quakers who planted extensive orange groves using avenues of oaks as windbreaks. The freezes of 1886 and 1894-95 killed the orange trees, but the oaks survived to shade the city streets. Archer's oldest surviving industry is the Maddox Foundry, established in 1905 by H. Maddox and operated by his descendants.
Point of Interest:
CottonWood Plantation (County Road 346)
David Levy Yulee was born at St. Thomas, West Indies, in 1810. He attended school in Virginia from 1819 until 1827 when he went to Micanopy to work on one of the plantations of his father, Moses Elias Levy. He studied law and was admitted to the bar in 1836. His time was divided between the practice of law and agriculture. Yulee was elected to the Florida Constitutional Convention at St. Joseph in 1838. He was a delegate to Congress from the Territory of Florida from 1841-45 and spearheaded the drive for statehood. In 1845, he was chosen as the first U.S. Senator from Florida and was the first Jew in the United States to be elected to the U.S. Senate. Defeated for reelection in 1851, Yulee was again elected to the Senate in 1855. In the Senate, he served as chairman of the committees on naval affairs and on post offices and post roads. Yulee served in the U.S. Senate until he resigned upon the secession of Florida in 1861. While serving as territorial delegate, Yulee obtained a railroad survey of Florida and was one of the first railroad promoters in the South. In 1853, he incorporated the Florida Railroad which, when completed in 1860, passed through Archer, connecting Fernandina and Cedar Key. Long an advocate of the Southern movement and secession, Yulee supported Florida's entry into the Confederacy. However, he chose not to pursue elective office and devoted time to his plantations and his railroad. He was at odds with Confederate authorities who wanted to use materials from his railroad for more vital lines. Cotton Wood Plantation, located about one mile northeast of this site, was the home of Yulee during the War Between the States. Upon the fall of the Confederacy, personal baggage of President Jefferson Davis and part of the Confederate treasury, reached Cotton Wood, under armed guard, on May 22nd, 1865. Following the war, Yulee was imprisoned at Fort Pulaski, at Savannah, until General U.S. Grant intervened for his release in March of 1866. Yulee sold his holdings in Florida and moved to Washington, D.C. in 1880. He died in 1886 and was buried at New York Avenue Presbyterian Church in Washington, D.C. Originally known as David Levy, he had his name changed by an act of the Florida Legislature in 1845.
Archer Historical Society Railroad Museum (Main Street and Magnolia Street)
The railroad station was built prior to 1900. It has been moved and restored as a museum featuring historical artifacts and items related to the history of Archer, Florida.
Goodwood House Hotel (704 McDowell Street)
Built in 1888, this structure was originally a hotel that accommodated railroad travelers. Moving north-west along McDowell Street there were stores, a post office and a boarding house, in addition to homes, before the turn of the century.
Raleigh (7 miles south of Archer on U.S. 27)
Nearby are abandoned sections of narrow paved roads of the type that brought Florida highways out of the sand in 1916 and 1917.
Williston (4 miles south of Raleigh on U.S. 27)
Rock as white as chalk is quarried in this vicinity from strata formed ages ago from the skeletal remains of innumerable marine animals.
Point of Interest:
Citizens Bank (5 NW Main Street)
The Citizens Bank opened in 1914 and absorbed their only competitor, the Bank of Williston, in 1926. One year later, Citizens Bank closed, perhaps a victim of the 1926 collapse of the Florida Land Boom. The building is a commercial design that was common in small cities and towns in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, but exhibits exceptional details that set it apart, particularly the patterned tile floor and pressed metal ceilings. [i]
(25 miles south of Williston on U.S. 27 at U.S. 441)
In 1825, an Indian trading post was established about two miles east of the present town site. In 1827, the post was manned with troops and named Fort King. During the Seminole War, the fort was headquarters for central Florida. On April 3rd, 1835, Wiley Thompson, an Indian agent, called a council of chiefs to explain the Government’s intentions of enforcing the Treaty of 1833. Indian leaders had agreed in that treaty to immigrate to the Indian Territory (now Oklahoma). When an Indian named Jumper, speaking for Chief Micanope, declared his people would never sign the treaty, Thompson immediately prohibited the sale of arms and ammunition to the Indians. Thereupon the colorful Indian leader, Osceola, declared: ‘Am I a Negro--a slave? My skin is dark, but not black. I am an Indian--a Seminole. The white man shall not make me black. I will make the white man red with blood, and then blacken him in the sun and rain, where the wolf shall smell of his bones, and the buzzard live upon his flesh.’
The following October, Osceola and his followers executed Charley Emathla, a Mikasuki chief who had favored emigration, and scattered to the four winds the money Charley had received from the sale of his cattle to the hated white men. Thompson then threatened the Indian chiefs with withdrawal of annuities unless the emigration treaty was signed. Osceola rose dramatically and pinned the treaty to the desk with his dagger, crying, ‘This is the only treaty I will ever make with the whites!’ The treaty, still preserved in the National Archives Building in Washington, plainly shows the cut through three leaves made by Osceola’s dagger. On December 28th, 1835, Osceola appeared at Fort King and killed Thompson and Lieutenant Constantine Smith. On the same day, Major Dade and his entire command were annihilated by an Indian band on nearby Withlacoochee River (See US 301-Florida). Thus began the Seminole War, which continued until August of 1842.
When the first settlers came into this section, acres of wild orange groves studded the rich hammock lands. After the Seminole War, standard varieties of citrus fruits were introduced. During the subtropical exposition held in Jacksonville between 1888 and 1891, displays of fruits and winter vegetables caused much favorable comment, and are said to have aroused northern interest in Florida citrus.
By legislative act, in 1852 Ocala became the seat of the East Florida Seminary, the first institution of learning established in Florida. The school was later moved to Gainesville. Ocala boomed in 1935 when work started on the Gulf-Atlantic Ship Canal. Tents and shacks were hurriedly put up in the vicinity to shelter newcomers and provide temporary quarters for new business enterprises. Camp Roosevelt was constructed nearby to house an army of workers, becoming a city in itself. Designed to aid national defense and facilitate shipping between the Gulf States and the Atlantic seaboard, the canal was to provide a sea-level toll-free waterway 195 miles long. As laid out by army engineers, the route of the canal would follow the channel of the St. Johns River from its mouth, through Jacksonville, to Palatka. From Palatka, it would travel southwest along the Oklawaha River to a point 8 miles south of Ocala. A man-made canal would connect the waterway from that point, through the Trail Ridge, with the Withlacoochee River near Dunnellon, where it would run to the Gulf at Port Inglis. By 1936, 13,000,000 cubic yards of earth had been excavated and 4,700 acres of right-of-way cleared. The canal, however, was never completed, due to a lack of funding. Large portions of the canal still exist south of Palatka and at Port Inglis.
In December of 1890, Ocala was host to a meeting of the National Farmers' Alliance. Sessions, attended by 88 delegates and hundreds of visitors, were held at the Opera House and the Semi-Tropical Exposition Building. A state-wide agricultural exposition was held in conjunction with the meeting. The delegates adopted the famous "Ocala Demands", a platform outlining political and economic reforms considered necessary by the Alliance.
Points of Interest:
Marshall Plantation Site (Silver River State Park, 1425 N.E. 58th Avenue)
A short distance northeast of Ocala stood the sugar plantation of Jehu Foster Marshall, established in 1855. At the start of the Civil War in 1861, Marshall was
named a colonel in the Confederate Army and soon commanded one of General Wade Hampton’s infantry units, the 1st South Carolina Rifles. Colonel Marshall was killed during the Second
Battle of Manassas in August of 1862. The plantation continued in operation under the supervision of his widow, Elizabeth Anne DeBrull Marshall, until March 10th, 1865, when Union
troops staged a surprise raid. The Marshall Plantation and the sugar mill were burned to the ground. The raid was conducted by elements of the 3rd United States Colored
Infantry, led by African-American Sergeant Major Henry James. The Ocala Home Guard pursued the Union force and during the running battle, two of the home guard members were killed. After
crossing the Ocklawaha River, the raiders set fire to the bridge. Company H, 2nd Florida Cavalry, led by Captain J.J. Dickison, encamped at nearby Silver Springs, soon gave chase and succeeded
in driving the Union troops into St. Augustine, and reclaiming all property seized during the raid.
Old Courthouse Square (Silver Springs Boulevard and S.E. 1st Avenue)
Designated as a public square in the original Ocala plat of 1846, this location was the site of Marion County’s first permanent courthouse built in 1851. It was a
two-story frame building of Colonial design. The second courthouse was erected on this site in 1884, a two-story brick cube. Public dissatisfaction caused a third courthouse with more
adequate space to be built in 1906. It was of Roman design with a clock dome and veneered walls of Indiana sandstone. In 1965, when public efforts to save it failed, it was demolished.
This site was given by Marion County to the City of Ocala in a property exchange, becoming a city park, thus retaining its function as a public square as planned by the city’s founders.
Camp Roosevelt (6.5 miles south of Ocala on U.S. Highway 27 at CR 328)
This was the headquarters for the National Gulf-Atlantic Ship Canal project. Modern cottages, an auditorium, and a community house were built for the workers. Designed to aid national defense and facilitate shipping between the Gulf States and the Atlantic seaboard, the canal was to provide a sea-level, toll-free waterway 195 miles long. As laid out by army engineers, the route of the canal was to follow the channel of the St. Johns River from its mouth through Jacksonville to Palatka, then travel southwest along the Oklawaha River to a point 8 miles south of Ocala; continuing southwest, it would cut through the high ground of the Trail Ridge to join the Withlacoochee River near Dunnellon, following the Withlacoochee to the Gulf at Port Inglis.
The building of such a waterway as a barge canal had been studied by Government engineers for a century; as a ship canal, it had been discussed since 1926. On August 30th, 1935, President Franklin D. Roosevelt authorized the building of the canal and allocated $5,000,000 from emergency relief funds toward its construction; two additional allotments of $200,000 followed. On September 19th, 1935, a charge of dynamite set off by wire from the White House officially inaugurated operations. By the summer of 1936, when work was suspended, 13,000,000 cubic yards of earth had been excavated, and 4,700 acres of right-of-way cleared.
After further studies had been made in the fall of 1936 and spring of 1937 by army engineers, a report was transmitted to Congress by Secretary of War Woodring in April of 1937, recommending the completion of a canal 33 feet deep at a minimum and 400 feet wide, at a cost of $197,921,000. On June 8th, 1937, the Committee on Rivers and Harbors of the House of Representatives recommended the passage of a bill authorizing the completion of the canal, but Congress adjourned before a vote was taken.
With World War II in full swing and the image of burning oil tankers off Florida’s coast, canal supporters recognized the time was right to reintroduce legislation authorizing the construction of a canal. Citing the importance of national defense, these boosters now argued the canal was necessary to help protect the nation’s wartime shipping interests. In 1942, Florida Senator Claude Pepper’s bill was favorably reported by the Senate Commerce Committee. The bill was passed the Senate by a single vote. Passing by a larger margin in the House of Representatives, the now completed bill for a barge canal was sent to the White House for Franklin Roosevelt’s signature. On July 23rd, 1942, Roosevelt signed the bill authorizing construction. No monies, however, were allocated for the project.
Work began again in 1964, when workers immediately began excavation on the six mile stretch of the canal west of the St. Johns River. This element of the project was completed by August of 1964. While this section was being completed, other parts of the canal were being excavated or built. Excavation started west of Inglis in November of 1964, and construction for the St. Johns Lock began in December and for the Inglis Lock in April of 1965. By 1968, Rodman Dam, creating Lake Ocklawaha, and the St. Johns Lock (later renamed after Henry H. Buckman) had been completed and work was well underway on the west end of the canal near Inglis. Little work had been done, however, on the connector part of the canal, the piece designed to cross the Central Florida Ridge. In 1971, President Richard Nixon ended the project.[ii]
Point of Interest:
Canal Bridge Supports (In wooded median south of CR 328)
In addition to clearing the land and excavating the canal, engineers proposed a series of railroad and highway bridges to be built over the waterway. A major bridge was the Dixie Highway (now U.S. Highway 441) bridge at Santos. The large excavations necessary for both the canal and the bridge at this location necessitated the destruction of the traditionally African-American community at Santos. This vibrant town of approximately 300 residents centered on a railway depot on the Florida Transit & Peninsula Railway and included stores, a post office, a school, and three churches. The strong sense of community pride was represented by a local baseball team organized in the 1890s, which remained active through the 1930s. While physically destroyed, the spirit of the Santos residents remained intact, creating a legacy of black life that remains today. The interpretation of this community and its historic structures are an important part of the Marjorie Harris Carr Greenway Master Plan.
In this area, four enormous concrete bridge stanchions remain in the middle of U.S. Highway 441. The only bridge construction ever started from this project, these tree-covered silent sentinels, now nominated for historic register status, stand as a monument to the 1930s canal project and will be an integral part of the historic interpretation of the Greenway.
Belleview (11 miles south of Ocala on U.S. Highway 27)
One of Belleview's first recorded white land owners was a transplanted South Carolinian, J.F. Pelot, Sr. In 1854, he settled on a farm about three miles west of the present town site. Prior to Pelot's arrival, the area around Lake Lillian was a popular resting place for Native American bands including Seminoles under Osceola. In April of 1839, United States soldiers held talks with a group of Seminoles on an overnight excursion somewhere near Lake Lillian, which was called Nine Mile Pond at that time. The name came about because the pond was located nine miles south of Fort King (present-day Ocala). When the Florida Railway & Navigation Company railroad arrived in the county during 1882, a new development firm called the Marion Land & Improvement Company was formed to promote and sell the land around Lake Lillian. Lake Lillian has had several names (Nine Mile Pond, Butlers Pond, and Roach's Pond) when the land around the lake was owned by early settler King Roach. It is not known how or when the name Lake Lillian came to pass. By 1886, it was referred to as Lake Lillian in a booklet about Belleview published by the Marion Land & Improvement Company. According to a history of the town written in 1950, the name was derived by the founders in 1884 from a combination of the French world "belle" and "view", to promote the beautiful vistas to be seen around the fledgling town.
The area was considered "a health haven in the midst of natural and attractive scenery, rolling terrain, fertile soil, and mild equable climate. Its attractiveness to northerners in feeble health seeking a place for winter residence was soon recognized. The Lakeview Hotel, then known as the Hotel Sanitatia, was owned and operated by Dr. H. Knight. Its desirability attracted men of prominent standing in all walks of life." John F. Dunn was listed as a major stakeholder in the Marion Land & Development Company. He was an attorney and banker in Ocala and a stockholder in the Dunnellon Short Railway. He was involved with the development of Heather Island on Lake Weir, was the head of development of the community of Dunnellon in the 1880's, and was deeply involved in the phosphate boom in Marion County during the 1890's.
From 1851 to 1882, the Concord Stage Line used Lake Lillian as a watering stop before changing teams and getting food for the passengers at a station on the top of a hill about two miles south of town. The route south from Jacksonville to Tampa included stops at Palatka, Orange Springs, Orange Lake, Ocala, Camp Izard, Augusta, Pierceville, and Fort Taylor. The route followed the old military road established after the U.S. gained the territory of Florida during the 1820's and 1830's. Today, that road is U.S. Highway 301. Another route out of Belleview to the south was the Old Wire Road. "The International Ocean Telegraph strung its wires along this route. This became Western Union and Florida Railway & Navigation Company became the Florida Central & Peninsular Railway, later part of the Seaboard Coastline.
From Belleview, this travel route follows the older route of U.S. Highway 27 and U.S. Highway 441 southeast on what is now designated as County Road 25 through Ocklawaha and Weirsdale. County Road 25 also follows the route of the railroad around Lake Weir.
Ocklawaha (7.5 miles south of Belleview on CR 25)
Point of Interest:
Barker House (13250 CR 25)
It was at this residence that Fred and ‘Ma’ Barker were killed on January 16th, 1935, by Federal agents. These criminals had been the principals in the Bremer kidnapping in Milwaukee, Wisconsin the previous fall. Ma (Machine-Gun-Kate) Barker, a woman well into her 50’s, was an experienced criminal and the mother of three criminal sons. The trail of the fugitives was picked up in Chicago when the Department of Justice men raided an apartment used by the Barkers and found a map of Florida, with the name of Ocala circled in pencil. The house on Lake Weir, in which Ma and her son, Fred, were hiding, was discovered, and one day the former was seen standing beside a rowboat, framed against a background of Spanish moss. All roads in the vicinity were blocked, the officers surrounded the house, and the Barkers were given a shouted warning that it would be best to surrender peacefully. The rattle of a machine gun was the answer, precipitating a fight that lasted several hours. When G-men entered the house, Ma lay dead beside her machine gun, the drum of which was empty, and Fred lay dead a few feet away.
Eastlake Weir (2 miles south of Ocklawaha on CR 25)
This community was founded in 1874 as a resort for fishermen and campers.
Junction with U.S. Highway 27 (7 miles south of Eastlake Weir on CR 25)
The travel route rejoins U.S. Highway 27 here.
Lady Lake (0.5 mile south of CR 25 on U.S. 27)
This was once just a roadside settlement with several natural parks and a number of fishing camps. The usual fruit-packing plant sat beside the railroad.
Fruitland Park (4 miles south of Lady Lake on U.S. 27)
Fruitland Park was founded in 1876 by Major O.P. Rooks and named for the Fruitland Nurseries of Augusta, Georgia. Here, Rooks established a large nursery specializing in rare fruits and flowers. In 1883, a group of Englishmen settled here under the leadership of Granville Chetwynd Stapleton. The young men lived at ‘The Hall,’ a large boarding house, and organized the ‘Bucket and Dipper Club.’ The only refreshment at meetings was water, ladled from a bucket with a large dipper. Many stories of these settlers have been related by Marjorie Kinnan Rawlings in her novel, Golden Apples (1937).
Point of Interest:
Holy Trinity Episcopal Church (2201 Spring Lake Road)
Founded in 1886 by a group of young English men who came to this area to plant citrus groves, this church was opened in December of 1888. Earlier services were held at a barn on nearby Lake Geneva, midway between Fruitland Park and Chetwynd, a town two miles north of here no longer in existence. Despite severe economic and population losses following the freezes of 1894-95, this church remained open, and in 1976 descendants of the founders were still active in the congregation. The lych gate, rare in Florida, was added in 1889. The edifice is an unspoiled example of "carpenter gothic" architecture. In 1975, it was placed on the National Register of Historic Places.
Leesburg (4 miles south of Fruitland Park on U.S. 27)
This town was founded in 1856 by the Lee family of New York.
From Leesburg, U.S. Highway 27 enters the center of Florida’s citrus region, with vast groves of orange and grapefruit trees spreading across the shallow hills.
Junction with County Road 48 (3.5 miles south of Leesburg on U.S. 27)
Side Trip to Okahumpka (County Road 48 West)
Okahumpka (1 mile west on County Road 48)
Okahumpka was founded in 1885 by the Reverend Edmund Snyder of Germantown, Pennsylvania. This was the site of an Indian village ruled until 1835 by Chief Micanope, who was the leader of the attack on Major Francis L. Dade and his command (See US 301-Florida). The military road laid out by General Abram Eustis to link a chain of blockhouses from St. Augustine to Fort Brooke (Tampa) ran through the town site.
Junction with County Road 565 (8 miles south of CR 48 on U.S. 27)
Side Trip to Villa City (County Road 565 South)
Villa City (3.3 miles south on CR 565)
On this site in 1885, George Thomas King, founder of Villa City, built an estate that was the showplace of the area. By 1895, the town had a post office, school, church, hotel, photographic studio, dispensary and 35 homes. The citrus based community flourished until the Big Freeze of 1894 and 1895. A warm spell, after a devastating December 29th freeze, filled the trees with sap. Snow then fell in the evening of February 7th, 1895. The frozen trees exploded when the warming sun returned. Their hopes and dreams broken, the settlers abandoned their land. The last original house, the Gano House, was demolished in 1968, but the beauty of the area remains.
Junction with State Road 19 (2.5 miles south of CR 565 on U.S. 27)
Side Trip to Howey-In-The-Hills (State Road 19 North)
Howey-In-The-Hills (6 miles north on SR 19)
This community was founded in 1916 by W.J. Howey as center of a vast citrus development embracing 60,000 acres.
Side Trip to Groveland (State Road 19 South)
Groveland (7 miles south on SR 19)
Groveland was founded in the early 1900’s as a naval-stores center. It was first known as Taylorville. The town was renamed in 1911 and incorporated in 1922.
Clermont (9 miles south of SR 19 on U.S. 27)
Sitting in the hills above Lake Minneola, this town was named for Clermont, France, which was the birthplace of A.F. Wrotnoski, one of its founders.
Point of Interest:
Citrus Tower (141 U.S. 27 North)
Built in 1956, this tower was originally planned to be 75 feet tall. However, when completed it rose to 226 feet.
Lake Louisa (5 miles south of Clermont on U.S 27)
A strata of diatomite was discovered here in 1917 by Charles Lindly-Wood, an agent for the British Admiralty. Diatomite consists of the fossilized skeletons of minute sea animals. It is an effective insulating material against heat, cold, and sound.
West of the lake is the site of the Postal Colony. This community was established by and for retired postal clerks in 1922, when Edward Denslow organized the Postal Colony Company.
Haines City (27 miles south of Lake Louisa on U.S. 27)
Early settlers in the vicinity planted tomatoes and grapes, but by 1900 the majority was engaged in citrus culture. Haines City sprang from an early settlement called Clay Cut. The city adopted its present name in 1887. The name was changed to Haines City, according to local legend, in the hope that in being so honored Henry Haines, a South Florida Railroad official, might use his influence to have trains stop here. The point was well taken, and the railroad erected a station soon after.
From Haines City, the travel route follows U.S. Highway 17 north to Alternate U.S. 27. Alternate U.S. Highway 27 then becomes the travel route, running south and parallel to the modern highway to the west.
Junction with Alternate U.S. 27 (1.5 miles north of U.S. 27 on U.S. 17)
This is the earlier route of U.S. Highway 27 through the central lake region of Florida.
Dundee (6 miles south of Haines City on Alternate U.S. 27)
Side Trip to Winter Haven (State Road 542 West)
Winter Haven (7 miles west on SR 542)
Many veterans of the Seminole Indian Wars, impressed with the local climate and beauty of the area, went home to tell family and friends of the possibilities of homesteading in central Florida. The Thornhill family arrived in the 1860's. Soon after, the Boyd, Inman, Jackson, Sykes and Ecyleshimer families established themselves in the area and began to grow strawberries, eggplant, guavas, tomatoes, peaches and peppers. The area that would become Winter Haven was platted by Blount and Whitledge in 1884.
The first mercantile store, Hovey and Harris, was built in 1885; F.A.K. Harris and his wife, Adele, lived above the store. As the Harris' arrived the railroad was being constructed. Because Adele would cook for them, the railroad workers dubbed the new village "Harris Corners." The formal name "Winter Haven" was selected in 1885 based on a suggestion from P.D. Eycleshimer. At the turn of the century the population had grown to 400, and Winter Haven could boast of citrus groves, a school, a post office, a real estate office, a social club, churches, hotels, floral nurseries, a canning factory and the headquarters of Florida Growers Association.
Winter Haven was incorporated in 1911, and by this time its residents had acquired banks, a band, a newspaper, a movie theater and 15 automobiles. The canals that connect Winter Haven's Chain of Lakes began with the organization of the Twenty Lakes Boat Course Club in 1915. The Florida Boom of the 1920's brought land speculation and a great influx of newcomers to the area. In 1924, the Florida Citrus Festival was first held to salute this important local agri-business. On September 6th, 1930, 22-year-old George Jenkins opened the very first Publix Food Store on Fourth Street NW on the park downtown. In 1936, tourism became an economic mainstay as Dick and Julie Pope opened Cypress Gardens.
Point of Interest:
Pughsville Neighborhood (1601 Third Street NW)
Pughsville was one of Winter Haven's earliest neighborhoods, populated predominately by African Americans. These individuals cleared land and settled in what is now the southeast section of the city. For many decades, Pughsville remained a vibrant and thriving community. Pughsville was named in honor of one of the earliest black pioneers, the Reverend Charles Pugh, who was one of the founders of one of the oldest black churches in Pughsville, Zion Hill Missionary Baptist Church. Pughsville boasted three other churches: Bethel A.M.E., St. Paul Holiness, and Church of Christ. During the peak of its existence (1900’s-1950’s), Pughsville had an African-American school, social halls, small grocery stores and restaurants. Many residents worked in the citrus industry, but others were restaurant owners, business professionals, educators, construction workers and domestic workers. Still others worked in local, state and federal government jobs. Pughsville produced Winter Haven's first African-American commissioner, medical doctor, mayor, fire fighter and postal worker. The original Pughsville began to decline during the late 1970’s as larger commercial establishments began arriving in the area, driving up property values.
Mountain Lake Station (6 miles south of Dundee on Alternate U.S. 27)
Here on Iron Mountain, according to tradition, the Indians of central Florida held their ceremony of the Rising Sun each spring.
Junction with County Road 17A (3 miles south of Mountain Lake Station on Alternate U.S. 27)
Side Trip to Bok Tower Gardens (County Road 17A North)
Bok Tower Gardens (2 miles north on County Road 17A)
Bok Tower, also known as the Singing Tower, is a memorial to Edward William Bok (1863-1930), a journalist, editor of the Ladies’ Home Journal (1889-1919), and winner of the Pulitzer Prize (1920). It was dedicated by President Calvin Coolidge on February 1st, 1929. Bok is buried in a crypt at the base of the tower.
(1.5 miles south of CR 17A on Alternate U.S. 27)
The name of the lake and town was originally spelled Waels, for the Waels family who settled on the shore of the lake in the early 1900’s. The spelling was changed when the town was platted in 1911.
Side Trip to Bartow (State Road 60 West)
Bartow (17 miles west on SR 60)
The surrounding level of hammock land was the site of Fort Blount, built during the Seminole Wars. The community was settled in 1851 by planters and their slaves. The town was named in 1867 for General Francis Bartow of the Confederate army. Jacob Summerlin, a pioneer, became one of Florida’s wealthiest stockmen. In 1867, cattleman Jacob Summerlin donated 120 acres of land at Bartow for a town site and seat of county government.
Points of Interest:
Summerlin Institute (South Broadway and E. Stuart Street)
Uneducated himself, Jacob Summerlin established this institution, at one time an elementary and prep school and later the city’s high school.
L.B. Brown House (470 Second Avenue)
The L. B. Brown House was built in 1892, during the period of Bartow’s initial development. The Brown house was built by Lawrence Bernard Brown (1856-1941) who was born into slavery, in Wacahoota, outside of Archer. He moved to Deland around 1882 where he built a number of houses. Lawrence moved to Bartow during the 1880’s and built a large number of dwellings, one of which was the L. B. Brown House. Lawrence and AnnieBelle (1882-1938) Brown raised seven children here. Lawrence and his wife are buried in the Evergreen Cemetery in Bartow.
Thompson & Company Cigar Factory (255 N. 3rd Street)
The factory was built in 1925 along Third Avenue near East Church Street, where workers with the Thompson company hand-rolled cigars until the early 1960s, when the business closed. After that, ownership passed to the county and it became a distribution site for surplus government food.[iii]
Babson Park (7 miles south of Lake Wales on Alternate U.S. 27)
Once called Crooked Lake for the body of water on which it lies, Babson Park was renamed by Roger Babson, a business prognosticator. Babson purchased most of the land in within the town in 1923. Webber College of Wellesley, Massachusetts, was founded by Mrs. Babson to train young women for executive and secretarial positions. A branch of the college is still maintained here.
Frostproof (6.5 miles south of Babson Park on Alternate U.S. 27)
Frostproof occupies an isthmus between Lake Reedy and Lake Clinch. The latter was named for General Duncan Clinch. During the Seminole War, Clinch built a fort here on the shore of the lake, which was then known as Lake Locha-Popka.
Junction with U.S. Highway 27 (5.5 miles south of Frostproof on Alternate U.S. 27)
The travel route reunites with U.S. Highway 27 here.
Avon Park (6.5 miles south of Alternate U.S. 27 on U.S. 27)
In 1886, O.M. Crosby, of Danbury, Connecticut, chose the site for settlement because of its ‘open pine forests studded with clear water lakes, an abundance of fish and game, freedom from malaria, mosquitoes, and Negroes.’ Crosby was president of the Florida Development Company. He visited England, returned with many settlers, and named the town for Stratford-on-Avon, William Shakespeare’s birthplace. Large citrus groves were planted and the community grew rapidly, although mail and provisions had to be hauled many miles over sand trails from Fort Meade to the west. Later, a stage line was established to provide free transportation to landowners and prospective lot buyers, anticipating the later boom-time practice of ‘taking customers for a ride.’ To advertise his development, Crosby established a newspaper, the Florida Home Seeker, which was widely distributed here and abroad.
The freeze of 1894 and 1895 destroyed the groves and truck gardens, and the majority of the inhabitants abandoned their lands. Avon Park remained almost deserted until 1912, when construction of the Atlantic Coast Line Railroad brought a new influx of settlers. The town was incorporated in 1913.
Point of Interest:
Avon Park Air Force Range (County Road 64 East)
Avon Park Air Force Range was first opened during World War II under the name of Avon Park Army Air Field. The Third Air Force used the airfield for training B-17 air crews in air-to-ground bombing and for antisubmarine patrols. After World War II ended, the base was closed and placed in a caretaker status. In 1949, the base was transferred to the newly created U.S. Air Force. It was then renamed Avon Park Air Force Base.
In 1956, the base was renamed again to Avon Park Air Force Range. At this time a major improvement program was begun. At its height, the base spread across 218,000 acres. Over the succeeding years the U.S. Air Force declared much of the land surplus and disposed of it. The last major divestment in 1983 brought the range to its current size.
Junction with County Road 634 (Hammock Road) (9 miles south of Avon Park on U.S. 27)
Side Trip to Highlands Hammock State Park (County Road 634 West)
Highlands Hammock State Park (6 miles west on County Road 634)
A footbridge here leads into a cypress swamp, through which flows Little Charlie Bowlegs Creek. The stream was named for an Englishman, William Rogers, who married an Indian woman. He later became known as Charlie Bowlegs. As a former associate of the notorious pirate, Jean Lafitte, Bowlegs buried his blood-stained gold in the Florida sands. He settled on the nearby Gulf Coast to guard his treasure and lived to a ripe old age. As far as is known, he never spent his ill-gotten wealth, nor has it ever been recovered.
Junction with State Road 17 (1.5 miles south of CR 634 on U.S. 27)
Side Trip to Sebring (State Road 17 North)
Sebring (1.5 miles north on SR 17)
This town site was purchased by George Eugene Sebring (1859-1927), a pottery manufacturer of Sebring, Ohio. Sebring planned a city on the pattern of the mythological Grecian city of Heliopolis (city of the sun), with streets radiating from a central park representing the sun. Surveys were made and construction was begun in 1912, a few months before the coming of the Atlantic Coast Line Railroad. The freeze of 1917 killed or damaged many groves.
Point of Interest:
Sebring House (Lakeview Drive and Center Avenue)
This home was occupied by the widow of George Sebring, the city’s founder.
Courtney Riley Cooper House (507 N. Lakeview Drive)
This was the winter home of the popular writer.
Junction with U.S. Highway 98 (3.8 miles south of SR 17 on U.S. 27)
Just to the northeast of this intersection is De Soto City on Red Beach Lake. De Soto City was founded in 1916.
Side Trip to Fort Basinger (U.S. Highway 98 East)
Fort Basinger (24 miles east on U.S. 98)
Colonel Zachary Taylor had Fort Basinger built in 1837, during the Seminole Wars, on the Kissimmee River 17 miles above its mouth. It was a small stockade which served as a temporary fort and supply station on the line of forts extending from Tampa to Lake Okeechobee. Named for Lieutenant William E. Basinger of the 2nd Artillery, who was killed in Dade's Massacre, the fort was abandoned at the end of the Indian wars.
Lake Placid (10 miles south of U.S. 98 on U.S. 27)
This community was named Lake Stearns when founded in 1924 as a part of a land and citrus development. Its name and that of a lake to the south were changed when the southern branch of Lake Placid Club of New York was established in the town.
Junction with State Road 70 (6.5 miles south of Lake Placid on U.S. 27)
At this junction, the travel route turns right to follow County Road 17, the current designation of the earlier highway.
Side Trip to Okeechobee (State Road 70 East)
Okeechobee (31 miles east on SR 70)
One of the fiercest engagements of the Seminole Wars was fought in this vicinity on Christmas Day of 1837. Colonel Zachary Taylor led a force of 1,000 men through the swamps to attack less than half that number of Indians under Billy Bowlegs. The Seminole retreated after three house of hand-to-hand combat, with few dead and wounded; American casualties totaled 138. Years later, Billy Bowlegs visited Washington and on being escorted through the buildings of the Capitol and viewing many statues and paintings with lackluster eye, he suddenly halted before a portrait of Zachary Taylor, grinned, and exclaimed: ‘Me whip!”
Junction with County Road 17 (1 mile west of U.S. 27 on SR 70)
The travel route turns south on County Road 17 here, following the railroad closely.
County Road 17 passes for two miles through what was once the estate of Joseph M. Roebling. Roebling was the great-grandson of John A. Roebling, builder of the Brooklyn Bridge.
Hicoria (4.4 miles south of SR 70 on CR 17)
Hicoria was founded in 1908 when a saw mill was built here.
Old Venus (6.8 miles south of Hicoria on CR 17)
This settlement, and the newer community to the east, was named for the Roman goddess of bloom and beauty, protectress of gardens.
The travel route turns east for a short distance here on County Road 731.
Junction with U.S. Highway 27 (3.5 miles east of CR 17 on CR 731)
The travel route returns to U.S. Highway 27 here.
Fisheating Creek (9.5 miles south of CR 731 on U.S. 27)
Fisheating Creek was the favorite haunt of ‘Alligator’ Ferguson. Ferguson, according to legend, killed more alligators than any other man of his time. He is said to have ‘made his bed among them, eaten among them, and spent so many months in their company that it is probable he hardly ever thought or talked of anything but alligators.’ He did not bother to sell the hides, although they were valuable. Ferguson did often sell the teeth, for which he received about $5 a pound.
A military map of 1839 gives the name of the creek as Tholothlopopka-Hatchee (Indian for stream where fish are eaten), and it is frequently mentioned in Seminole War histories. During the Indian campaigns, American troops traversing the region found an opportunity to make the first authentic charts of the territory. Sailors accompanying the expeditions became adept in handling awkward flat-bottomed boats used at the time.
Junction with State Road 29 (0.5 mile south of Fisheating Creek on U.S. 27)
Side Trip to La Belle (State Road 29 South)
La Belle (14 miles south on SR 29)
The combined pressure of growing white settlement in Florida and federal policy of relocating Indian tribes west of the Mississippi sparked the outbreak of the 2nd Seminole War in 1835. Controlling the coasts and campaigning in the heart of Seminole lands were the objectives of Major General Thomas Jesup in 1837. Captain B. L. E. Bonneville established Fort Denaud in 1838 as one of a series of posts linking American operations south of Tampa to the east coast. It was constructed on the south bank of the Caloosahatchee River 27 miles from Fort Myers on land owned by Pierre Danaud, a French Indian trader. The fort consisted of tents with a blockhouse in their midst. It served as a supply depot for troops in the Lake Okeechobee area and was utilized intermittently until the war ended in 1842. Fort Denaud was reopened in 1855, soon after the outbreak of the 3rd Seminole War. Additions included company quarters, hospital, guardhouse, sutler's store and stables. A few months after a fire ravaged the post in June of 1856, another site on the north bank of the river two miles west was chosen. The fort, which was abandoned in May 1858, gave its name to the nearby town of Denaud.
In 1895, prominent landowner and cattleman Captain Francis A. Hendry (1833-1917) platted a town site at LaBelle, which was first settled as a center for cattle and citrus industries. A post office, general store, school, and a church were eventually built, and LaBelle became the first town and commercial center in what became Hendry County. Although Hendry is credited with settling LaBelle, E.E. Goodno (1858-1936), who purchased Hendry’s former land holdings in 1903 and financed many of the town’s first improvements, is recognized as the “Father of LaBelle.” LaBelle’s historic business district extends along and near Bridge Street from the Caloosahatchee River south to Hickpockee Avenue. At one time, both sides of the street were lined with commercial establishments, some of which featured living accommodations on the second floor. Sadly, many early downtown buildings were destroyed in a 1928 fire, but some have survived, including the Poole Store (1911), First Bank of LaBelle (1925), the Royal Poinciana/Newcomb Bakery (1911-1912, one of the buildings constructed for both commercial and residential use). The Downtown LaBelle Historic District is listed on the National Register of Historic Places.
Moore Haven (16 miles south of SR 29 on U.S. 27)
Shortly after Florida became a state in 1845, its leaders began to consider draining the swampy areas of south Florida to create prime farm land as an inducement to settlement. In 1850, Florida received title to all swamp and overflowed lands within its borders, but the young state did not have the funds to undertake drainage. Finally, in 1881, the state convinced a wealthy northerner, Hamilton Disston, to drain the Everglades in return for half of the acreage he could reclaim. ,One of his projects was to improve the Caloosahatchee River and connect it with Lake Okeechobee by a canal which enters the lake near here. A lone cypress tree standing at the entrance to this canal served as a navigational aid for boatmen using the new waterways. Early in the twentieth century the town of Moore Haven, named for its founder James A. Moore, grew up around the "Lone Cypress" and the canal entrance. By this time the state itself had assumed responsibility for drainage, and in 1917 and 1918 it constructed a lock at the canal entrance. In recent years, state and federal governments have cooperated on the related problems of drainage, flood control and navigation. As a result, the Caloosahatchee Canal and River have been continually maintained and improved.
Settled in 1915, Moore Haven was almost destroyed by a flood in 1926, but it was quickly rebuilt. In 1917, Mrs. J.J. O’Brien was elected mayor, one of the first women in the United States to serve in that capacity. The canal between Moore Haven and Lake Hicpochee is a link in the Cross-State Canal, which extends from Stuart, on the Atlantic Coast, through Lakes Okeechobee and Hicpochee, along the Caloosahatchee River, to the Gulf of Mexico at Fort Myers.
Whidden Corner (6 miles south of Moore Haven on U.S. 27)
Side Trip to Goodno (State Road 80 West)
Goodno (15 miles west on SR 80)
Goodno was named for E.E. Goodno, a cattleman from Kansas, who did much to improve Florida beef stock by importing Brahma bulls from India in the 1860’s. Captain Francis Asbury Hendry, a cattleman who drove his herds into this section from Fort Meade about 1870, took up 30,000 acres in the vicinity and became a cattle king. The county was later named for him. In association with Hamilton Disston, who had purchased immense tracts in the territory, Hendry sponsored the building of the canal to link the Caloosahatchee River with Lake Okeechobee. Operations began in 1884 and continued until 1888, when a channel 40 feet wide and 5 feet deep was completed at the cost of $500,000. The canal was originally used principally by mail boats and by supply launches transporting furs and alligator hides.
(10 miles south of Whidden Corner on U.S. 27)
Clewiston was founded in 1921 as a construction camp during the building of the Moore Haven-Clewiston Railroad. The community’s water and light plants, telephone company, and hotel were all once owned by the United States Sugar Corporation.
The United States Sugar Corporation came into being during the Great Depression, at a time when the little southern town of Clewiston was little more than a dot on the map near the southern tip of Lake Okeechobee. On April 28th, 1931, automotive pioneer, industrialist, and philanthropist Charles Stewart Mott transformed the bankrupt old Southern Sugar Company into United States Sugar Corporation, acquiring all its lands, sugar mill, and other assets. With his own money, Mott revived the company and convinced other investors and creditors that the dream of growing sugar in the rich muck soils around Lake Okeechobee was not only possible, but profitable.
Lake Harbor (8 miles south of Clewiston on U.S. 27)
This town lies on the east bank of the Miami drainage canal at its emergence from Lake Okeechobee.
South Bay (7 miles south of Lake Harbor on U.S. 27)
South Bay is an eastern terminus of the Atlantic Coast Line Railroad and a western terminus of the Florida East Coast Railroad. The town was practically destroyed by the hurricane of September, 1928. Many residents fled to West Palm Beach and other cities. Those remaining found little shelter, although a canal boat in the locks nearby gave refuge to 150 people. The storm, it is estimated, brought death to 1,810 people, most of them Blacks. The loss of life, the highest recorded for any Florida storm, was caused not by the direct force of the wind, but by waters blown inland from Lake Okeechobee. Settlements and farms were flooded along the shore. For weeks after the water subsided, crews searched the fields and gathered up unidentified bodies. These were stacked like cordwood, drenched with kerosene, and burned as a health measure.
Side Trip to Canal Point (State Road 80 East, U.S. 441 North)
Pahokee (7 miles east on SR 80, 8 miles north on U.S. 441)
Early residents of Glades had to survive many harsh elements. Their goal to create a thriving farming community was often tested by storms, insects, and the lack of many comforts. In 1928, the Glades area was devastated by a powerful hurricane that threatened to destroy the entire area. Several thousand residents were killed and hundreds of homes were destroyed. Despite the death and damage, those residents that survived continued to develop the area. A mass burial site is marked here at Pahokee for the victims.
Canal Point (7 miles east on SR 80, 11 miles north on U.S. 441)
Prior to 1923, travel into or out of the Lake Okeechobee Area was accomplished only by boat or canoe. In the early 1920's, W. J. Conners, a New York winter visitor bought 4000 acres of undeveloped muck land near this site. Development required that this property be accessible by land. Being a man with financial and executive ability, he was not long in achieving his desire. After obtaining approval from both houses of the State Legislature in the record time of 2 hours and 20 minutes, he set about building the W.J. Conners Toll Road. Although the terrain was unknown, Conners and his engineer, R.Y. Patterson, constructed the road using dredges. A temporary railroad installed on the roadbed hastened construction. First work began on October 16th, 1924, and the highway was completed on June 25th, 1925, 8 months later. The final cost of the 52 mile road was $1,800,000. The road was hailed as an engineering marvel of the time and contributed greatly to the growth of this area. Although the toll was only $.03 a mile, the average daily toll gathered was $2000. After Conners' death on October 5th, 1929, the road ultimately was sold to the State of Florida for $660,000. U.S. Highway 98 now follows the route of the Conners Toll Highway.
From South Bay, U.S. Highway 27 turns southeast, skirting the eastern edges of the Florida Everglades as it enters the Miami Metropolitan Area. The highway runs parallel with the North New River Canal from South Bay to Interstate 75. The North New River Canal was a major transportation link between Lake Okeechobee and Fort Lauderdale. The canal became operational in 1912 and remained in use until highways and railroads supplanted the system in the 1930’s.
Hialeah (State Road 932) (63 miles south of South Bay on U.S. 27)
During the early 1920’s, James Bight, a Missouri ranchman, founded Hialeah. He was later joined by Glenn Curtiss, an aeronaut and sportsman.
Because of its climate and natural advantages, the Miami site attracted settlers from the earliest times. Indians long favored it, Spaniards coveted the territory but could not hold it, and the vicissitudes of the Seminole Wars compelled its temporary evacuation by Americans. The name Miami is reputedly a variant of the Indian words, maiha, translated as ‘very large,’ and mih, ‘it is so.’ On Spanish maps of the early seventeenth century, an area adjacent to Miami is marked Aymai, and Mayami.
William Brickell came to the site of Miami in 1870, and Julia S. Tuttle purchased property on both sides of the Miami River shortly afterwards. During the three decades that followed, the Everglades drainage project was begun to redeem productive land. The severe freeze of 1894 and 1895 destroyed citrus groves of central Florida and threatened railroad earnings, but Mrs. Tuttle sent Henry Flagler a bouquet of orange blossoms from Biscayne Bay, which was untouched by frost.
Flagler visited Mrs. Tuttle, and was impressed. Mrs. Tuttle deeded 100 acres to him, and, joined by Brickell, donated every alternate lot of her remaining acreage. Flagler installed a waterworks and other civic improvements. Miami at that time consisted of a dozen sand trails hacked through palmetto growths, and Flagler Street was lined with business enterprises in pine shacks and tents. Flagler’s East Coast Railway reached the town from West Palm Beach in 1896 and his resort hotel, the Royal Palm, was opened. Miami was incorporated in the same year, with an estimated population of 1,500.
The first symptoms of revived real-estate activities in 1922 and 1923 brought an advance guard of investors. During the three years, before the boom collapsed in 1926, America became Florida conscious, and the Miami area held center stage. A local newspaper issued a 504-page edition in 1925. Northern periodicals carried special sections on Miami subdivisions and news stories on the fabulous real-estate values. Land in the flatwoods eight miles from the post office sold for $25,000 an acre. Downtown business property found buyers at $20,000 a front foot. Owners of a Flagler Street corner refused $6,000,000 for holdings that cost $350,000 in 1919. After the 1929 financial crash, the Miami area marked time. First to feel the effects of the collapse, it was among the first to recover.
Points of Interest:
Dade Commonwealth Building (139 E. 1st Street)
Originally when built in 1925, this building was 17 stories. The September hurricane of 1926 forced the removal of the upper 10 floors. [iv]
Alfred I. Dupont Building (169 E. Flagler Street)
When this structure opened in 1937, it was the first Miami skyscraper since the Dade County Courthouse was built. It was also the first major downtown project following the collapse of the 1920s land boom. [v]
Dade County Courthouse (73 W. Flagler Street)
Designed by A. Ten Eyck Brown and August Geiger, this building was constructed between 1925 and 1928. The base of the building is faced with Stone Mountain granite, while the other floors are sheathed in terra-cotta tinted to match the granite slabs. Originally served the county and city governments, including the jail. It is now entirely occupied by the judiciary. [vi]
Gesu Church (140 N.E. 2nd Street)
Built in 1922, this is one of Miami’s oldest Catholic churches.
Central Baptist Church (500 N.E. 1st Avenue at 5th Street)
This building, constructed in 1926, is capped by a polygonal rotunda extending above the four-story height. It is one of the last three active churches to hold regular services within downtown Miami. [vii]
Olympia Theater (174 E. Flagler Street)
This theater, built in 1925, is an outstanding example of the "atmospheric" style, with the design suggesting an amphitheater set in a courtyard of a Spanish villa. [viii]
City (Miami) National Bank Building (121 S.E. 1st Avenue)
Embellished with classical elements, this structure was built in 1925. [ix]
Ingraham Building (25 S.E. 2nd Avenue)
Built in 1926, the interior of this building is very ornate. The same architectural firm that designed New York’s Astoria Hotel created this structure. [x]
Security Building (117 N.E. 1st Avenue)
This structure’s embellishments are in the Second Empire architectural mode. Construction began in the last year of Miami's land boom and was completed in 1926. When finished, it was the most imposing building in the city's center. [xi]
Congress Building (111 N.E. 2nd Avenue)
An excellent example of 'boom time" architectural style, this building, completed in 1923, is also noteworthy because it was originally five stories, but designed to support additional floors which were built later. [xii]
Walgreens Building (200 E. Flagler Street)
This Steamline Moderne style structure was completed in 1936. It is one of the most unique commercial buildings in downtown Miami, and one of the best examples of its architectural style in South Florida. Ribbon windows and a curved corner entrance are important identifying features. [xiii]
Huntington Building (168 S.E. 1st Street)
This thirteen-story structure was completed in 1925. The articulated roof line contains 11 knight figures sitting atop an extension of the vertical piers.
Hahn Building (140 N.E. 1st Avenue)
Built in 1921, this structure represents an attempt to adopt a commercial building with Classical detail within local stylistic trends.
Old U.S. Post Office and Courthouse (100 N.E. 1st Avenue)
Built between 1912 and 1914, this structure was converted into a bank in 1937. The exterior is clad in Bedford limestone from Indiana.
U.S. Post Office and Courthouse (300 N.E. 1st Avenue)
An excellent example of Mediterranean Revival architecture, this is the largest structure to be built of local limestone in South Florida. It was constructed in 1933.
Fire Station No. 2 (1401 N. Miami Avenue)
This station, with a square tower flanked by lower wings, was once one of the city’s principal stations. It was constructed in 1926. [xiv]
Citizens Bank Building (SE corner of N. Miami Avenue and 14th Street)
The Citizens Bank of Miami was a product of Miami’s Boom era and had only recently been granted a charter when it broke ground for this building in early 1925. The appearance of the building serves as a visual reminder of Miami’s Boom years, when architects building in the young city were seeking a design identity through the utilization of accepted and nationally–recognized architectural styles.[xv]
J.W. Warner House (111 S.W. 5th Avenue)
Built in 1912, this was the home of the Warner family, which operated a floral business for 66 years. [xvi]
Miami Senior High School (2450 S.W. 1st Street)
Built in 1927, this campus occupies 19 acres. This was the first senior high school constructed in Dade County. [xvii]
Fire Station No. 4 (SW corner of S. Miami Avenue and SW 10th Street)
This is the oldest and most outstanding fire station within the city. Built in 1922, it is longer used for this function. [xviii]
First Presbyterian Church (609 Brickell Avenue)
This structure was completed in 1949. It replaced one built by Henry Flagler in 1900 at E. Flagler Street and S.E. 3rd Avenue. The congregation was established in 1896.
Brickell Mausoleum (501 Brickell Avenue in Brickell Park)
Built in 1921, this is the mausoleum for the Brickells, one of Miami's most notable pioneer families. [xix]
Dr. James M. Jackson Office (S.E. 12th Terrace and Brickell Bay Drive)
Dr. Jackson was Miami’s first resident physician. The structure, built in 1905, is presently the offices of the Dade Heritage Trust. [xx]
Miami City Hospital Building (NW 16th Street, east of NW 12th Avenue)
Miami’s first hospital, this structure was completed in 1918. [xxi]
Freedom Tower (600 Biscayne Boulevard)
This was formerly the home of the Miami News, the city's oldest newspaper. From 1962 until 1974, it served as a reception center for Cuban refugees. The design was inspired by the Giralda Tower in Seville, Spain. It was completed in 1925.
Miami Woman’s Club (1737 N. Bayshore Drive)
This structure was built in 1926 to accommodate the Miami Woman's Club, organized in 1900 and chartered in 1911. Club has been active in numerous civic projects, including the public library. [xxii]
S & S Diner (1757 N.E. 2nd Avenue)
The only remaining example of a very popular restaurant style from the early 1930’s, this diner was constructed in 1938. [xxiii]
Site of Priscilla and Algonquin Apartments (1845 and 1819 Biscayne Boulevard, respectively)
The Priscilla and Algonquin Apartments were built in 1925 and 1924 respectively as part of an effort by an early developer to create a “modern” shopping street to compete with the older downtown.
Gold Coast Pharmacy (2419 Biscayne Boulevard)
Announced in September 1926, this was the first new building constructed by the Biscayne Boulevard Company. This block-long, extremely narrow building is particularly distinctive for its design. The architects have created an impression of a series of buildings reminiscent of a medieval townscape.[xxiv]
Trinity Episcopal Cathedral (N. Bayshore Drive and N.E. 16th Street)
This cathedral is regarded as one of the great monuments of the boom architecture. When built in 1923, the area was the center of the Episcopal community. [xxv]
Site of Kentucky Home (Anderson Hotel) (1221 N.E. 1st Avenue)
This was an excellent example of a downtown rooming house, a dwelling common in the early history of Miami. It had been constructed in 1918. [xxvi]
D.A. Dorsey House (250 N.W. 9th Street)
Dorsey purchased Fisher Island and Elliot Key with the idea of setting up a resort for African-Americans. An early developer of Overtown, he was one of Miami’s most prominent African-American businessmen. The residence was built in 1914. [xxvii]
Greater Bethel A.M.E. Church (245 N.W. 8th Street)
This is the home of Miami’s oldest African-American congregation, organized in 1896. The building, completed between 1927 and 1942, preceded the one named “Little Bethel.” The pay-as-you-go policy accounts for long construction period. [xxviii]
Lyric Theater (819 N.W. 2nd Avenue)
Built in 1914, this was important as the center of Overtown's early social life. Overtown was one of the city's earliest African-American neighborhoods. Owned and operated by African-Americans, it primarily featured African-American entertainers. The theater was also popular among white Miamians as well. [xxix]
St. John’s Baptist Church (1328 N.W. 3rd Avenue)
This African-American church, constructed in 1940, was designed by an African-American architectural firm. [xxx]
Mount Zion Baptist Church (301 N.W. 9th Street)
Built in 1928, this is one of the few examples of Mediterranean Revival style found in the African-American community of Overtown. This place of worship of one of Miami's oldest African-American congregations. [xxxi]
Halissee Hall (1475 N.W. 12th Avenue)
Built in 1912, this was once the home of John Sewell, a Miami pioneer merchant. [xxxii]
Barnacle State Historic Site (3495 Main Highway at Munroe Drive)
The Barnacle is also known as the Ralph M. Munroe House, built in 1891. It is an example of regional building adapted to climatic conditions of South Florida. [xxxiii]
James Deering Estate (3250 S. Miami Avenue)
This residence was completed in 1916 at a cost of $15,000,000. The roofing tile once covered an entire Cuban village.
Pan American Airways Seaplane Base (2500 S. Bayshore Drive)
This seaplane base was built in 1928 on Dinner Key. Bulletin boards announced arrivals and departures off 32 West Indian and South American ports between which a fleet of 19-ton, 40 passenger clipper ships operated on a regular schedule.
Coconut Grove Housekeeper’s Club (2985 S. Bayshore Drive)
This club was founded by Flora McFarlane in 1891, and was the social center of the countryside. The club was also known as the Woman’s Club of Coconut Grove.
Plymouth Congregational Church (3429 Devon Road)
This church, organized in 1897, played a major role in the early settlement of the town. The church structure was built in 1917. [xxxiv]
First Coconut Grove School House (3429 Devon Road at Plymouth Congregational Church)
This one-room school was built in 1894 by pioneers of Coconut Grove to serve their educational and religious needs. [xxxv]
Ransom School (3575 Main Highway)
This was the core building of the nation's first two-campus migratory boarding school, the other half being in New York State. Structure is of architectural significance and was constructed between 1895 and 1902. [xxxvi]
El Jardin (Carrollton School of the Sacred Heart) (3747 Main Highway)
This residence was built in 1918 for John Bindley, an executive of Pittsburgh Steel Corporation. The house stands in the center of the private school campus.
Site of Coconut Grove Public Utility Company (Devon Road and Hibiscus Street)
The Coconut Grove Public Utilities Company was established in 1916 by William Matheson and his son Hugh to provide local residents with telephone and water services. A ground level storage tank, filled with wells on the site by two diesel engines, furnished water to the Grove until 1925 when a new plant was built at 3575 S. Lejeune Road. The telephone franchise, which began with only six customers, was serving nearly 300 subscribers in 1925 when it was purchased by Southern Bell. The building adjacent to the storage tank housed the telephone exchange and was occupied by the company superintendent from 1921 until 1935.
Coral Gables came into existence like a magic city, and George Merrick, its founder, paid out $3,000,000 for advertising in 12 months. The demand for building material was so great that railroads were swamped and an embargo was declared on non-perishable Florida-bound freight. Water traffic increased tremendously and ships, unable to enter the congested harbor, were compelled to anchor outside for weeks awaiting their turn to discharge cargoes. The Seaboard Air Line Railway brought its cross-State extension into Miami in 1926, too late to share in the era of prosperity.
Points of Interest:
Douglas Entrance (La Puerta del Sol) (Douglas Road at U.S. 41)
This structure was built in 1925 at a cost of a million dollars as the main entrance to the city from Miami. [xxxvii]
Coral Gables Elementary School (105 Minorca Avenue)
This complex of five two-story buildings was begun in 1923 and completed in 1926. [xxxviii]
Coral Gables House (907 Coral Way)
Built in 1899, this was the childhood home of George E. Merrick, the founder of Coral Gables. [xxxix]
St. Mary’s First Missionary Baptist Church (136 Frow Avenue)
This church, built in 1926, is the dominant structure in the MacFarlane Homestead Historic District. This small African-American neighborhood was established shortly after the town was developed. [xl]
Coral Gables City Hall (405 Biltmore Way)
Built in 1928, this structure was a major element in the plan of George E. Merrick, the founder of Coral Gables, to create a Spanish-Mediterranean city. [xli]
Coral Gables Congregational Church (3010 De Soto Boulevard at Malaga Avenue)
This is one of the earliest religious structures in city. Built in 1924, it was designed as a replica of a church in Costa Rica. [xlii]
Miami-Biltmore Hotel (1200 Anastasia Avenue)
The tower of this hotel was inspired by Giralda Tower, Seville, Spain. The resort hotel was built in 1926. [xliii]
Coral Gables Police and Fire Station (2325 Salzedo Street)
Built by the Works Progress Administration to replace an earlier police and fire station in 1939, this structure presently houses city offices. [xliv]
Coral Gables Woman’s Club (1001 E. Ponce de Leon Boulevard at Santilane Avenue)
This building was constructed by the Works Progress Administration (WPA) in 1936 during the Great Depression. The Woman's Club was responsible for the city's first library. [xlv]
Venetian Pool (2701 De Soto Boulevard at Almeria Avenue)
This pool, built in 1924, is part of the George Merrick plan to create a Spanish-Mediterranean-style city. Pool originally was a rock quarry. [xlvi]
The Kampong (4013 Douglas Road)
Built in 1890, this estate consists of 10 acres. It was the home of Dr. David Fairchild (1869-1954), a world famous horticulturist. Here, many exotic plants were acclimatized to South Florida. [xlvii]
Entrance to Central Miami (Red Road (FL 959) at Coral Gables Waterway, between SW 34th and SW 35th Streets)
The Coral Gables Waterway passes through this wayside park. A pair of thirteen-foot square towers stand at each side of the entrance. Smaller towers flank SW 34th and 35th Streets. [xlviii]
I. & E. Greenwald Steam Engine No. 1058 (3898 Shipping Avenue)
Built in Cincinnati, Ohio, in 1906, the engine has an unusual power transmission system utilizing a rope drive. It is believed to be the only surviving engine of its type. Engine was relocated in 1984 from Beaumont, Texas, where for many years it was used in rice irrigation.
Miami Shores and North Miami:
Grand Concourse Apartments (421 Grand Concourse at N.E. 4th Avenue)
Built in 1926, this was the only large, multiunit building constructed from an original plan that would have included a series of grand hotels and apartments.
Miami Edison Middle School (6101 N.W. 2nd Avenue)
This structure was built between 1928 and 1931 as the Miami Edison Senior High School. [xlix]
Sherwood Forest Indian Mound (N.E. 85th Street, between N.E. 3rd Avenue and N.E. 4th Avenue)
This is a Tequesta burial mound and midden identified with the Glades II period (approximately 200-700 A.D.) It is a grassy knoll in a residential neighborhood, roughly 2 meters high and 20 meters in diameter.
Village of El Portal (N.E. 87th Street and Park Drive)
El Portal was incorporated on December 6th, 1937, at the residence of H. H. Filer. There were 25 homes that were included in this incorporation of El Portal. The Village was incorporated by 34 out of 41 votes. Mr. W.O. Robertson was appointed Mayor. Three divisions united to form The Village of El Portal: Sherwood Forest, El Jardines, and El Portal. The initial vision of El Portal was to make it similar to Coral Gables. An Arch, known as: “the gate,” may have stood at 85th Street and N.E. 2nd Avenue. It was made out of wire and wood and had two Robin Hood type figures on each side.[l]
Rader Memorial United Methodist Church (N.E. 87th Street and N.E. Second Avenue)
This congregation was formed in 1923. It is one of the oldest churches in Miami-Dade County.
Cape Florida Lighthouse (Bill Baggs Cape Florida State Park, Key Biscayne)
Built around 1825, this is one of a series of lighthouses built after Florida was incorporated into the U.S. The light indicated a dangerous reef. Lighthouse was attacked and destroyed by Indians in 1836. It was rebuilt in 1846 and became inactive in 1878. It is believed to be the oldest structure in the county. [li]
Miami Beach (5.5 miles south of Miami on U.S. 41)
An early attempt to develop Miami Beach failed to develop the island as a coconut plantation, and John S. Collins, a New Jersey horticulturist, set out an avocado grove. To provide water transportation, Collins dredged a canal that bears his name, from Indian Creek to Biscayne Bay. When the fruit venture was abandoned, Collins organized the Miami Beach Improvement Company to promote a residential colony, and began construction across the bay to Miami of what was then the longest wooden bridge in the United States. It was opened in 1913, two years before Miami Beach was incorporated as a city.
Collins exhausted his funds and Carl F. Fisher of Indianapolis advanced him $50,000, with 200 acres of land as security. Fisher’s money and enthusiasm revived the company. Miami Beach’s first auction sale netted $65,000. Sometimes the auctioneer waved vaguely toward the mangrove swamps and explained that the lot being sold was ‘off there somewhere.’ Fisher’s property, most of it under water, was made solid land by pumping in sand from the bottom of the bay, creating a yacht basin and several miniature islands.
Point of Interest:
Al Capone’s House (93 Palm Avenue, North side of Palm Island)
Alphonse Capone purchased the house in 1928 and occupied it at intervals until he was sentenced in May of 1932 to 10 years of imprisonment for violation of Federal Income Tax laws.
Cardozo Hotel (1300 Ocean Drive)
Part of the Miami Beach Architectural District, the Cardozo was constructed in 1939. The district contains the largest collection of Art Moderne buildings in the nation. Architectural styles greatly influenced by those of Chicago's Century of Progress (1933) and the New York World's Fair (1939). The hotel was named after 1930’s Supreme Court Justice Benjamin Cardozo.
Casa Casuarina Apartments (1116 Ocean Drive)
Built in 1930, its general contractor was Willard Hubbell. Henry Salem Hubbell, a well-known portrait painter, settled in Miami Beach in 1924 and was a founding board member of the University of Miami. His son, H. Willard Hubbell, was a produce and fruit farmer (Stambaugh-Hubbell Co., Pelican Farms) who developed greenhouses for papayas and other tropical fruit. He was also a residential contractor who built the Kampong and completed the construction of Marjorie Stoneman Douglas' Coconut Grove home after the 1926 hurricane. Hubbell also taught at a business academy and at the University of Miami. Casa Casuarina, renamed Amsterdam Palace, became the designer, Gianni Versace's home during the 1990’s.[lii]
Old Miami Beach City Hall (1130 Washington Avenue)
This structure was completed in 1927.
GPS COORDINATES FOR LISTED HISTORIC SITES:
Al Capone’s House, 25.77938, -80.1611
Alachua , 29.79252, -82.4943
Alfred Dupont Building, 25.77435, -80.1908
Arch Creek Memorial Park, 25.9007, -80.1612
Archer , 29.53106, -82.5191
Archer Historical Society Railroad Museum, 29.53097, -82.5233
Asa May House/Rosewood , 30.41754, -83.911
Avon Park , 27.59564, -81.5065
Avon Park Air Force Range , 27.6507, -81.3491
Babson Park , 27.8312, -81.5261
Bailey House , 29.66244, -82.3308
Barker House , 29.04248, -81.9321
Barnacle State Historic Site, 25.72309, -80.2419
Bartow , 27.89648, -81.8432
Belleview, 29.06189, -82.0488
Bellevue , 30.41074, -84.3435
Bland , 29.90243, -82.4989
Bok Tower Gardens , 27.93712, -81.5737
Branford , 29.95916, -82.9291
Brickell Mausoleum, 25.76839, -80.1899
Camp Roosevelt , 29.06189, -82.0488
Canal Point, 26.86363, -80.6317
Cape Florida Lighthouse, 25.66698, -80.1558
Cardozo Hotel, 25.78405, -80.13
Casa Casuarina, 25.78193, -80.1304
Central Baptist Church, 25.77916, -80.1922
Chaires , 30.43599, -84.1179
Citizens Bank Building, 25.78816, -80.194
Citrus Tower , 28.56458, -81.7438
City National Bank Building, 25.77347, -80.1911
Clermont , 28.55115, -81.7564
Clewiston , 26.75433, -80.9224
Coconut Grove Housekeeper’s Clb, 25.72655, -80.2401
Congress Building, 25.77564, -80.1902
Coral Gables, 25.74985, -80.2546
Coral Gables City Hall, 25.74895, -80.2637
Coral Gables Cong Church, 25.74255, -80.2784
Coral Gables Elementary, 25.75397, -80.258
Coral Gables House, 25.74912, -80.2733
Coral Gables Police and Fire Sn, 25.75054, -80.2605
Coral Gables Woman's Club, 25.76182, -80.2575
CottonWood Plantation, 29.53709, -82.5191
Courtney Riley Cooper House , 27.49972, -81.4462
D.A. Dorsey House, 25.78251, -80.1988
Dade Commonwealth Building, 25.77527, -80.1911
Dade County Courthouse, 25.77427, -80.1952
Douglas Entrance, 25.76431, -80.2555
Dr. James M. Jackson Office, 25.76172, -80.1899
East Florida Seminary , 29.65519, -82.3239
Eastlake Weir, 29.01957, -81.9085
Entrance to Central Miami, 25.73833, -80.2868
Eridu , 30.30214, -83.7466
Fire Station No. 2, 25.78846, -80.1944
Fire Station No. 4, 25.76433, -80.1934
First Coconut Grove School Hse, 25.7226, -80.248
First Presbyterian Church, 25.76803, -80.19
Fisheating Creek , 26.93316, -81.3151
Florida Agricultural and Mechanical College, 30.42481, -84.2877
Florida State University , 30.44385, -84.3003
Fort Basinger , 27.3624, -81.0536
Fort Braden , 30.43711, -84.5187
Fort Clarke , 29.66025, -82.4398
Fort White , 29.92345, -82.7138
Freedom Tower, 25.78019, -80.1894
Frostproof , 27.74597, -81.5304
Fruitland Park , 28.85806, -81.9122
Gainesville , 29.65195, -82.325
Gesu Church, 25.776, -80.1918
Gold Coast Pharmacy, 25.80055, -80.1911
Goodno , 26.76888, -81.3105
Goodwood House Hotel
, 29.52653, -82.5245
Governor W.D. Bloxham House, 30.44625, -84.2796
Grand Concourse Apartments, 25.86418, -80.1892
Greater Bethel AME Church, 25.78187, -80.1988
Groveland , 28.56016, -81.8553
Hahn Building, 25.77586, -80.1923
Haile Homestead , 29.59176, -82.4349
Haines City , 28.10659, -81.6291
Halissee Hall, 25.78907, -80.2146
Hampton Springs , 30.08327, -83.658
Havana , 30.62379, -84.4152
Hervey Allen Study, 25.69513, -80.2765
Hialeah, 25.84482, -80.266
Hialeah , 25.82268, -80.2802
Hialeah Park Race Track, 25.84474, -80.277
Hicoria, 27.15177, -81.3533
High Springs , 29.82694, -82.5967
Highlands Hammock State Park, 27.46977, -81.5384
Hogtown Settlement/Fort Hogtown , 29.65948, -82.3658
Holy Trinity Episcopal Church, 28.87604, -81.9173
Howey-In-The-Hills, 28.7138, -81.7727
Huntington Building, 25.77328, -80.1904
I & E Greenwald Steam Engine, 25.73296, -80.2575
Ingraham Building, 25.77384, -80.1901
J.W. Warner House, 25.77277, -80.2026
Jacksonville, Pensacola & Mobile Railroad Depot, 30.4338, -84.2897
James Deering Estate, 25.74719, -80.2107
John F. Seagle Building , 29.65201, -82.3306
John Gilmore Riley House , 30.4396, -84.2869
John W. Martin House , 30.46329, -84.2737
Junction with County Road 17 , 27.2103, -81.3448
Knott House , 30.44196, -84.277
L.B. Brown House , 27.89386, -81.8344
La Belle , 26.76179, -81.4374
Lady Lake , 28.91735, -81.9236
Lake Harbor , 26.69592, -80.8073
Lake Jackson , 30.52835, -84.3583
Lake Louisa , 28.48631, -81.7152
Lake Placid , 27.29708, -81.367
Lake Wales , 27.90126, -81.5881
Lamont , 30.37754, -83.8134
Law School Mound , 29.65032, -82.3604
Leesburg , 28.81092, -81.8759
Lewis Bank , 30.44041, -84.2807
Lloyd , 30.47813, -84.0228
Lost Lake Caverns Site, 25.73264, -80.3038
Lyric Theater, 25.78212, -80.1979
Marshall Plantation Site , 29.1999, -82.0535
Matheson House , 29.64674, -82.3257
Mayo, 30.05306, -83.1751
Miami, 25.77165, -80.19
Miami Beach, 25.77461, -80.133
Miami City Hospital Building, 25.79071, -80.213
Miami Senior High School, 25.77148, -80.236
Miami Woman's Club, 25.79208, -80.1864
Miami-Biltmore Hotel, 25.74148, -80.2786
Moore Haven , 26.83364, -81.0913
Mount Zion Baptist Church, 25.78277, -80.1998
Mountain Lake Station , 27.94982, -81.5948
Natural Bridge , 29.90234, -82.5844
Newberry , 29.64661, -82.6067
Newnansville Cemetery, 29.80578, -82.4771
O’Leno State Park , 29.92281, -82.6085
Ocala , 29.18711, -82.137
Okahumpka , 28.74762, -81.8957
Okeechobee , 27.24386, -80.8302
Old Bradfordville School , 30.56379, -84.2202
Old City Cemetery, 30.44269, -84.2869
Old Courthouse Square , 29.18711, -82.136
Old Post Office and Courthouse, 25.77534, -80.1922
Old Venus, 27.07289, -81.3943
Olympia Theater, 25.77411, -80.1905
Pahokee , 26.82329, -80.6656
Pan American Awys Seaplane Base, 25.73187, -80.2339
Perry , 30.11177, -83.5813
Perry-Foley Airport, 30.08082, -83.5834
Plantation Cemetery at Betton Hills , 30.46616, -84.2674
Plaza of the Americas , 29.65038, -82.3426
Plymouth Congregational Church, 25.72226, -80.2478
Presbyterian Church 1832 , 30.44238, -84.282
Pughsville Neighborhood, 28.0075, -81.7309
Radar United Methodist Church, 25.85512, -80.1929
Railroad Depot , 29.82629, -82.598
Raleigh , 29.44182, -82.4658
Ransom School, 25.72414, -80.2456
Rocky Comfort Plantation, 30.608, -84.4705
S & S Diner, 25.79272, -80.1906
Sebring , 27.4956, -81.4411
Sebring House, 27.49505, -81.4435
Security Building, 25.77564, -80.1919
Sherwood Forest Indian Mound, 25.85379, -80.1896
Site of Coconut Grove Utility, 25.72346, -80.2488
Site of Fort San Luis , 30.46142, -84.275
Site of Kentucky Home, 25.7865, -80.1923
Site of Mission of San Luis de Talimail, 30.46142, -84.275
Site of Priscilla/Algonquin Apt, 25.79405, -80.1906
South Bay , 26.66421, -80.7127
St. Clement’s Chapel Church of the Advent, 30.48861, -84.2664
St. John’s Episcopal Church , 30.44357, -84.2807
St. John's Baptist Church, 25.78732, -80.2
St. Mary's First Missionary Ch, 25.72882, -80.2569
State Capitol , 30.43838, -84.2824
Steinhatchee , 29.66909, -83.3767
Summerlin Institute , 27.88487, -81.8433
Tallahasse Regional Airport, 30.39557, -84.345
Tallahassee , 30.4382, -84.2806
The Columns , 30.44238, -84.282
The Groves , 30.45014, -84.282
The Kampong, 25.71535, -80.2507
The Mission of San Pedro Y San Pablo de Patale, 30.46342, -84.1256
The Tallahassee Democrat, 30.44415, -84.2618
Trinity Episcopal Church, 25.7904, -80.1868
U.S. Post Office and Courthouse, 25.77727, -80.1923
Union Bank , 30.4408, -84.282
University of Florida, 29.65208, -82.3448
Venetian Pool, 25.7459, -80.2732
Villa City, 28.6114, -81.8591
Village of El Portal, 25.85512, -80.1879
Walgreens Building, 25.7741, -80.1901
Williams Home , 30.4442, -84.2796
Williston, 29.38736, -82.4471
Winter Haven , 28.02226, -81.7321
[i] Florida History through its Places-Levy County; Florida Department of State, Division of Natural Resources; http://www.flheritage.com/facts/reports/places/index.cfm?fuseaction=ListAreas&county=Levy
[ii] “Exploitation to Conservation: A History of the Marjorie Harris Carr Cross Florida Greenway”; Steven Noll and M. David Tegeder, August 2003; http://www.dep.state.fl.us/gwt/cfg/pdf/History_Report.pdf
[iii] Historic Bartow Cigar Factory on Endangered Site List; Lakeland Ledger, May 21st, 2011; http://www.theledger.com/article/20110521/NEWS/110529920/1134?Title=Historic-Bartow-Cigar-Factory-on-Endangered-Site-List
[iv] Florida History through its Places-Dade; Florida Department of State, Division of Natural Resources; http://www.flheritage.com/facts/reports/places/index.cfm?fuseaction=ListAreas&county=Dade
[v] Florida History through its Places-Dade; Florida Department of State, Division of Natural Resources; http://www.flheritage.com/facts/reports/places/index.cfm?fuseaction=ListAreas&county=Dade
[vi] Florida History through its Places-Dade; Florida Department of State, Division of Natural Resources; http://www.flheritage.com/facts/reports/places/index.cfm?fuseaction=ListAreas&county=Dade
[vii] Florida History through its Places-Dade; Florida Department of State, Division of Natural Resources; http://www.flheritage.com/facts/reports/places/index.cfm?fuseaction=ListAreas&county=Dade
[viii] Florida History through its Places-Dade; Florida Department of State, Division of Natural Resources; http://www.flheritage.com/facts/reports/places/index.cfm?fuseaction=ListAreas&county=Dade
[ix] Florida History through its Places-Dade; Florida Department of State, Division of Natural Resources; http://www.flheritage.com/facts/reports/places/index.cfm?fuseaction=ListAreas&county=Dade
[x] Florida History through its Places-Dade; Florida Department of State, Division of Natural Resources; http://www.flheritage.com/facts/reports/places/index.cfm?fuseaction=ListAreas&county=Dade
[xi] Florida History through its Places-Dade; Florida Department of State, Division of Natural Resources; http://www.flheritage.com/facts/reports/places/index.cfm?fuseaction=ListAreas&county=Dade
[xii] Florida History through its Places-Dade; Florida Department of State, Division of Natural Resources; http://www.flheritage.com/facts/reports/places/index.cfm?fuseaction=ListAreas&county=Dade
[xiii] Florida History through its Places-Dade; Florida Department of State, Division of Natural Resources; http://www.flheritage.com/facts/reports/places/index.cfm?fuseaction=ListAreas&county=Dade
[xiv] Florida History through its Places-Dade; Florida Department of State, Division of Natural Resources; http://www.flheritage.com/facts/reports/places/index.cfm?fuseaction=ListAreas&county=Dade
[xv] “Citizens Bank 1361-1367 North Miami Avenue Designation Report”; Sarah E. Eaton, City of Miami; http://www.historicpreservationmiami.com/pdfs/Citizens%20Bank.pdf
[xvi] Florida History through its Places-Dade; Florida Department of State, Division of Natural Resources; http://www.flheritage.com/facts/reports/places/index.cfm?fuseaction=ListAreas&county=Dade
[xvii] Florida History through its Places-Dade; Florida Department of State, Division of Natural Resources; http://www.flheritage.com/facts/reports/places/index.cfm?fuseaction=ListAreas&county=Dade
[xviii] Florida History through its Places-Dade; Florida Department of State, Division of Natural Resources; http://www.flheritage.com/facts/reports/places/index.cfm?fuseaction=ListAreas&county=Dade
[xix] Florida History through its Places-Dade; Florida Department of State, Division of Natural Resources; http://www.flheritage.com/facts/reports/places/index.cfm?fuseaction=ListAreas&county=Dade
[xx] Florida History through its Places-Dade; Florida Department of State, Division of Natural Resources; http://www.flheritage.com/facts/reports/places/index.cfm?fuseaction=ListAreas&county=Dade
[xxi] Florida History through its Places-Dade; Florida Department of State, Division of Natural Resources; http://www.flheritage.com/facts/reports/places/index.cfm?fuseaction=ListAreas&county=Dade
[xxii] Florida History through its Places-Dade; Florida Department of State, Division of Natural Resources; http://www.flheritage.com/facts/reports/places/index.cfm?fuseaction=ListAreas&county=Dade
[xxiii] Florida History through its Places-Dade; Florida Department of State, Division of Natural Resources; http://www.flheritage.com/facts/reports/places/index.cfm?fuseaction=ListAreas&county=Dade
[xxiv] “Gold Coast Pharmacy 2419-2435 Biscayne Boulevard Designation Report”; Sarah E. Eaton, City of Miami; http://www.historicpreservationmiami.com/pdfs/gold%20coast.pdf
[xxv] Florida History through its Places-Dade; Florida Department of State, Division of Natural Resources; http://www.flheritage.com/facts/reports/places/index.cfm?fuseaction=ListAreas&county=Dade
[xxvi] Florida History through its Places-Dade; Florida Department of State, Division of Natural Resources; http://www.flheritage.com/facts/reports/places/index.cfm?fuseaction=ListAreas&county=Dade
[xxvii] Florida History through its Places-Dade; Florida Department of State, Division of Natural Resources; http://www.flheritage.com/facts/reports/places/index.cfm?fuseaction=ListAreas&county=Dade
[xxviii] Florida History through its Places-Dade; Florida Department of State, Division of Natural Resources; http://www.flheritage.com/facts/reports/places/index.cfm?fuseaction=ListAreas&county=Dade
[xxix] Florida History through its Places-Dade; Florida Department of State, Division of Natural Resources; http://www.flheritage.com/facts/reports/places/index.cfm?fuseaction=ListAreas&county=Dade
[xxx] Florida History through its Places-Dade; Florida Department of State, Division of Natural Resources; http://www.flheritage.com/facts/reports/places/index.cfm?fuseaction=ListAreas&county=Dade
[xxxi] Florida History through its Places-Dade; Florida Department of State, Division of Natural Resources; http://www.flheritage.com/facts/reports/places/index.cfm?fuseaction=ListAreas&county=Dade
[xxxii] Florida History through its Places-Dade; Florida Department of State, Division of Natural Resources; http://www.flheritage.com/facts/reports/places/index.cfm?fuseaction=ListAreas&county=Dade
[xxxiii] Florida History through its Places-Dade; Florida Department of State, Division of Natural Resources; http://www.flheritage.com/facts/reports/places/index.cfm?fuseaction=ListAreas&county=Dade
[xxxiv] Florida History through its Places-Dade; Florida Department of State, Division of Natural Resources; http://www.flheritage.com/facts/reports/places/index.cfm?fuseaction=ListAreas&county=Dade
[xxxv] Florida History through its Places-Dade; Florida Department of State, Division of Natural Resources; http://www.flheritage.com/facts/reports/places/index.cfm?fuseaction=ListAreas&county=Dade
[xxxvi] Florida History through its Places-Dade; Florida Department of State, Division of Natural Resources; http://www.flheritage.com/facts/reports/places/index.cfm?fuseaction=ListAreas&county=Dade
[xxxvii] Florida History through its Places-Dade; Florida Department of State, Division of Natural Resources; http://www.flheritage.com/facts/reports/places/index.cfm?fuseaction=ListAreas&county=Dade
[xxxviii] Florida History through its Places-Dade; Florida Department of State, Division of Natural Resources; http://www.flheritage.com/facts/reports/places/index.cfm?fuseaction=ListAreas&county=Dade
[xxxix] Florida History through its Places-Dade; Florida Department of State, Division of Natural Resources; http://www.flheritage.com/facts/reports/places/index.cfm?fuseaction=ListAreas&county=Dade
[xl] Florida History through its Places-Dade; Florida Department of State, Division of Natural Resources; http://www.flheritage.com/facts/reports/places/index.cfm?fuseaction=ListAreas&county=Dade
[xli] Florida History through its Places-Dade; Florida Department of State, Division of Natural Resources; http://www.flheritage.com/facts/reports/places/index.cfm?fuseaction=ListAreas&county=Dade
[xlii] Florida History through its Places-Dade; Florida Department of State, Division of Natural Resources; http://www.flheritage.com/facts/reports/places/index.cfm?fuseaction=ListAreas&county=Dade
[xliii] Florida History through its Places-Dade; Florida Department of State, Division of Natural Resources; http://www.flheritage.com/facts/reports/places/index.cfm?fuseaction=ListAreas&county=Dade
[xliv] Florida History through its Places-Dade; Florida Department of State, Division of Natural Resources; http://www.flheritage.com/facts/reports/places/index.cfm?fuseaction=ListAreas&county=Dade
[xlv] Florida History through its Places-Dade; Florida Department of State, Division of Natural Resources; http://www.flheritage.com/facts/reports/places/index.cfm?fuseaction=ListAreas&county=Dade
[xlvi] Florida History through its Places-Dade; Florida Department of State, Division of Natural Resources; http://www.flheritage.com/facts/reports/places/index.cfm?fuseaction=ListAreas&county=Dade
[xlvii] Florida History through its Places-Dade; Florida Department of State, Division of Natural Resources; http://www.flheritage.com/facts/reports/places/index.cfm?fuseaction=ListAreas&county=Dade
[xlviii] Florida History through its Places-Dade; Florida Department of State, Division of Natural Resources; http://www.flheritage.com/facts/reports/places/index.cfm?fuseaction=ListAreas&county=Dade
[xlix] Florida History through its Places-Dade; Florida Department of State, Division of Natural Resources; http://www.flheritage.com/facts/reports/places/index.cfm?fuseaction=ListAreas&county=Dade
[l] Village Archives-The History of El Portal; Village of El Portal; http://elportalvillage.com/archives
[li] Florida History through its Places-Dade; Florida Department of State, Division of Natural Resources; http://www.flheritage.com/facts/reports/places/index.cfm?fuseaction=ListAreas&county=Dade
[lii] Papers of the Hubbell family,, 1920s-1940s; HistoryMiami Archives & Research Center; http://historymiamiarchives.org/guides/index.php?p=collections/controlcard&id=190