Points of Interest
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America’s Lost Highway
Missouri’s U.S. Highway 66
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U.S. Highway 66, the principal highway between Chicago and the Southwest until the late 1950’s, crosses Missouri diagonally from the Mississippi River at St. Louis to the high plains southwest of Springfield. As it cuts through the Ozarks, the highway follows approximately the route of a stage line established by the United States Government two decades before the American Civil War. During the war, the road was an important military thoroughfare, traveled by the Federal commands of Fremont, Phelps, Bliss, and by the Confederate troops of Price, Bains, Hindman, Parsons, and Slack. The Federal Government at that time put a telegraph line along the road with stations at St. Louis, Rolla, Lebanon, Marshfield, Springfield, and Fort Smith, Arkansas, and the route was known as the Old Wire Road. The Confederates frequently cut the wires. After the war, the government took down the wires, leaving the poles gray and gaunt along the roadside.
U.S. Highway 66, along with U.S. Highway 40, entered St. Louis on the McKinley Bridge until 1940. That year, traffic from those routes was realigned to cross the Chain of Rocks Bridge, and the older route became City 66 and City 40. Today, we would refer to them as the Business Routes.
Illinois State Line (McKinley Bridge at the Mississippi River)
Once across the bridge, U.S. Highway 66 followed Broadway through the center of St. Louis.
Junction with Broadway (0.8 mile west of the Illinois Line on the McKinley Bridge)
The travel route turns south on Broadway at the end of the McKinley Bridge.
The first attempt at settlement made on the site of St. Louis, and as far as is known in the State, was the Jesuit Mission of St. Francis Xavier, established in 1700 at the mouth of the Riviere des Pres (French, River of the Fathers) within the present city limits. The Kaskaskia Indians from the Illinois River, and the Tamaroa Indians from their village of Cahokia on the opposite side of the Mississippi, settled here with the Fathers. Within three years, though, the Indians moved, and the mission was abandoned. More than a half-century passed before a permanent settlement was established at St. Louis. On July 6th, 1763, Maxent, Laclede, & Company of New Orleans were granted exclusive rights to the Indian trade in the Missouri River Valley and all the country west of the Mississippi as far north as the St. Peters River, On August 3rd, Pierre Laclede Liguest, junior partner of the firm, with some 30 other persons, left New Orleans for Fort Chartres, on the east bank of the Mississippi below St. Louis, where he stored his supplies for the winter. In December, he selected the present site of St. Louis as the most suitable location for a new post, announcing that he "intended to establish a settlement which might hereafter become one of the finest cities in America.”
Actual settlement was delayed until the following spring. On February 14th, Laclede sent over from Fort Chartres a party of workmen under command of 1 3-year-old Auguste Chouteau, to lay the foundation of the post. The village, named for Louis IX, Crusader King of France and patron saint of Louis XV, originally consisted of but five streets. Rue Royale, now First Street, faced the river, and behind it were Rue de Ffigiise (Church Street) and Rue des Granges (Street of the Barns), modern Second and Third Streets. Intersecting were Rue Bonhorame (Farmer Street) and Rue de la Tour (Tower Street), now Market and Walnut Streets. The village plan included La Place d'Armes, a public square for civic gatherings, between present Market and Walnut Streets, and Main and the river. Laclede built his house immediately west, across present First Street, and set aside the block where the old Cathedral is now, between Second and Third and Market and Walnut Streets, as a church site. Most of the early houses were of upright log construction (see Architecture) in the French manner. A few, more substantial, were of stone with wide verandas, and with foundations, like that of Laclede's, dug by Indians who had settled nearby to live on the Frenchmen's bounty.
Just above the town and slightly to the north on the second river bank level were a group of Indian mounds, so situated as to form a rough parallelogram. The largest, at the northeast corner of present Mound and Broadway, was known as La Grange de Terre (the Earth Barn), or simply as the Big Mound, and was for many years a landmark. Excavation proved it to contain bodies and artifacts of considerable antiquity. One of Lewis Rogers' band of Shawnee was buried in it in 1819, and until 1826 the Indians returned regularly to mourn at his grave. It was from the top of this mound that the Rector family watched for Thomas Rector's signal that he was all right after the duel in which he shot and killed Joshua Barton in 1823. All of the large group of mounds which once stood just outside the wall of the original city were leveled as St. Louis grew, in spite of abortive attempts to have them preserved in a city park. Of the other mounds once scattered along the near-by bank of the Mississippi, only a piece of one at the foot of present Wyandotte Street still remains.
The village of St. Louis was nicknamed Pain Court (Short of Bread ), but the name seems to have been a Gallic jibe at the lack of agriculture in this commercial town rather than an indication of poverty. Laclede's fur business grew within 5 years to more than $80,000 annually, and St. Louis became and remained the center of the Western fur trade. In 1765, the exclusive fur-trading privileges granted Maxent, Laclede, & Company were withdrawn by the Spanish government, and with the region open to competition new settlers, merchants, and outfitters flocked in. Expeditions were made to the many streams west and north. Meanwhile French colonials across the Mississippi, rather than become British subjects, moved to the west side of the river, many of them settling in or near St. Louis. Among these were Captain St. Ange de Bellerive, former Commandant of Fort Chartres, and his garrison of 20 soldiers. St. Ange was the first commandant of St. Louis. When France and Spain became the allies of the Colonists in the American Revolution, St. Louis assumed strategic military importance to the British. In June of 1779, the British General Haldimand was ordered to reduce the Spanish and American posts on the upper Mississippi, Haldimand consequently organized a group of Indians, together with some Canadian traders and their servants. Sent by various routes, these combined into a body of about 1,200 for an attack on St. Louis in May of 1780. The village was warned of the approaching enemy, however, and partially fortified itself. The attack was repulsed by some 50 soldiers and 200 townsmen, aided by a small reinforcement from Ste. Genevieve, in a battle commemorated in the popular song "Chanson de L'Annee du Coup". This was the second victory of the Colonists and their allies in the West. It preserved the important Mississippi-Ohio River route for the entry of American supplies, and relieved in part the danger of British attack from the West.
For a time pirates made commerce on the Mississippi dangerous, plundering and murdering wherever the opportunity offered. In 1788, however, L’Annie des Dix Bateaux (the Year of the Ten Boats), the pirates were driven from the river by the concerted efforts of the crews of ten boats which traveled upstream together from New Orleans. After this purge, St. Louis grew rapidly. The average annual value of furs received there between 1788 and 1804 was $203,750. This increased trade made St. Louis the center of wealth and culture in the upper valley, in spite of its isolation. The well-to-do built spacious mansions and equipped them with furniture, glass, and china brought from France. They built up fine private libraries and art collections, and either employed tutors or sent their children to Europe to school. This pleasant existence was disrupted after the Louisiana Purchase in 1803, when St. Louis became the crossroad of Westward expansion, and French and Spanish culture was deluged by a flood of American immigration. The town was overrun with adventurers, gamblers, and freethinkers who boasted that "God would never cross the Mississippi." The levee along the length of the river was notorious; street brawls were almost nightly occurrences. Such Americans of wealth and culture as came to St. Louis during this period, like the upper level of the French and Spanish residents, either withdrew into isolation, or soon found themselves participating in the more fashionable aspects of the city's hectic life. Many a gentleman lost a fortune on the turn of a card, or won one by the correct appraisal of a righting cock. A long series of duels made Bloody Island infamous the country over. Dr. Bernard G. Farrar fatally wounded James A. Graham there in 1810; seven years later, the prominent and highly respected Thomas Hart Benton shot and killed Charles Lucas on the same "field of honor.”
Many were now beginning to explore the fabulous empire of the West. James Pursley and a group from St. Louis had made a journey to Santa Fe in 1802; Lewis and Clark made their historic voyage between 1804 and 1806. St. Louis fur traders and trappers were breaking trails over a far-flung territory. In 180,9 the Missouri Fur Company was organized, with a capital of $40,000, by William Clark, Manuel Lisa, Pierre and Auguste P. Chouteau, Sylvestre Labadie, and others. Competition was attempted by John Jacob Astor and his American Fur Company, through a branch established in St. Louis in 1822, but although Astor succeeded in the North and Northwest, the St. Louis group continued to control the Missouri Valley. For 40 years after the purchase of the territory this trade amounted to $300,000 annually. Riotous independence gradually gave way to sober community life. In 1808, Joseph Charless founded the Missouri Gazette, the first newspaper west of the Mississippi River, and George Tompkins, later Missouri supreme court judge, established one of the first English schools. The same year, with its boundaries pushed west to Seventh Street, St. Louis was incorporated as a village with 1,400 inhabitants. Fourteen years later it received its city charter. Between 1799 and 1840, the population increased from 925 to 16,394. Caravans of settlers, sometimes 30 to 50 wagons a day, crossed the Mississippi at St. Louis on their way to the West. The flatboats of Missouri farmers, loaded with locally grown pork, hemp, grain, apples, and flour, turned toward New Orleans in increasing numbers.
St. Louis assumed the political leadership of the State from the very beginning; the territorial legislature met in the city, as did the constitutional convention of June of 1820. As the rural sections were settled, however, friction developed between them and St. Louis. The farmers had been hurt in the depression of 1819, and they mistrusted the St. Louis clique of business and professional men who were in power. In the first election, Alexander McNair was elected governor largely by the rural vote, and shortly the seat of government was moved temporarily to St. Charles, and six years later to Jefferson City. Even at the present time, St. Louis remains curiously independent of the rest of the State; nor has the friction between it and the rural sections completely died out.
On August 2nd, 1817, a crude steamboat, the Zebulon M. Pike, pushed its way up the tawny Mississippi to dock at St. Louis after a six week trip from Louisville. This was the first steamboat to reach
St. Louis, the advance guard of the giant flotilla which was to transform the town into one of the Nation's leading cities. As the dockage lengthened along the bank and the boats gathered thick as flies, St. Louis spread back from the river, its population skyrocketing from 20,000 in 1837 to 75,000 in 1850, 160,000 in 1860, and 350,000 in 1880. The first manufacturing in St. Louis was done in small shops operated by craftsmen, assisted by journeymen and apprentices, who made copperware and tinware, shoes, furniture, pottery, bricks, and other necessities. Tobacco factories began operating in 1817, and manufacturies of red and white lead pigments, tanneries, and other small plants followed. By 1850, St. Louis was well established as an industrial center.
Nineteen flour mills were exporting half a million barrels of flour annually. Twelve or more foundries, using more than 7,000 tons of ore, had been developed to utilize the iron ore or southeast Missouri and the cheap Missouri and Illinois coal. Foundry products included plows designed to turn the heavy prairie sod, and other agricultural machinery, ornamental ironwork for buildings (this later included entire store fronts), and steamboat engines. Other important industries produced sheet lead and lead pipe, white lead, shot, cotton and woolen goods, and distilled products, St. Louis exported foodstuffs and manufactured goods to a tremendous market: bacon, beef, corn, flour, oats, apples, hemp, lead, and iron. Optimistic St. Louisans, measuring the growth of the city, estimated it would contain a population of millions within another half century. Meanwhile, political events in Germany, combined with the stimulus of a new social restlessness, induced a heavy German migration to Missouri, starting about 1832. Before 1850, thirty thousand Germans had settled In St. Louis professional men and scholars, skilled tradesmen, and cheap labor for the growing industries. With industrial growth came an interest in civic and cultural activities. A Roman Catholic diocese had been organized under Bishop Rosati, an Episcopalian under Bishop Jackson Kemper, both men of exceptional intelligence ; other denominations built up strong congregations.
Fort Bellefontaine (1806-1827) on the Missouri was replaced by Jefferson Barracks on the Mississippi as the base of all military activity in the West. A public library, an annual agricultural fair, and other civic enterprises were introduced. Social life took on a new brilliance. General Lafayette, French patriot and Revolutionary War hero, was entertained at a grand ball and banquet in Bennetts Mansion Hall in 1825. The Planter's Hotel, begun in 1837, was described by Charles Dickens in 1842 as "an excellent house, and the proprietors have most bountiful notions of providing the creature comforts. Ingenious bartenders invented the highball, Southern Comfort, and Planter’s Punch. Sol Smith, Sam Drake, and Noah M. Ludlow came to make St. Louis a theatrical center. The Polyhymnia, an orchestral group, was established; Parodi and Patti sustained "their distinguished reputation in song, 'commanding . . . full houses and enthusiastic applause." St. Louis University was organized in 1832 from a college dating back to 1818; Washington University began 21 years later. Dr. Joseph N. McDowell established as a branch of the University of Missouri medical school which was to become the basis of the present Washington University Medical School, and the nucleus for St. Louis's present importance as a medical center. In the 1850's, the city instituted a public school system. This development did not escape the pains of growth. Depressions came in 1819, 1837, 1857, 1873. The course of the Mississippi changed, threatening to leave the port of St. Louis behind a sandbar; this was halted by work directed by Robert L. Lee, then a lieutenant in the United States Army, who planned and supervised the construction of jetties and revetments at the upper end of Bloody Island (1837-1839).
The enthusiasm of the St. Louis railroad convention of 1836, resulting in the chartering of 18 railroad companies by the legislature, was deadened by the sudden panic of 1837, which delayed construction for almost twenty years. Most serious of all were the events of 1849. On May 19, the steamboat White Cloud caught fire at the wharf. The flames spread rapidly to adjacent boats, which were cut adrift, thus extending the conflagration. Wharf buildings caught fire and, aided by wind, the flames destroyed 15 business blocks with a property loss variously estimated at from $3,000,000 to $6,000,000. Reconstruction was delayed by an outbreak of cholera, a plague which had visited the city once before, in 1832. Within a short period, 4,060 out of a population of 64,000 had died. Many families fled the city. Trade was at a standstill. The streets were deserted save for doctors hurrying to their patients, and the regular circuit of hearses collecting the dead. The tragedies resulted in a renovation of the city. The area destroyed by fire contained the oldest buildings, many of them of frame or log construction, and these were replaced by more substantial buildings of brick. Streets were widened. Public health problems ignored by the growing city had been brought to general attention by the plague. The problems of sewage disposal, of contaminated water in both public and private wells, and of inadequate hospital and institutional facilities, were met by a new civic consciousness.
The 1850’s brought national prosperity. The Mexican War (1846-1847) had added new territory to the United States; gold had been discovered in California in 1848, and in Colorado in 1858; railroads had proved practical. St. Louis was in a position, both geographically and commercially, to benefit by the great Westward movement precipitated by these factors. The fur trade was declining, but St. Louis traders and trappers were familiar with the great Western trails, and St. Louis merchants rapidly prepared to outfit the tide of migrants with clothes, shoes, stoves, machinery, foodstuffs, tools, and medicines. The levee still hummed with the river traffic of the Missouri and Mississippi, in spite of the newly introduced railroads. The Pacific, the first railroad in Missouri, was begun in 1851; other lines followed in rapid succession, and all, with the exception of the Hannibal to St. Joseph line, had their eastern terminus in St. Louis.
At the outbreak of the Civil War, St. Louis, like many other Missouri towns, was divided in its sympathies. The old French families, and the Kentucky and Virginia families with whom they had intermarried, were nominally pro-slavery. Slavery was nor profitable in an urban economy, however, and many of these families had commercial ties with the East. It was to their interest that St. Louis remain neutral, but when a choice was forced upon them, they somewhat reluctantly supported the South. These, however, were a minority group. Two-thirds of St. Louis's population of 190,500 were either foreign born or had come from anti-slavery States. The Irish and German residents, charged with the new social ideals of Europe, and at times forced to compete with cheap slave labor, were strong Union crusaders. The crisis came soon after the fall of Fort Sumter. Since the St. Louis Arsenal held the largest supply of munitions in the Middle West, each side maneuvered for its possession. Both Confederate-sympathizing State troops and Union troops drilled in the city until May 10th, 1861, when General Nathaniel Lyon and Francis P. Blair, with about 10,000 German and American soldiers, surrounded the 800 State troopers at Camp Jackson in Lindell’s Grove, near present Grand Boulevard and Lawton Avenue, and forced their surrender. Thereafter, St. Louis served as a base of Federal operations, and martial law and special levies of money and property made life difficult for Confederate sympathizers.
Early in 1865, a constitutional convention dominated by radical Republicans met in St. Louis and drew up the Drake Constitution. Its wise provisions were overshadowed by the infamous "iron clad oath” which made it impossible for former Confederate sympathizers to vote or hold public office. This provision was declared unconstitutional four years later by the United States Supreme Court. St. Louis not only escaped damage, but actually profited by the war. The Chief Quartermaster spent $180,000,000 in the city during the course of the conflict, and the pressure of war orders for clothing and supplies helped to bring the town's industries to maturity. In the decade 1860-70, the value of St. Louis manufacturing increased 296 per cent, with flour, paint, sugar, steam machinery, and the products of foundries, planing mills, breweries, tobacco, and meat packing establishments predominating.
The post-war years saw the decline of the steamboat beset by the railroads and the tow-barge. The blockading of the South during the war had hastened the end. The railroads opened a new route to the East, and doomed the old New Orleans-St. Louis axis which had been the Mississippi steamboat's reason for being. Paradoxically, the period of decadence produced the largest and most luxurious craft. Two of these were the Natchez and the Robert E. Lee, which commanded national attention by their race from New Orleans to St. Louis in 1870. The greatest of all, the J. M. White III, with 75-foot stacks and side-wheels four-stories high, was built in 1878.
St. Louis turned to the new means of transportation without a falter in her stride, and soon railroad lines converged on the city as thickly as the boats had gathered at the wharf. Eads Bridge and the first Union Station were both completed in 1874. The bridge made Illinois coal and cheap building sites accessible to St. Louis industries. Many moved across the river to develop important chemical and metal-casting plants. The new growth stimulated civic improvements. Henry Shaw developed, endowed, and presented to the city the Missouri Botanical Gardens and Tower Grove Park. Forest Park, purchased in 1875, is the largest of the present 68 parks, which total more than 3,000 acres. Symphonic groups had existed, at intervals, since the 1830’s; the St. Louis Symphony Orchestra (second oldest in the country) was founded in 1880. The interest which St. Louis had shown in art since Colonial times found increasing expression after the 1840'$ in private collections and in the encouragement given local artists. The Mercantile Library Association, established in 1846, not only founded a remarkable library, but also assembled the first public collection of art objects in the city, and commissioned such artists as George C. Bingham, Harriet Hosrner, and Carl Wimar for original works. Following the Civil War, annual art exhibitions introduced "modern" artists to St. Louis. The pressing interest in political and social problems was voiced by a vigorous public press : the Westliche Post, the mouthpiece of Carl Schurz and other German-American intellectuals, the Post-Dispatch, directed by Joseph Pulitzer, the Globe-Democrat, Reedy's Mirror, and others. Various magazines were launched. Most significant was the Journal of Speculative Philosophy, published from 1868 to 1893 by a group of St. Louis philosophers. Its founder, William Torrey Harris (1835-1909), was an important figure in American education.
In 1876, the Democratic Party held in St. Louis the first national political convention west of the Mississippi River, nominating Samuel J. Tilden for the presidency. The following year a new charter for local government, providing for the separation of the city from the county, was adopted. Considered a model for other cities, this charter emancipated St. Louis from the control of the State legislature except by general laws. The city experienced a financial panic in 1873, and a serious railroad strike in 1877. In the tranquil period that followed these disturbances, St. Louis merchants organized the Veiled Prophet's festival, which has been held early each October since 1878, and which yearly draws tremendous crowds of street revelers. In 1903, the world was at peace, and prosperity had not yet moved around the corner. St. Louis, with a population of 575,238, began preparation for the Louisiana Purchase Exposition of 1904, commemorating the growth of St. Louis and the Middle West. Most of the European nations were represented, and all America moved to the tune of "Meet me in St. Louie, Louie, meet me at the Fair.” The exposition, financed by the city and a group of directors under David R.Francis, a former governor of Missouri, was a tremendous success. The backers made money, the city acquired an improved water system and an art museum, and the general public became acquainted with foreign cultures and social trends and, if legend is correct, with ice cream cones; it is said that an ingenious waffle vender at the fair first conceived the idea of packing ice cream in a waffle, and so began an American institution.
The industrial activity of the First World War period brought a new wave of prosperity, resulting in widened streets and boulevards, and new public buildings, financed in part by an $87,000,000 bond issue voted in 1926. A second bond issue of $16,000,000 was voted in 1934 for public buildings, part and playground improvements, hospitals, street widenings, grade eliminations, and sewer construction. The city suffered with the rest of the world from the recent depression period, but in the past five years the number of industries has steadily increased. The 1941 defense program accelerated airplane production, and gave an impetus to other St. Louis industries.
Points of Interest:
1) Jefferson National Expansion Monument (Old St. Louis Riverfront, foot of Market Street)
This monument is located where the settlement of St. Louis began. The Gateway Arch is the tallest national monument in the United States at 630 feet; it is the city's best known landmark and a popular tourist attraction. Construction began on February 12th, 1963, and the last section of the Arch was put into place on October 28th, 1965. The Arch is a structure known as a catenary curve, the shape a free-hanging chain takes when held at both ends, and considered the most structurally-sound arch shape. The span of the Arch legs at ground level is 630 feet, the same as its height.[i]
2) Site of the Old Custom House (Third Street and Olive Street)
The Custom House that stood here until 1941 what was probably the first Federal office, building west of the Mississippi River. After more than 40 years in rented quarters, the Government decided in 1851 to erect its own edifice in St. Louis. The space selected was that occupied by the old Smith and Ludlow Theater, where since 1837 such famous actors as Junius Brutus Booth had appeared. The theater was torn down in 1852, and the customhouse, designed by the supervising architect in Washington, was begun. Constructed of Missouri "Barrett stone," it was of Italianate design. As completed in 1859, the building contained a post office on the main floor with special accommodations for German patrons the Federal courts, and the offices of the district attorney, the sub-treasury, and the customs. In 1888, the customs offices were moved to a newly constructed building between 8th and 9th, and Olive and Locust Sts. After the completion of the new customhouse on Market Street in 1935, the old building was largely vacant, until its demolition was begun in January of 1941 to make way for the Jefferson National Expansion Memorial.
3) Merchants Exchange (Third Street, from Chestnut Street to Pine Street)
The exchange was designed by Lee and Annan, and completed in 1875 at a cost of $2,000,000. When built, it was the largest trade hall with an unsupported ceiling in the United States, and in 1940 it was still the largest grain exchange trading floor in the United States. Until 1911, the Veiled Prophet's ball was presented in this building, and it was here that the Democratic convention which nominated James Tilden for president in 1876 was held.
4) Old Courthouse (Market Street and Broadway)
It is surmounted by a 128-ton cast-iron dome, 198 feet high, whose design was an architectural and engineering novelty at the time of its construction. Its designer, William Rumbold, one of the courthouse architects, patented the idea in 1862. Designed by Henry Singleton, Robert S. Mitchell, and William Rumhold, the courthouse was begun in 1839, but many changes were made in the plans and the building was not completed until 1862.
Sergeant S. Prentiss, United States Senator from Mississippi, spoke at the Fourth Street entrance in 1840; Henry Clay attended court in the building and sold real estate from the east entrance in 1847; in 1859, Ulysses S. Grant freed here his only slave, and made application later refused for the position of St. Louis County engineer. A series of meetings was held in the rotunda during 1846 to raise troops for the Mexican War, to collect funds to maintain them, and to care for the wives and children of the men during their absence. Troops were temporarily quartered here. In 1847, the returning soldiers were welcomed in the rotunda, and an impressive public funeral was held there for two officers of the Illinois volunteers who were killed in the battle of Buena Vista.
The rotunda is also associated with trans-Mississippi railroad development, for in October of 1849, the first national railroad convention met in this room. Almost a thousand delegates, representing fourteen States, elected Stephen A. Douglas chairman and listened to Thomas H. Benton's impassioned speech advocating a trans-continental railroad, which ended, "There is the East. There is India."
The building is historically identified with the Dred Scott case, which did much to precipitate the Civil War. Dred Scott was born a slave in Virginia. His master, Peter Blow, brought him to Missouri in 1827, and subsequently willed him to an unmarried daughter, whom he was to help support by doing odd jobs. This arrangement proved unsatisfactory, and Dred was sold to Dr. John Emerson of Jefferson Barracks. When the doctor was transferred to Rock Island, Illinois, and from there to Fort Snelling, then in Wisconsin Territory, he took Dred with him. Both posts were in free territory and thus arose the later contention. In 1837, Dr. Emerson returned to Jefferson Barracks; he died six years later, leaving Dred and his family as part of his trust estate, of which his widow and her brother, John F. A. Sanford of New York, were executors. Mrs. Emerson at length moved East, leaving the slaves to shift largely for themselves. Scott, with his family, became a charge on the bounty of Taylor Blow, the son of his old master. It is probable that the Blow's instigated the first of the long series of trials which made Dred a national symbol, in an effort to have him set legally free so that they might be relieved of their sense of responsibility.
In June of 1847, the first suit against Mrs. Emerson was tried in the old courthouse. It was technically an action for assault and battery, and false imprisonment, with Dred basing his plea for freedom on the fact that Dr. Emerson had taken him into free territory. The verdict was against Dred, but in the trial of 1850, also held in this building, Dred won. On appeal to the Missouri Supreme Court, this judgment was set aside in March of 1852, in a session likewise held in the old courthouse. Meanwhile the status of the case had been changed by the marriage of Mrs. Emerson to Dr. Calvin C. Chaffee, a physician of Springfield, Massachusetts, who was a member of Congress and an abolitionist. Not only was Mrs. Emerson's interest in owning slaves reduced, but by Missouri law her marriage disqualified her from serving as an executor of her husband's will. This left Sanford as sole executor and nominal titleholder of Dred. As the subsequent trials were between residents of different States, they came under the jurisdiction of the United States Courts. The case was so charged with national implications that from an insignificant local trial it became a test of principles in which many of the country's most prominent lawyers and abolitionists were involved.
In May of 1854, the United States Court in St. Louis declared Dred and his family the property of the Emerson estate. The case was appealed to the United States Supreme Court, and on March 6th, 1857, Chief Justice Roger B. Taney rendered the famous decision. Dred Scott, having been born a slave, might like any chattel be taken anywhere his master chose to go. Accordingly, he was still a slave, and had no right to sue in the Federal courts. The court declared further that no Negro could ever be a United States citizen, that the Missouri Compromise was in violation of the Constitution, and that slavery could not be prohibited in the territories of the United States. During the same year, Dred was emancipated by the voluntary act of his master and died in St. Louis, September 17th, 1858.
In this building, in 1866, General Francis P. Blair contested the legality of the "Test Oath", and Louise Minor, a pioneer suffragist, sued in 1872 for the right to vote.
5) Old National Hotel (Third Street and Market Street)
In 1818, the first Protestant Church (Baptist) in St. Louis, long the scene of Masonic celebrations and public meetings, was built on this spot. In 1831, the church and lot were sold to Thornton Grimsley, who immediately built the first National Hotel. From the Market Street entrance of that building Daniel Webster delivered an address in 1837. Sergeant S. Prentiss of Mississippi, General Robert E. lee,
General Zachary Taylor and other famous men are said to have been guests there. This hotel was replaced in 1847 by the present structure. On October 28th, 1847, "A. Lincoln and family, Illinois" stayed here while en route to Washington, where Lincoln took his seat in Congress.
6) Site of Spanish Government House (3rd Street and Market Street)
On March 8th, 1804, the entire territory of Upper Louisiana was transferred to the United States here.
7) Site of Old Rock House (Sullivan Boulevard at the Gateway Arch North Steps)
This was the oldest building in St. Louis. According to The Old St. Louis Riverfront (1938) published by the Jefferson National Expansion Memorial staff, it was built in 1818 by Manuel Lisa, the great fur trader, for the operations of the Missouri Fur Company. The house was razed during the construction of the Jefferson National Expansion Monument.
8) Site of Laclede’s Village (One block south of Old Rock House Site)
This village is where St. Louis began.
9) Site of Pierre Chouteau House (Washington Avenue and 1st Street)
Pierre Choteau built this house in 1819. The structure was demolished along with the Old Rock House.
10) The Old Cathedral (Second Street and Walnut Street)
This is also known as the Church of St. Louis of France. On this site, the first Mass was celebrated in 1764, and the first church, a log one, was built six years later. The present church, built in 1831 to 1834 under the direction of Joseph Rosati, first Bishop of St. Louis, is the fourth to occupy the site.
11) Eads Bridge (Washington Avenue at the Mississippi River)
This bridge was named for its designer, Captain James B. Eads. Constructed in 1867, it was the world’s first steel truss bridge. The bridge was a revolutionary undertaking. At the time of its construction, engineers questioned the possibility of erecting such long spans, and the use of steel was protested. Difficulties were encountered equal to those experienced on the Brooklyn Bridge, where pneumatic caissons were used for the first time in pier construction. Since little was known about combating the effects of working under compressed air, 119 men developed "caisson disease" and 14 died of it before Eads Bridge was completed.
12) Municipal Bridge (Railroad Bridge, south of Poplar Street Bridge (Interstate 64) at the Mississippi River)
When constructed, this was one of the largest double-deck steel span bridges in the world. Its overall length was about two miles. The bridge has also been referred to as the Free Bridge, on contrast to the tolls of the Eads Bridge.
13) John Woodward Johnson House (613 Market Street)
This residence was built in the 1830’s. John W. Johnson came west from Maryland in 1808 to serve as government trader to the Sauk and Fox Indians living near the junction of the Des Moines and Mississippi Rivers. He was factor at Fort Madison, Iowa, from its beginning until its evacuation and destruction in September of 1813. In that year he became trader and agent to the Sauk and Fox tribes who had settled on the Little Moniteau River in Missouri. In 1815, he officiated in the purchase and distribution of $30,000 worth of presents to the 19 Indian tribes who made peace at Portage des Sioux. The following year, he became agent and factor at Prairie du Chien, where, as chief justice of the Crawford County Court, he played an important part in the early history of Wisconsin.
When the government trade was abolished in 1822, Johnson moved to St. Louis. In 1831, following the death of his first wife, a daughter of Keokuk, he married Mrs. Lucy Honeywell Gooding, a native of Maine, and soon settled in this house. Family history records that the new Mrs. Johnson opened the door one day to find Johnson's three half-breed daughters calmly awaiting admittance. “Mama say we go live with Papa," they announced. Mrs. Johnson apparently had not known of their existence, but she accepted them into the family circle. Under her care the girls became belles of St. Louis, and all married well. In 1834, Johnson became the third mayor of St. Louis. He died June 1st, 1854, in his eightieth year, and is buried in Calvary Cemetery near the monument to General Sherman.
14) Wainwright Building (105 N. 7th Street)
Designed by Louis Sullivan and constructed in 1891, this was one of the country’s first steel-frame buildings.
15) Majestic Hotel (1017 Pine Street)
First opened near the end of September, 1914, the hotel is one of St. Louis' few hotels which date from before World War I and still exist today. The building's Renaissance Revival design is an example of common styles in St. Louis architecture in the 1920’s. The hotel was built to serve middle-class guests, but it had advanced fireproofing, two restaurants, and a rathskeller.[ii]
16) Bell Telephone Building (Olive Street and 10th Street)
Built as the original Southwestern Bell Telephone building in 1890, it has since housed a stationary business. The architects were the successor firm to the influential H. H. Richardson, whose stylistic influence is evident throughout much of 1890’s architecture. The building has recently been converted into lofts apartments.[iii]
17) Orpheum Theater (416 N. 9th Street)
The Orpheum Theater was constructed at the corner of 9th Street and St. Charles Street in 1917 by St. Louis self-made millionaire Louis A. Cella. The lead architect was Albert Lansburgh, and artist Leo Lentelli was responsible for the ornate sculptures that are still magnificent today. Lansburgh had already designed seven previous theaters for the Orpheum franchise. Lentelli had begun working in Rome in the early part of the twentieth century before moving to New York City where his works were commissioned for many projects, including Rockefeller Center.
When it joined the more than two dozen theaters of the national "Orpheum vaudeville circuit" on its Labor Day opening, the $500,000 "Parisian style" theater was considered an "architectural masterpiece and technological wonder." With the end of vaudeville in the mid-1930’s, the theater was leased to Warner Brothers as a movie house, and subsequently Loews assumed its management. In the 1960’s, it underwent a reincarnation as a performance venue and was re-christened The American Theater.[iv]
18) Hotel Statler (822 Washington Avenue)
This hotel was built in 1917 as part of the Statler chain of hotels. It was renovated in 2002 as the Renaissance Grand Hotel.
19) Missouri Pacific Building (210 N. 13th Street)
On December 9th, 1852, a passenger train, with the company's officers and leading citizens of St. Louis aboard, inaugurated the new Pacific Railroad with a trip to the end of the line. The people of Missouri then had their first look at a steam railroad. That train was the first to be operated west of the Mississippi River, and ran the five miles from the depot on 14th Street to Cheltenham in some ten minutes.[v] The Missouri Pacific Railway Corporation moved into this new building in May of 1928.
20) Christ Church Cathedral (Thirteenth Street and Locust Street)
Designed by Leopold Eidlitz., New York architect, this church was begun in 1859 and the first service was held in the completed structure on Christmas Day of 1867. The original stained-glass windows, a few of which remain, were made by Owen Doremus in Montclair, New Jersey. The Mary E. Bofinger Memorial Chapel, the gift of Captain John N. Bofinger, was designed by J. B. Legg and consecrated May 17th, 1894. The tower, narthex, and doorway, designed by Kivas Tully, were added in 1911.
21) Campbell House (Fifteenth Street and Locust Street)
This is the last surviving mansion of the Lucas Place residential area, which was fashionable in the 1850’s. Robert Campbell, the builder, was born in North Ireland in 1804, and came to St. Louis in 1824. The following year he went to the Rocky Mountains, where he remained as an associate of General William Henry Ashley in the fur trade. When Ashley retired about 1830, Campbell and a partner, William Sublette, remained in business as the Rocky Mountain Fur Company. In 1835, Campbell returned to St. Louis, where besides continuing to direct the affairs of his fur and Indian trade, he served as president of the Bank of Missouri and later of the Merchant's Bank. In 1846, he aided in the preparation of Kearny's expedition to the Mexican War, and, in 1851, served with Father de Smet, famed Indian missionary, as representative of the United States government in the great Indian Council at Horse Creek.
Following his death in 1879, his two sons, Hugh and Hazlett K., continued to live in the home, and maintained it as it had appeared during their childhood. When both died, they left an estate totaling more than $3,000,000, for a share in which several hundred people sued.
22) Robert E. Lee Hotel (205 N. 18th Street)
This 14-story hotel, designed in 1927 by prominent Kansas City architect, Alonzo H. Gentry, is the only remaining example of the hotels which used to line 18th Street. The Renaissance Revival style hotel was one of only two hotels constructed downtown in the 1920’s and is a local prototype of the economy or traveler’s style hotel. The hotel also represents the only known St. Louis work by Alonzo H. Gentry.[vi]ewe
23) Union Station (Market Street and 18th Street)
The station and its train sheds and power house, covering more than 20 acres, were opened in 1896.
24) Scott Joplin House State Historic Site (2658A Delmar Boulevard)
From 1900 to 1903, this was the residence of Scott Joplin (1868-1917), one of America's significant composers. His work with the musical genre later known as Ragtime provided important foundations for modern American music, combining elements of Midwestern folk and Afro-American melodic rhythmic traditions within the structural contexts of Western European musical forms.[vii]
25) St. Stanislaus Kostka Church (1413 N. 20th Street)
The cornerstone of this church was laid in 1880. A fire in 1928 destroyed the center dome of the original structure.[viii]
26) J. C. Penney Company Warehouse Building (400 S. 14th Street)
This structure was completed in 1928. It has been converted into condominiums and a hotel.
27) Eugene Field House (634 S. Broadway)
Built in 1845, this was the home of the journalist and poet, who was born here in 1850.
28) Dent-Grant House (4th Street and Cerre Street)
This residence was built in 1845. Here, in 1848, Ulysses S. Grant, then a lieutenant stationed at Jefferson Barracks, married Julia Dent, daughter of Colonel Frederick Dent. He resided here with Colonel Dent until he completed a log cabin on his St. Louis County farm, "Hardscrabble,” in the winter of 1854.
29) Lafayette Park (Mississippi, Missouri, Park, and Lafayette Avenues)
Then part of the St. Louis commons, Lafayette was designated as a park by the city council in
1836. For many years the St. Louis Greys, a local militia unit, drilled here. On April 25th, 1870, twenty European tree sparrows (Passer montanus montanus) and other imported birds, were liberated in the park by Carl Daenzer and a Mr. Kleinschmidt.
Points of Interest:
1) North St. Louis Water Tower (North Grand Boulevard at 20th Street)
Often called "the Old Water Tower”, this structure is a white 154-foot Corinthian column of brick with an octagonal base of Chicago stone 41 feet in diameter. The column, erected about 1871, was used until 1912 to create pressure to move water pumped from the Mississippi at Bissell's point, one mile to the north, to the Compton Hill Reservoir, about four miles to the south. The five-foot water pipe in the center of the column is surrounded by a spiral staircase leading to a platform at the top of the structure. In 1929, the column was equipped as an air beacon.
2) Bellefontaine Cemetery (4947 W. Florissant Avenue)
Opened in 1850, it contains the graves of many notable early St. Louisans. The Wainwright Tomb (1892), the resting place of Ellis and Charlotte Dickson Wainwright, is considered one of the chief works of architect Louis Sullivan.
3) Calvary Cemetery (5239 W. Florissant Avenue)
Opened in 1864, this cemetery contains the graves of Auguste Chouteau and Union General William Tecumseh Sherman. The Old Orchard House was built in 1849 by Henry Clay.
4) Shelley House (4600 Labadie Avenue)
This modest, two-story masonry residence built in 1906. In 1930, J. D. Shelley, his wife, and their six children migrated to St. Louis from Mississippi. For a number of years, they lived with relatives and then in rental properties. In looking to buy a home, they found that many buildings in St. Louis were covered by racially restrictive covenants by which the building owners agreed not to sell to anyone other than Whites. The Shelleys directly challenged this discriminatory practice by purchasing this house from an owner who agreed not to enforce the racial covenant. Louis D. Kraemer, owner of another property on Labadie covered by restrictive covenants, sued in the St. Louis Circuit (State) Court to enforce the restrictive covenant and prevent the Shelleys from acquiring title to the building. The trial court ruled in the Shelleys' favor in November of 1945, but when Kraemer appealed, the Missouri Supreme Court, on December 9th, 1946, reversed the trial court's decision and ordered that the racial covenant be enforced. The Shelleys then appealed to the United States Supreme Court.
On May 3rd, 1948, the United States Supreme Court rendered its landmark decision in Shelley v. Kraemer, holding, by a vote of 6 to 0 (with three judges not sitting), that racially restrictive covenants cannot be enforced by courts since this would constitute state action denying due process of law in violation of the 14th Amendment to the Constitution. Although the case did not outlaw covenants (only a state's enforcement of the practice), in Shelley v. Kraemer the Supreme Court reinforced the 14th Amendment's guarantee of equal protection of the laws, which includes rights to acquire, enjoy, own, and dispose of property.[ix]
5) Antioch Baptist Church (4213 W. North Market Street)
This church was built in 1920 in the historical African-American neighborhood called "The Ville.” This building was the third for this congregation, begun in 1879.
6) Negro Masonic Hall (3615 Dr. Martin Luther King Boulevard)
Built in 1909, this hall is also known as Most Worshipful Prince Hall Grand Lodge #2. This lodge bears the name of the 18th-century African-American New Englander, Prince Hall, who established the Negro Masonic groups in 1787.
7) American Wine Company Plant (3015 Caw Avenue)
The plant, a low, gray-stone building of modified Gothic design, was built In 1859. In that year, the American Wine Company was organized, largely through the efforts of Isaac Cook (1810-1886), an early Chicago merchant and office holder. The newly formed company purchased the deep stone cellars of the Missouri Wine Company, which had been established in 1832. These century-old cellars stone-arched, cool, damp, and glistening with white mould extend over an area almost a block square in a maze of passageways and levels 60 feet underground.
8) Fox Theatre (527 N. Grand Boulevard)
The theatre, completed in 1929, replaced the rough-cut limestone hulk of the Grand Avenue Presbyterian Church, empty since 1914. Construction was under the able supervision of the Aronberg-Fried Company, Inc. William Fried had built the Fox Theatre in Philadelphia (opened in 1923) and David G. Aronberg's credits included construction of the Missouri State Capitol Building.[x]
9) St. Francis Xavier’s Church (Grand Boulevard and Lindell Boulevard)
This church was planned by Henry Switzer and dedicated in 1898. The stained glass windows, by Emil Frei of St. Louis, are consonant with the design of the church. In the south vestibule is a figure In Italian marble of the Blessed Virgin, carved by Charles Gerts in 1853. Beneath it, a marble tablet records the deliverance of the students and faculty of the university from the cholera plague of 1849. According to tradition, the students promised the virgin a silver crown for her statue if she would protect them from the plague. Although over 4,000 residents of St. Louis died from the disease, the students were unharmed, and true to their word, they purchased the crown, which is now preserved in the library of the university.
In the lower chapel of the church is the altar of the former church at old Kaskaskia, Illinois; it contains a consecrated stone said to have been used by Father Marquette for saying mass. The bells in the tower were cast at Seville, Spain, in 1789. They were brought to New Orleans by a Lutheran group and from there, about 80 years ago, were removed to St. Louis by the Jesuits.
10) St. Louis University (N. Grand Boulevard, between Laclede Avenue and Lindell Boulevard)
This is the oldest university west of the Mississippi River. Founded by Louis William Du Bourg, Bishop of Louisiana and the Floridas in 1818, it became a Jesuit institution in 1827. It was chartered as St. Louis University in 1832. It was moved from its old site on Washington Avenue and Ninth Street in 1888.
11) Samuel Cupples House (St. Louis University, N. Spring Avenue and Pine Mall)
Samuel Cupples was a St. Louis businessman who opened up a woodenware business selling brooms and other household goods in 1851. Cupples gained a partner, Robert Brookings, and together they developed the Cupples Station complex in 1891. This group of 23 seven-story buildings covering 30 acres, served as a giant freight depot. Most of the city’s heavy wholesale trade, amounting to more than $200 million annually at the turn of the century, was handled there. In 1888, Cupples commissioned prominent architect Thomas Annan to design a mansion worthy of his success in business. The result was an impressive castle-like mansion with turrets and gargoyles with large airy wood paneled rooms and elaborately ornate furniture and décor. Cupples died in 1913 and his heirs sold the house to the Railroad Telegraphers Union in 1919. In 1946, the Telegraphers Union sold the property to the University.[xi]
12) Dorris Motor Car Company Building (S. Sarah Street and Forest Park Avenue)
Built in 1907, the Dorris Motor Car Building housed St. Louis’ first automobile manufacturer. In 1909, a third story was added by the Dorris Company to the original 1907 two-story structure establishing its present silhouette.
13) Forest Park (Lindell Boulevard to Oakland Avenue)
This is the second largest natural park in any United States city. Purchased in 1875 for $799,995, the tract was the site for most of the Louisiana Purchase Exposition (1904).
14) Blind Girls Home (5235 Page Boulevard)
This structure was constructed in 1908 from plans drawn by St. Louis architect J. Hal Lynch. Organized in 1867 by a group of five young women from the Missouri School for the Blind, the Blind Girls' Home was adopted in 1884 by the St. Louis Women's Christian Association as one of their branch organizations. The Blind Girls' Home separated from the SLWCA in 1956 to become an independent corporation. In 1966, after fifty-five years at the Page location, the Board decided to move the residents to a new building in Kirkwood (St. Louis County), Missouri.[xii]
15) Delmar Rail Station (Delmar Boulevard and Des Peres Avenue at railroad overpass)
This structure was built in 1928.
16) A & P Food Store Building (6014 Delmar Boulevard)
This building dates from 1940.
17) Washington University (Lindell Boulevard and Skinker Road)
The university, now endowed with about $20,000,000, developed from Eliot Seminary, which was chartered in 1853. The present campus was occupied in 1905.
18) Concordia Theological Seminary (801 DeMun Avenue)
This seminary was established by Lutheran Saxon immigrants in a one-room log cabin at Altenburg, Perry County, Missouri, in 1839. The Evangelical Lutheran Synod of Missouri, Ohio, and other States, was organized in 1847, and in 1849 took over the seminary and moved it to St. Louis.
19) Jewel Box (Forest Park, Wells Drive and McKinley Drive)
The Jewel Box, located on a 17-acre site in Forest Park, was built by the City of St. Louis in 1936 and is operated by the Department of Parks, Recreation and Forestry.[xiii]
20) National Candy Company Factory (Gravois Avenue, between Meramec Street and the railroad overpass)
Built in 1927, this factory was operated by the National Candy Company until 1953.
21) Tower Grove Park (S. Grand Boulevard and Magnolia Avenue)
This park was originally part of the country estate of Henry Shaw (1800-1889), an Englishman who came to St. Louis in 1819. In 1840, he retired, having amassed a comfortable fortune from his cutlery business and real estate operations. After a period of travel and study, Shaw developed a plan for a botanical garden, which he carried out with the assistance of Dr. George Engelmann, a distinguished St. Louis physician and botanist, and of interested friends in England and Germany. About 1866, Shaw decided to create a great park. He subsequently offered the city a gift of 190 acres and a 99-year lease on an additional 200 feet around this tract, on the condition that the city would devote $360,000 to improving the area as a public park. The proceeds of the lease were to be used for the maintenance of Shaw's Garden. His offer was accepted by the city and the park was named for Shaw's country home, called Tower Grove by Shaw because, it is said, a grove of sassafras trees stood nearby.
22) Compton Hill Water Tower (S. Grand Boulevard and Shaw Boulevard)
Built in 1899, the water tower was an edition to the park that was built as the home of the city's water reservoir in 1867.[xiv] The water tower was retired in 1929.
23) St. Francis de Sales Church (Ohio Avenue and Gravois Avenue)
In 1867, St. Francis de Sales Church was formed out of the spiritual needs of a burgeoning German immigrant community. The plans were brought from Germany in 1894. It was finished and dedicated for sacred use on November 26th, 1908.[xv]
24) Anheuser Busch Brewery (Broadway and Pestalozzi Street)
Most of the buildings date before 1900 and are of vigorous Romanesque design with square crenelated towers and elaborate details. Perhaps outstanding among these early buildings is the six-story, stone and red-brick Brew House, built in 1892 and designed by Widmann, Walsh, and Boisseliers St. Louis architects. Trumpeting elephants of metal top the square stone posts at the northwest gate to the Brew House yard.
The present firm had its origin in 1857, when Eberhard Anheuser purchased a small, bankrupt brewery on this site. In 1865, his son-in-law, Adolphus Busch, purchased a junior partnership, and in 1875 the Anheuser-Busch Brewing Association was formed. The chief growth of the company followed the development of a lager beer that could be pasteurized without changing its flavor, and thus could be kept for long periods of time. With this product Anheuser-Busch pioneered in bottling beer, and by 1900 had the greatest brewery in the United States. In 1941, this was the largest brewery in the world.
25) Old Arsenal (2nd Street and Arsenal Street)
Established in 1827, eight of the buildings were built in 1830 and three more in 1856. At the outbreak of the American Civil War, Missouri secessionists planned to capture the arsenal, but they were kept from doing so by the surrender of Camp Jackson, a victory for Union forces which proved a decisive factor in preserving Missouri for the Union. Following the Civil War, the importance of the arsenal diminished; since 1922 it has served as the St. Louis Medical Depot.
26) Lemp Mansion (3322 DeMenil Place, between Cherokee Street and Utah Street)
The house was built in 1868 by Jacob Feickert. It was subsequently purchased by William J. Lemp as a residence and auxiliary brewery office. Frederick Lemp, William's favorite son and the heir apparent to the brewery presidency, died under mysterious circumstances in 1901. Three years later, William J. Lemp shot himself in the head in a bedroom at the family mansion, apparently still grieving the loss of his beloved Frederick. William J. Lemp, Jr. succeeded his father as president.
The William J. Lemp Company, a producer of lager beers, declined until Prohibition in 1919 closed its plant permanently. William Jr.'s sister, Elsa, who was considered the wealthiest heiress in St. Louis, committed suicide in 1920. On June 28th, 1922, the Lemp brewery, which had once been valued at $7 million and covered ten city blocks, was sold at auction to International Shoe Company for $588,500. After presiding over the sale of the brewery, William J. Lemp, Jr. shot himself in the same building where his father died eighteen years earlier. His son, William Lemp III, was forty-two when he died of a heart attack in 1943. William Jr.'s brother, Charles, continued to reside at the house after his brother's suicide. An extremely bitter man, Charles led a reclusive existence until he too died of a self-inflicted gunshot wound. The body was discovered by his brother, Edwin.[xvi]
27) Chatillon-DeMenil Mansion (3352 DeMenil Place, between Cherokee Street and Utah Street)
This mansion was built in two sections by families with very different lifestyles. Henri Chatillon built the first section, a four-room brick farmhouse, in 1848. He was a guide and hunter for the American Fur Company of St. Louis in the 1840's before settling permanently in the area with his second wife, Odile Delor Lux. Chatillon served as a guide for Francis Parkman, Jr. in 1846. Parkman wrote about their trip in his book The Oregon Trail.
Chatillon sold the "farmhouse" in 1856 to Dr. Nicolas N. DeMenil, a well-known physician and part owner of the first chain of drug stores in St. Louis. DeMenil was a wealthy Frenchman. He came to St. Louis in 1834 and married Emilie Sophie Chouteau, who was a descendant of St. Louis' founding family. The DeMenils originally used the home as a summer retreat. In 1861, the DeMenils hired English architect Henry Pitcher to add on the extra rooms and turn the farmhouse into a Greek Revival Mansion. At that time they moved into the home permanently. The addition was completed in 1863.[xvii]
28) Lemp Brewing Company Factory (Lemp Avenue and Cherokee Street)
In 1864, William J. Lemp purchased a five block area around the storage house on 13th Street and Cherokee Street, and began construction of a complete new brewery. By putting the new facility over the storage caves, moving all the kegs by wagon from their Second Street brewery would no longer be necessary. The limestone caves were used to control the temperature during the creation of the lager.
By the early 1870's, Lemp's Western Brewery was the largest brewery in St. Louis in a field of 30, with E. Anheuser & Company's Bavarian Brewery coming in second. The brewery was the 19th largest in the country, producing 61,000 barrels in 1876.[xviii]
29) Maryville College of the Sacred Heart (Meramec Street and Nebraska Avenue)
In 1827, members of the Sacred Heart Order, under the direction of Mother Philippine Duchesne, opened an academy for young girls in St. Louis. On December 7th, 1846, this school was incorporated by the State legislature as a seminary. In 1864, the growth of St. Louis forced the group to move, and the present tract of land, then south of the city proper, was purchased. The construction of the five-story Administration Building was delayed until the close of the Civil War.
30) Sugar Loaf Mound (4420 Ohio Street)
St. Louis once was home to more than 40 Native-American mounds. All but Sugar Loaf were destroyed by urban development by 1904.
The Osage tribe, which traces its ancestry to the ancient mound-building people who erected massive earthworks such as Cahokia Mounds in Collinsville, purchased the site of the Sugar Loaf in 2009.[xix]
31) Jefferson Barracks (Jefferson Barracks County Park, South Broadway)
This U.S. Army post once covered an area of 1,700 acres. Established in 1826 as the nation’s first “Infantry School of Practice”, it served until 1946. Named in honor of former President Thomas Jefferson, the post played an important role in westward expansion. Jefferson Barracks served as a gathering point for troops and supplies bound for service in the Mexican War, Civil War, various Indian conflicts, Spanish-American War, Philippine War, World War I and World War II. Jefferson Barracks also served as the first Army Air Corps basic training site. Stephan W. Kearny, Zachary Taylor, Jefferson Davis, Robert E. Lee, U.S. Grant, William T. Sherman and Philip Sheridan were a few of the famous Americans to serve at Jefferson Barracks.
Early in 1912, Thomas Benoist, the owner of an aviation school in Kinloch Park, St. Louis, decided to promote a parachute jump from an airplane, a feat thought either impossible or crazy. The guinea-pig was ‘Captain’ Albert Berry, son of a balloonist and himself a professional parachute jumper. Twice the attempt had to be delayed because of bad weather. Finally, on March 1st, 1912, the aircraft, a Benoist ‘pusher’ biplane (so-called because the propellers face the rear) piloted by Anthony Jannus and carrying Berry, took off from Kinloch field and flew 18 miles to Jefferson Barracks, where the attempt was to be made. The parachute was carried in a galvanized-iron cone fixed to the undercarriage, its mouth facing the rear of the aircraft until just before the drop. From the mouth emerged two ropes connected to a trapeze bar, which had two leg loops at its end. The plane, traveling at about 55 mph, soared at 1,500 feet. With the drop seconds away, Berry hinged down the metal cone, climbed down through the fuselage frame to the axle and put his legs through the loops. He tied a belt around his waist and then cut himself away, his weight drawing the parachute from the container. It was a perfect drop. The ‘experience,’ said Berry on landing, ‘confirms the feasibility of such descents. I dropped fully 500 feet before the parachute opened, and admit to feeling uneasy. But really, the greatest danger was to the pilot of the plane. Berry was referring to the fear that the sudden loss of weight would cause a loss of stability in the plane. Jannus said he felt no such loss. Benoit arrived at Jefferson Barracks too late to witness the jump as did Colonel Wood, who had been waiting for the plane, but when it didn’t arrive (it was over 30 minutes late), he went inside is residence. He came out when he heard the soldiers outside, but was too late to see the jump.
From Downtown St. Louis, the travel route continues south on Broadway. Because of one-way traffic patterns, the southbound traffic on Broadway at times uses 7th Boulevard. At the Interstate 55 overpass, Broadway gains the designation of Missouri Highway 366.
Side Trip to Kirkwood (MO 100 West)
Maplewood (8 miles west of St. Louis on MO 100)
One of St. Louis’ many suburbs, Maplewood dates from the 1890’s when Maplewood Realty Company opened a subdivision here.
Junction with Laclede Station Road (1 mile west of Maplewood on MO 100)
Point of Interest:
Grant’s Farm (5 miles south on Laclede Station Road, 1 mile west on MO 30)
Located here is Grant’s Cabin, a two-story log cabin built by Ulysses S. Grant in 1854. It was moved from its original site to the entrance to this wealthy St. Louisan’s country place, Grants Farm.
Brentwood (1 miles west of junction with Laclede Station Road on MO 100)
Brentwood was incorporated in 1900, uniting three adjacent subdivisions.
Points of Interest:
Webster Groves (2 miles south on Brentwood Boulevard)
The post office here was opened in 1884 and the town was incorporated in 1896.
Webster University (Webster Groves)
This institution was established in 1916. It was originally a 4-year Catholic women’s college. Also located here is the Eden Theological Seminary, which was established in 1848.
Kirkwood (4 miles west of Brentwood on MO 100)
This community was laid out by a St. Louis businessman as a suburban center following the construction of the Missouri Pacific Railroad in 1853. It was incorporated in 1865 and named for railroad engineer James P. Kirkwood.
Junction with Chippewa Street (3.5 miles south of Market Street on Broadway/7th Boulevard)
The travel route turns west on Chippewa Street, which is also the route of Missouri Highway 366 which we will refer to from this point.
Junction with U.S. Highway 50, U.S. Highway 61, and U.S. Highway 67 (10.5 miles west of Broadway on MO 366)
In 1940, the route of U.S. Highway 66 from the Chain of Rocks Bridge reconnected with City 66 at this junction. This bypass of St. Louis once carried the name Lindbergh Boulevard from Florissant to the Jefferson Barracks.
Junction with Interstate 44 (Exit 276) (1 mile west of U.S. 67 and U.S. 61 on MO 366)
The travel route joins with Interstate 44 here. Interstate 44 uses the expressway which predated it, once known as New Watson Road.
Route 66 State Park (Exit 266) (12 miles west of junction with Interstate 44 on Interstate 44 and U.S. Highway 50)
Route 66 State Park showcases the history and mystique of a highway that has been called "The Main Street of America." Located along the original U.S. Highway 66 corridor, the approximately 419-acre park has interesting historical displays showcasing Route 66. Bridgehead Inn, a 1935 roadhouse, serves as Route 66 State Park's visitor center. It houses Route 66 memorabilia and interprets the environmental success story of the former resort community of Times Beach, which once thrived on the location of the park.
Eureka (Exit 264) (2 miles west of Route 66 State Park on Interstate 44 and U.S. 50)
Eureka is said to have been named by the surveying engineer of the Missouri Pacific Railroad, who found that a route through this valley would eliminate many cuts and grades. When a construction camp was established in 1853, it was gleefully called Eureka. The post office, established after the road was built, retained the name. The town was laid out in 1858.
Junction with Business Interstate 44 (Exit 261) (3 miles west of Eureka on Interstate 44 and U.S. 50)
The travel route takes this exit to follow the old highway through Pacific.
Pacific (5 miles west of Interstate 44 on Business Interstate 44)
This community is clustered about the junction of what were once the Missouri Pacific and the St. Louis-San Francisco Railroads. The town was platted as Franklin in 1852. Seven years later, when the town was incorporated, the name was changed to Pacific.
From Pacific, the travel route follows old U.S. Highways 50 and 66 (also designated as Osage Street) west from Pacific to a junction with Missouri Highway 100 at Gray Summit. As the highway climbs out of the valley, the southeastern mouth of the railroad tunnel that passes beneath the town of Gray Summit can be seen in the distance.
Gray Summit and Junction with Missouri Highway 100 (5 miles west of Pacific on Business Interstate 44)
Gray Summit is the highest point on this route between St. Louis and Kansas City.
The travel route now carries the designation of Missouri Highway 100 for a short distance.
Junction with Missouri Highway AT (2 miles west of Gray Summit on MO 100)
The travel route follows Missouri Highway AT south, retracing the original route of U.S. 50 and U.S. 66.
(MO 100 West)
Washington (11 miles west on MO 100)
On May 24th and 25th, 1804, the Lewis and Clark Expedition was in the vicinity of present-day Washington. At South Point (the southernmost point on the Missouri River), three miles east of Washington, one of the most harrowing incidents in the early phase of the journey occurred. Here, on May 24th, they had a frightening brush with disaster, and in the process learned the limitations of the large keelboat that was the main vessel of the expedition flotilla. William Clark described South Point as a "Very bad part of the river." The expedition experienced why the Missouri was the most dreaded of all the western rivers for navigators.
To avoid a narrow channel with collapsing banks on the south side of the river, the flotilla attempted to go around the north side of an island. Here, they found that the water was swift, shallow and full of shifting sandbars. The crew tried to tow the boat through this stretch with a corbelling rope, but the keelboat soon ran aground on a shifting sandbar. The powerful current pressed against the now helpless boat, and the tow rope snapped, causing the boat to turn broadside to the current and list to one side. The crew jumped into the river and managed to hold the boat upright until the moving sands washed out from under it. This drama was repeated twice more, as the boat again grounded and wheeled. Finally, a line was fixed to its stern and the boat was worked into safer waters.
A shaken Clark wrote in his journal that evening that "nothing saved her [the keelboat] but..." He left the sentence unfinished. Clark characterized this stretch, which he called "Retrograde Bend," as the "worst I ever saw." This "worst I ever saw" list would be revised several times in the coming weeks. After returning to the south side of the river and working the boat through the narrow chute they had avoided in the first attempt, the exhausted crew camped at an "old house" a few miles below the present-day Washington.
The difficulty Lewis and Clark encountered at Retrograde Bend would be repeated numerous times as the expedition made its way up river. This was largely due to the size and design of the keelboat (no one had previously attempted to take such a large boat up the Missouri). The 20-oared boat was 55 feet long and 8 feet 4 inches wide at the beam. The boat's 3 to 4 foot draft made it susceptible to grounding in the shallow waters of the river the crew and the boat frequently had to navigate through. Once grounded on the dreaded shifting sandbars, the rounded bottom of the boat caused it to roll on its side when struck by the swift currents of the river. On these occasions, the boat was repeatedly saved by the exertions of the crew.
A ferryboat landing at this site was active long before Washington was started. Having purchased land adjacent to the Washington Landing with the intention of founding a town, William G. Owens began selling lots on July 4th, 1829. An influx of German immigrants in the 1830's swelled the area's population but Owen's death in 1834 caused legal problems which blocked the town's development for a time. In due course, Mrs. Owens formally established Washington by filing a town plat with a Justice of the Peace of the State of Missouri on May 29th, 1839.
From its adoption by the Germans in 1833 until the coming of the railroad in the 1850’s, Washington was a river port. The arrival of the railroad, the increase in the population during the period between 1850 and 1870, and the careful development of the rather poor back country by thrifty German Polish settlers made it a shipping point of some importance. This change destroyed the social unity that had characterized the city’s growth.
The town was platted by William G. Owens in 1828. Its first German settlers came in October of 1833, purely by chance. Twelve families from Hanover, Germany, arrived in St. Louis and, finding no boat leaving for the Illinois country, decided to go up the Missouri in search of a home. They landed at Washington, then little more than a tavern and ferry crossing. During the 1850’s, these were joined by other Germans.
Points of Interest:
Louis Wehrman House (212 Jefferson Street)
This structure was built before 1860. Gutted by fire in 1869, it was rebuilt using the original walls the following year.
Washington Hotel Building (Main Street and Jefferson Street)
This building was built by C.A. and Bernard Fricke before the American Civil War. It replaced Bernard Fricke’s log tavern in which the first German families stayed after landing from the river boat.
Church of St. Francis Borgia (Main Street and Cedar Street)
Church of St. Francis Borgia was constructed between 1866 and 1869.
Liberty Hall (Second Street and Jefferson Street)
Built by members of the Theaterverein in 1855, it was used by them until 1866. The hall was later converted into a residence.
Franz Schwarzer Zither Factory (207 E. Main Street)
The zither, a musical instrument, has 30-45 strings and a tone range of 6.5 octaves. This factory was established in 1864 by Franz Schwarzer of Olmutz, Austria. In 1873, the company’s zither won a gold medal at the Vienna Exposition in Austria. A.W. Schepp, a foremost American authority on the zither, designed the instruments.
Town of Bassora (MO 47 & 5th Street)
Within this block, known since 1959 as Krog Park, lie the bodies of many early settlers of Washington. The town of Bassora was founded October 8th, 1836, and this block was set aside for the city's cemetery in 1847. This cemetery received the remains of bodies disinterred from an early Washington Cemetery located near the present City Hall. Eventually Bassora was annexed by a rapidly growing Washington. Burial of dead human beings within the city limits of Washington was prohibited by an ordinance passed in 1880. Bassora cemetery was officially closed in 1883. In 1926, the city agreed with the directors of the new hospital, that the cemetery had become derelict and should be eliminated. The majority of the remains were not moved, and remain buried here. Grave markers still visible in 1959, when the cemetery was dedicated as Krog Park, were buried at that time. Washington Historical Society in 1997 began a drive to obtain monies for this monument for those who remain buried here. Of special note, the founders of Washington, William and Lucinda Owens, are buried here. The list of names on this monument is the result of extensive research by the Washington Historical Society. It is unknown exactly how many persons may still lie buried here.
Frazier Monument (Front Street in Riverfront Park)
This marker commemorates Robert Frazer, a member of the Corps of Discovery, on the occasion of the bicentennial of the Lewis and Clark expedition. Listed as a witness in the trial of United States vs. Robert Westcott, Frazer wrote to President Jefferson, "Whatever may be the fate I shall meet with, I have the consolation to know that I have been true to my country. I shall perish rather than prove otherwise." Robert Frazer died nearby in 1837.
Junction with U.S. Highway 50 (5 miles south of MO 100 on MO Highway AT)
U.S. Highway 66 and U.S. Highway 50 separated at this junction. Between this junction and St. Clair, U.S. 66 continued along the approximate route of the Old Wire Road, and it traversed the wide, rolling plateau that separates the valleys of the Meramec and Bourbeuse Rivers.
The present travel route follows what is now designated the 44 Outer Road, a frontage road for Interstate 44, along the west side of the expressway.
Junction with Denmark Road (0.8 mile south of U.S. 50 on 44 Outer Road)
Side Trip to Shawneetown Ford (Denmark Road East, Shawneetown Ford Road East)
Shawneetown Ford (0.2 mile east on Denmark Road, 1 mile east on Shawneetown Ford Road at the Bourbeuse River)
This is the site of Shawnee Town Ford, a Shawnee Indian village from 1790 until 1850.
Junction with Missouri Highway AH (Exit 242) (5 miles south of U.S. 50 on 44 Outer Road)
The travel route crosses under Interstate 44 here to follow the 44 Outer Road for a short distance on the east side of the expressway before it becomes Commercial Drive. The route then follows Commercial Drive into St. Clair.
Junction with Missouri Highway 47 (2.4 miles west of Missouri Highway AH on Commercial Drive)
The travel route turns south into St. Clair on Main Street at this intersection.
St. Clair (0.5 mile south of Commercial Drive on Main Street at North Street)
St. Clair was settled on 1843. The town was settled by B. J. Inge in 1843 and was known as Traveler's Repose until the citizens tired of its being mistaken for a pioneer cemetery or a wayside tavern. The name was changed to St. Clair in 1859, honoring a resident engineer of the Southwestern Branch Railroad.
Between St. Clair and Bourbon the Ozark foothills become sharper, their sheer sides exposing a variety of strata. The lower beds are of hard, grayish-white limestone; the upper, of soft red clay, with an occasional layer of pink limestone. Numerous wayside stands exhibit specimens of native rock.
From St. Clair, the travel route continues to Springfield Road.
Junction with Springfield Road (0.3 mile south of St. Clair on Main Street)
The travel route now turns west on Springfield Road.
Anaconda (4.8 miles west of Main Street in St. Clair on Springfield Road)
The travel route turns north on Anaconda Road to an overpass at Interstate 44. The Springfield Road becomes an unpaved road from this point, and ends alongside Interstate 44 after two miles.
Junction with Interstate 44 (1.5 miles north of Anaconda on Anaconda Road)
The travel route crosses Interstate 44 and turns west on N. Service Road East, following alongside Interstate 44 to Stanton.
Stanton (4.2 miles west of Anaconda Road on the North Service Road)
Stanton was named for Peter Stanton, who operated a powder mill in the vicinity in the 1850’s.
Side Trip to Meramec Cavern (Missouri Highway W South)
Meramec Cavern (3.5 miles south on Missouri Highway W)
The entrance to this cavern is said to have been discovered by Spaniards in 1760. It was not open to the public until explored by professionals in 1936.
At Stanton, the travel route crosses Interstate 44 and turns west on the South Service Road, which follows the route of the old Springfield Road through Oak Grove Village.
Oak Grove Village (4.5 miles west of Stanton on S. Service Road/Springfield Road)
At Missouri Highway 185, the travel route continues straight on Springfield Road.
Side Trip to Meramec State Park (Missouri Highway 185 South)
Meramec State Park (3.3 miles south on MO 185)
In Copper Hollow, in the northeast corner of the park, are the half-obscured remains of an open-pit copper mine and the ruins of an old smelter. The mine is said to have been opened by Peter Stanton. In 1855, the mine was acquired by Reverend Henry I. Coe, who organized a company of ministers and came from St. Louis to take charge of operations. The following year, Dr. Silas Reed, also of St. Louis, bought out Coe's interests. In 1868, the copper ore was exhausted. The major portion of the old copper mining area is within the park. Also on park property is the site of a lead mine, on Thomas Hill, which Henry Rowe Schoolcraft, a geologist, investigated in 1819. Schoolcraft reported that the mine had been operated since 1796.
Sullivan (0.8 mile west of MO 185 on Springfield Road at Church Street)
This town was established as Mt. Helicon in 1856, but the officials of the St. Louis & San Francisco Railway changed the name in 1860 to honor Stephen Sullivan, who had donated the right of way through the village. Sullivan came to the Meramec River country from Kentucky in 1800, and made a fortune in tobacco, and lead and copper mining. Although records do not verify the story, legend says that he manufactured gunpowder for the Confederacy and was executed by Federal troops. Sullivan was the birthplace of George Hearst (1820-1891), California mining engineer and United States Senator, and father of William Randolph Hearst, the publisher. George Hearst married Phoebe Apperson, a school teacher, at Steelville, Missouri in 1862.
Point of Interest:
General William Selby Harney Mansion (332 S. Mansion Street)
This residence was built by the Mexican and Civil War veteran about 1870. Two-and-a-half stones in height, with a long rear wing and tan limestone walls, the house contains 35 rooms, of which 25 are bedrooms.
Junction with S. Service Road (1 mile west of Sullivan on Springfield Road)
The travel route turns west on the S. Service Road at this point.
Bourbon (5.3 miles south of Springfield Road on S. Service Road at E. Pine Street)
The travel route continues straight on to Old Highway 66 through Bourbon.
Junction with Missouri Highway H (5.2 miles west of Bourbon on Old Highway 66)
Point of Interest:
Oakgrove Roadside Park (Northwest corner of MO H and Old Highway 66/County Road 508)
Back in the day, what we call rest areas, were called roadside parks. They were used by cross country truckers and drivers to sleep, to eat and even cook. This one had 6 or 7 picnic tables, 3 brick bar-b-q pits, a Blue*Star Veterans Memorial marker, and the Crawford County Historical Marker. A one lane black top lane looped through the area.
Since this one was designated a historic place, the Missouri Department of Transportation removed the markers, and put them 1,000 feet to the East on Missouri Highway H, removed the tables & pits, and dug a trench through the lane so you can no longer enter.
Side Trip to Leasburg (Missouri Highway H South)
Leasburg (2 miles south on Missouri Highway H)
The Battle of Leasburg was fought here on September 29th and 30th, 1864. The night of September 27th, 1000 Union troops under General Ewing, forced to evacuate Fort Davidson at Pilot Knob or be annihilated, escaped through enemy lines. General Sterling Price sent General Marmaduke and General Shelby in pursuit. Union forces covered 66 miles in 39 hours, fought 6 rear-guard skirmishes, arrived here exhausted and hungry. They fortified themselves along railroad, burned barns and haystacks to prevent attack. The next day, they rejected a demand to surrender. The Confederates decided against further battle, turned and rejoined Price at Union, Missouri. On October 1st, the Federals withdrew, regrouping at Rolla.
Cuba (6.5 miles west of Missouri Highway H on Old U.S. 66)
Cuba began as a farming village and shipping point in 1857, when M. W. Trask and W. H Ferguson, anticipating by one year the construction of the St. Louis & San Francisco Railway, surveyed a town site. The nearest house was then half a mile away, on what was known as Simpson's Prairie. Older residents say the town was given its name by two former gold miners from California, who wished to perpetuate the memory of a holiday they had spent on the "Isle of Cuba."
Side Trip to Dillard (Missouri Highway 19 South, Missouri Highway 49 South)
Cherryville (17.5 miles south on MO 19)
Dillard Mill State Historic Site (17.5 miles south on MO 19, 11 miles south on MO 49)
Originally, Dillard was located on this hillside to avoid the flood waters of Indian Creek. In the late 19th Century, the settlement relocated a mile north to the Sligo & Eastern Railroad line. The tracks have since been removed. To the left about 50 feet are four foundation stones indicating the location of a store, one of several that operated in Dillard. Businesses located near the mill because it was the center of commercial activity until the coming of the railroad. The Sligo & Eastern Railroad served primarily the nearby Sligo Furnace, an iron smelting operation that began business in 1879 and shut down in 1921. Like a magnet, it pulled businesses from their location near the mill to its railroad tracks.
Points of Interest:
Old Mill Lodge
The two story house visible through the trees on the hill to the right became the nucleus for Lester Klemme's Old Mill Lodge resort. Lodge guests, many of whom came from the St. Louis area, paid $7 per day and received meals in the house, swam and fished in the mill pond, and enjoyed the splendor of the northern Ozarks. Klemme had four cabins built—two small log ones near the house and two larger, clapboard-sided ones near the mill on the hill to the left. The "honeymoon cottage" was the log cabin nearest the two-story house. It is still standing. After 30 years of operation, the Old Mill Lodge closed in 1962 following the death of Lester Klemme's wife, Virginia.
Further to the right of the lodge and on this side of the main road, the unpainted, metal-roofed, board-and-batten building was once known as the Adams-Wilhite Store. It was built in the 1880’s and served simultaneously as the community's post office. Cletis Cottrell, grandson of Joseph Dillard Cottrell, after whom the town was named, was the community's last postmaster—handing out mail from his store located in (New) Dillard. This structure stands today along Dillard Mill Road just off Highway 49.
About 75 paces on this path toward Dillard Mill, Francis Wisdom built a water-powered gristmill in the 1850’s. Very little is known about the appearance of this mill or its operation except that its dam was frequently the backdrop for photographers. In 1881, the mill was purchased by Joseph Dillard Cottrell. The hamlet of Dillard was named after "Dill Cottrell", as he was known locally, and the village developed around the mill—its chief commercial enterprise.
In 1895, the mill burned. By that time, the businesses in Dillard had already begun shifting a mile north to relocate near the Sligo & Eastern Railroad line. Shortly after 1900, Emil Mischke, using timbers from Wisdom's Mill, built the mill that stands today at Dillard Mill State Historic Site (often called Mischke's Mill by local residents). Lester Klemme was the last to operate the mill commercially. When it closed in 1956, the mill was producing cattle feed.
Dillard Mill is one of Missouri's best-preserved examples of a water-powered gristmill. Sitting along the clear-flowing Ozark stream, Huzzah Creek, the red mill is nestled among trees and near water cascading over a rock dam, creating a picturesque setting. Dillard Mill is the second mill structure at this site. Wisdom's Mill, the first mill built here, was constructed in the 1850’s. A rock wall along the Huzzah Creek was blasted open allowing the increased water flow to the mill needed for its operation. As a result, Huzzah Creek changed its channel.
Joseph Dillard Cottrell and his brother, James, later owned Wisdom's Mill from 1881 to 1889—years that brought many changes to the area. During the Cottrell's ownership of the mill, the small community grew with the establishment of a post office in 1887. It was also during this time that the community was named Dillard after Joseph Dillard Cottrell. In 1889, the Cottrells sold the mill to Andrew Jackson Mincher. The mill burned in 1895 during Mincher's ownership. Emil Mischke, an emigrant from Poland, purchased the mill property in 1900 and began construction of the present mill four years later.
Using some of the hand-hewn timbers salvaged from Wisdom's Mill, Mischke built a 30-foot x 40-foot structure. Following plans developed by the Cornelius Mill Furnishing Company of St. Louis for the interior of his mill, he installed steel roller mills instead of the more common buhr stones for grinding the wheat into flour. Another innovation he introduced was a turbine to power the mill. The new, modernized mill was complete in 1908.
Mischke's sister, Mary, became a partner in the milling enterprise in February of 1907, and they both worked hard to make the mill a success. Farmers from the surrounding hills and valleys came to have their grain ground at the mill. In 1917, Mary sold her portion of the mill back to her brother, and he remained the sole proprietor of the mill for several years. A decade later, the 66-year-old Mischke decided to send for a mail-order bride. His new bride, however, found it difficult to adjust to life in the rugged Ozarks and after only a few years persuaded Mischke to sell the mill and move to California.
Lester Klemme became the new mill owner in 1930. In addition to milling livestock feed and flour, he decided to take advantage of the rustic Ozarks landscape by starting Klemme's Old Mill Lodge. A guest could spend the night in one of the cabins Klemme built, fish or swim in the mill pond, and eat at the Klemme table for only $7 a day. Klemme's age and a shift in the local economy from farming to mining brought about the shutdown of the mill in 1956. He continued to operate the lodge until the 1960’s. In 1974, the L-A-D Foundation of St. Louis, a non-profit organization, bought the property. In 1975, the foundation leased the mill and surrounding property to the Missouri Department of Natural Resources to operate as a state historic site.
Today, the restored mill contains most of its original machinery. Two of the three steel roller mills, however, were donated for scrap metal during World War II. Visitors can see the remaining machinery come to life during a tour of the mill. With the turn of a wheel, the mill begins to operate as it did years ago, grinding grain into flour. The sound of the water gushing over the dam outside the mill is replaced with the sounds of the belts and rollers turning. Tours of the mill are given year-round, although days and times vary by season. Groups should make advance reservations by contacting the site office.
Site of First Dillard Schoolhouse
This was the first public school in Dillard was located in this vicinity. This one room, frame school was washed away in a flood. Its replacement, completed in 1908, was located north of this area and was later destroyed by fire. A third stone school burned in 1938 and was replaced by another built under Works Progress Administration (WPA) during the Great Depression. The building was also made of stone, sometimes called Ozark giraffe rock. It served the children of Dillard until consolidation with the Cherryville School, ten miles away. Though empty, this building still stands today and is visible from the road leading to Dillard Mill State Historic Site.
Old Dillard Cemetery
The oldest grave in this cemetery belongs to Eliza Wisdom, who died in 1833. She was a relative of Francis Wisdom, owner of the area's first gristmill. Many of the other 138 known graves bear the family names of those who first settled the area—Cottrells, Colemans, Huitts, and Mischkes. The large, dark gray granite monument at the back of the cemetery is Marie Mischke's (1872-1944). She was the sister of Emil Mischke, who built the mill that has since become the state historic site. The image of her in an ankle-length skirt doing "a man's work running the mill" was vivid in the recollections of older area residents.
From Cuba, the travel route follows the old highway, now designated as Missouri Highway ZZ.
Rosati (7.6 miles west of Cuba on Missouri Highway ZZ at Missouri Highway KK)
A sprawling community of small farm sites rather than a town, Rosati had its beginning about 1900, when a group of 100 Italian families from Arkansas settled here. They had been taken from Chicago by a cotton planter, but had left Arkansas because of bad working conditions. They named their new home for Bishop Joseph Rosati, first bishop of St. Louis.
Between Rosati and Rolla, the old route of U.S. Highway 66 crosses the Big Prairie, a gently rolling plateau broken by small farm sites and patches of hickory, elm, oak, cedar, and pawpaw trees. Josiah Isbell, the first settler, entered a claim to land here in 1836. Other families followed, and divided their time between farming, cattle-raising, and manufacturing gunpowder from the saltpeter in the numerous caves. Later, Welsh, Irish, and English families moved in to develop the clay and iron deposits, and French families from the Swiss border came to farm. The mining and powder-making industries are gone, but the section breeds fine Jersey, Holstein, and Guernsey herds, and cultivates extensive berry patches and orchards. Twice each year the people gather to exhibit their cattle, berries, vegetables, canned fruits, and quilts at Rolla in May and at St. James in September.
St. James (5.5 miles west of Rosati on Missouri Highway KK at Jefferson Street)
St. James was platted in 1859 by John Wood in anticipation of the extension westward of the St. Louis & San Francisco Railway. It was intended as a shipping point for the nearby Meramec Iron Works, which previously had shipped by wagon train. First called Scioto, its name was changed within a year. During the Civil War, a detachment of German volunteers, encamped near the town, were so impressed with the location that after their enlistment had expired they brought their families here. When the depression of the 1870’s closed the iron mines, St. James turned to lumber, agriculture, and wine making. It was incorporated as a town in 1870 with a mayor and city council. In 1921, Mrs. Mayme H. Ousley was elected mayor of St. James.
Point of Interest:
State Federal Soldiers Home (Jefferson Street and Pershing)
This institution was founded in 1896 by the Woman's Relief Corps and the Grand Army of the Republic, and sold the following year to the State for $1. The institution is for the care of aged veterans and their wives and widows, and is maintained by the United States Government and the State of Missouri. The original administration building, a massive three-story brick structure with many wings, porches, towers, and gingerbread decorations, was once the home of Thomas James. A major fire destroyed a large portion of the buildings on April 13th, 1930. The Bushie Building was constructed in 1971 and included more complete nursing care for its residents.
The James Mansion, or "Dunmoor", was constructed in 1866 for the William James family. This three story brick residence was later renovated to serve as the Women's Relief Corp Soldiers Home and opened for veterans of the Civil War on November 1st, 1896. The building was demolished in 1966 to make way for the construction on the new laundry and garage buildings.
Side Trip to Meramec Springs State Park (Missouri Highway 8 East)
Meramec Springs State Park (6.8 miles east on MO 8)
The spring is in a tiny wooded valley at the foot of a high, rock-studded cliff, and issues from a circular basin. In a wide stream that rushes over an old rock dam, the water passes swiftly beneath an arched bridge, and flows onward into the Meramec River, approximately one mile away. The maximum flow is 271,000,000 gallons daily. At one time, the water power was used to serve an iron mine, blast furnace, and gristmill.
About the time of the cession of Louisiana to the United States (1804), Lewis Rogers and his band of Shawnee Indians established their village near this spring. The site proved unhealthful and several Indians died. The remainder of the group, believing they had intruded upon the dominion of a “Matchee Monito”, or Evil Spirit, moved to Indian prairie, in Franklin county, a few miles south of Union.
Near the spring is the site of the Meramec Iron Works, established by Thomas James and Samuel Massey in 1826. Only one of the old open-hearth furnaces still stands as a monumental pyramid of cut stone. Ore was mined in the nearby banks of the Meramec. Lime for flux and wood for charcoal came from the surrounding hills, and the great spring provided water power. Thomas James, owner of the mines and iron works, was born in Maryland in the 1770’s. According to well-founded legend, he learned of Missouri iron deposits from a band of Shawnee Indians who visited hi Brash Creek furnace in Adams County, Ohio. With his foreman, Samuel Massey, and a force of miners, he began work. The village he developed included a store, a blacksmith shop, and a gristmill. No saloons were allowed. The smelted iron was hauled to Washington and St. Louis until the construction of the St. Louis & San Francisco Railway to St. James. The furnace was operated until 1873 and the mine until 1891.
From St. James, the travel route continues west on James Boulevard (Old Highway 66), which changes designation to Dillon Outer Road as the south Frontage Road for Interstate 44.
Junction with Road 44 (5.8 miles west of St. James on James Boulevard/Dillon Outer Road)
At this junction, the travel route turns north to cross over Interstate 44 to Old Highway 66.
Junction with Old Highway 66 (County Road 39) (0.2 mile north of Dillon Outer Road on Road 44)
The travel route turns west on County Road 39 at this junction.
Junction with U.S. Highway 63 (2.7 miles west of Road 44 on CR 39)
U.S. Highway 66 joined with U.S. Highway 63 as they traveled through Rolla.
Side Trip to Vichy (U.S. Highway 63 North)
Vichy (10 miles north on U.S. 63)
This community was named for the famous French resort and was once a popular spa. At the northern end of the village, in a ravine, a single surviving mineral spring directs a stream of water through a half-inch pipe. The town, platted in 1880, was destroyed by a tornado in 1886.
(2.1 miles south of CR 39 on U.S. 63 at Kingshighway Street)
This city had its beginning in 1855, when a group of contractors engaged in the construction of the St. Louis & San Francisco Railway selected a site near the home of John Webber on the Old Wire Road and erected an office and several warehouses. The prospect of a railroad created a mild boom. Within 6 months, 600 persons had moved here. In 1857, Phelps County was organized, and "the child of the railroad," was made the seat of government. The next step was selecting a name. According to legend, John Webber, who had tilled the land and should have known whereof he spoke, wanted to call the town Hardscrabble; E. W, Bishop, resident official of the railroad, wanted it called Phelps Center; George Coppedge, nostalgic for his North Carolina home, asked that it be named Raleigh. This last proposal was accepted and the name was spelled as Coppedge pronounced it.
On January 1st, 1861, a great crowd of people came from the hills to see their first train. With bells ringing and whistle blowing, a diamond-stacked locomotive puffed up to the new frame station, snorted a gust or two of wheezing white steam, and stopped. As the western terminus of the section's only railroad, Rolla achieved considerable importance. Here, west-bound supplies from St. Louis and the East were transferred from freight car to wagon train. Here, too, persons en route to the Ozark highlands to homestead bought their equipment and supplies. When the Civil War began, its position made the town one of the first military objectives of the Union Army. Almost overnight a great Federal military encampment came into existence; trenches were dug and earthworks were constructed. On the north and south were two great forts. Merchants, professional men, and laborers flocked to the town.
Families moved in from the hills for protection and supplies. Then, in the midst of the war boom, the railroad was extended west and, shortly afterward, the war ended. Rolla not only lost its strategic importance, but the completion of the Salem & Little Rock Railroad cut off a former trade territory. In 1871, however, it had a rebirth in the opening of the Missouri School of Mines.
Points of Interest:
E.W. Bishop House (8th Street and Park Street)
This is said to have been the second house in Rolla. Diagonally across the front lawn is the slightly sunken trace of the stagecoach route between St. Louis and Springfield. The house was built by E. W. Bishop prior to the Civil War, and served during the conflict as a military hospital.
Phelps County Courthouse (Main Street and 3rd Street)
A two-story red-brick building with white stone trim, this structure was begun in 1859 and completed about 1862. The front roofline of the portion is surmounted by a cupola; on each side are low wings. Sheltering the entrance Is a small iron balcony supported by slender iron columns. During the Civil War, it was converted into a hospital for Union troops.
Missouri School of Mines (12th Street and Pine Street)
In 1862, the Congress of the United States passed a bill granting a tract of public land to such States as would establish colleges especially equipped to train students in "agriculture and the arts.”
Eight years later, Missouri passed a bill providing "for the of an agricultural and mechanical college at and connected with the State University at Columbia” and for a school of mines metallurgy to be located in the mineral district of the State in the county that would give the largest bonus to the school. The Phelps County bid, totaling $130,000, exceeded the second highest bid by $17,000, and Rolla, the largest town in the county, was chosen as the site. That was in June of 1871; the college opened in November of that year. Its real development came after 1890, however, when its buildings and equipment were added.
Mineral Museum (Missouri School of Mines)
This museum is the foremost of its kind In the State. It was begun in 1904 when the Missouri mining exhibit at the St. Louis World's Fair was assigned to the school. In the same year, the government of Mexico donated the Mexican exhibit, and later the Canadian government gave a collection of Canadian minerals. To these have been added the Missouri mineral exhibit from the Chicago Century of Progress Exposition and numerous specimens acquired by purchase, exchange, and gift. Approximately 2,500 specimens are exhibited.
Webber Homestead (Kingshighway Street near Walker Avenue)
John Webber established the first homestead in what is now the city of Rolla, on this site about 1845. The one and one-half story, single-room log cabin he constructed stood just north of the plaque. The concrete marker that covers the Webber's water well is the only remaining feature of Rolla's first residence. The commissioners who located the Phelps County seat at Rolla in 1857 used Webber's cabin as a meeting place. Webber's homestead was included within Rolla when the city was created in 1861. Webber lived here until 1880 when he moved to southern Phelps County, where he died in 1889.
Site of Fort Wyman (U.S. 63 at Fort Wyman Road, south of Kingshighway Street)
This fort was located just south of this intersection. No photographs of the fort are known to exist. Captain William Hoelcke, engineering officer of the Department of the Missouri, made scale drawings of Fort Wyman in 1865. They show a standard military fortification known as a redoubt, in this case a simple rectangle, 300 feet square. Earth excavated from the enclosing moat ditch formed walls 10 feet high and a ditch 6 feet deep. Access to the interior of the fort was controlled through a single gate through the north wall, with a retractable plank drawbridge to cross the ditch. There were artillery positions at each of the corners. There were two log blockhouses for riflemen, placed at opposite angles in the moat and connected to the interior of the fort by log tunnels running underneath the gun platforms. The only structures inside the walls were the log powder magazine, a well, and the artillery emplacements. By the 1930’s, the site had become the winter quarters of the Russell Brothers Circus.
Led by the former railroad builder, John B. Wyman, the 13th Illinois Infantry ("Fox River") Regiment arrived in Rolla on July 17th, 1861. Except for brief forays, the unit remained at the railhead until March of 1862, leading soldiers to quip that the regiment should have been called the "Rolla Home Guard." Colonel Wyman died of wounds received at the head of his regiment during the failed attack of Chickasaw Bluff, Mississippi (Battle of Chickasaw Bayou) on December 28th, 1862.
From Rolla, the highlands of the Ozarks merge with the time-worn plateau of the Springfield area. The hill country, of flat-topped ridges, narrow stream valleys, and small sheltered farmsteads, gives way to the Western Plains. Then Schoolcraft traveled through this region in 1819, he found the Ozark ridges “nearly destitute of forests, often perfectly so.” The lack of trees was probably the result of the Indian practice, which was continued by many white settlers, of burning off the land each autumn, which left the soil thin and infertile. On the Springfield plateau, however, Schoolcraft found the soil rich and deep, and observed that "the purest springs gush from these hills . . . the atmosphere is fine and healthful." As the highway nears the Kansas Line, great piles of crushed grey rock indicate a once extensive mining area.
The travel route follows Interstate 44 Business (Kingshighway Street) west from Rolla for a short distance.
Junction with County Road 763 (0.8 mile west of U.S. 63 on Interstate 44 Business)
The travel route follows County Road 763, the earlier route of U.S. Highway 66, west from this intersection as the south Frontage Road to Interstate 44. Just east of Doolittle, the road designation changes to Eisenhower Street.
Doolittle (6.3 miles west of Interstate 44 Business on CR 763/Eisenhower Street)
Side Trip to Newburg (Missouri Highway T South)
Newburg (2.4 miles south on MO T)
The car repair shops of the St. Louis & San Francisco Railway were housed here in a group of red frame buildings strung along the tracks between the main street and the Little Piney Creek. The site was settled by William Coppedge, who brought his wife, four sons, and two daughters here in 1823 and began manufacturing gunpowder, using saltpeter from a nearby cave. No village was formed until Captain C. W. Rogers platted a town in 1883 in anticipation of a change in the railroad's division points. In 1894, the shops were moved here, thus giving Newburg an industrial life unusual in a region devoted almost exclusively to agriculture and recreation.
From Doolittle, the travel route continues on Eisenhower Street, which becomes County Road 762 west of town.
Junction with Interstate 44 (Exit 176) (3.2 miles west of Doolittle on Eisenhower Street/CR 762)
The travel route accesses Interstate 44 at this intersection, as there is not another crossing of Little Piney Creek besides Interstate 44 itself.
Side Trip to Arlington (Arlington Outer Road South)
Arlington (2.9 miles southwest on Arlington Outer Road)
Located at the confluence of the Gasconade River and Little Piney Creek, Arlington is typical of the hamlets of the region. Through the redrawing of county lines, it has been successively in St. Louis, Gasconade, Crawford, Pulaski, and Phelps Counties, and was even for a short time seat of Crawford County. It also served briefly as a terminal of the St. Louis & San Francisco Railway.
Point of Interest:
James Harrison House
This log cabin is said to have been erected in 1812. The cabin has been a pioneer home, a stagecoach station, and the courthouse for Crawford County. The storeroom served as the courtroom, and the grand jury "considered their presentments" in a nearby grove. James Harrison, the builder, was an energetic Virginian, who with his sons, Robert and Thomas, was among the first men of affairs in Pulaski and Phelps Counties.
Junction with County Road 242 (Hog Hollow Road) (Exit 172) (3.8 miles west of CR 762 on Interstate 44)
The travel route departs from Interstate 44 at this interchange, following the north Frontage Road, also designated Powellville Outer Road.
Westward, the highway climbs the more rugged ridges of the highlands, the true Ozark country, densely wooded with oak, hickory, elm, ashs, dogwood, redbud, and hawthorn. The deep blue-green valleys are cut by swift, cold streams that offer excellent fishing. Sparsely settled by families from Virginia, Kentucky, and Tennessee during the restless era following the War of 1812, the region remained a frontier until shortly after the American Civil War, when timber interests moved in and built a few towns. But the commercial timber was soon cut and the people, unemployed, were forced to pioneer again. This time, they turned to agriculture, but their denuded hillsides were washed from under them. Later, fishing resorts were developed here, and, with government aid, erosion-control areas, game preserves, and fish hatcheries.
Junction with Missouri Highways J and Z (3.6 miles west of CR 242 on Powellville Outer Road)
The travel route crosses Interstate 44 at this interchange, turning west on Missouri Highway Z.
Junction with Teardrop Road (3.2 miles west of Missouri Highway J on Missouri Highway Z)
Side Trip to Devil’s Elbow (Teardrop Road Southeast)
Devil’s Elbow (0.6 mile southeast on Teardrop Road)
The bluffs have been listed by the State Planning Commission as one of the seven beauty spots of Missouri. Legend says the name, Devil's Elbow, was given to the point by lumberjacks who feared and cursed the log jams that formed inevitably at the bend. Signage designates this as a Route 66 attraction.
Junction with Missouri Highway 28 (Exit 163) (2.2 miles west of Teardrop Road on MO Z)
Side Trip to Portuguese Point (Missouri Highway 28 North, Hartford Road East)
Possum Lodge (1.3 miles north on MO 28, 1.5 miles east on Hartford Road)
Nearby is a wagon ford used by pioneers. Many legends are connected with the site. One story tells of a wealthy Forty-Niner who became ill at the ford on his way back East, and buried gold worth $60,000 in the nearby hills. Another legend has Jesse James and his robber band using the ford as a rendezvous and the hills as a hideaway.
Portuguese Point (6.4 miles north on MO 28 at Cliff Road)
The valley circling the point is a popular subject for artists and photographers. It was originally settled by Portuguese farmers, who made a good living raising cattle and sheep.
Junction with Interstate 44 Spur (2.8 miles west of MO 28 on MO Z)
Point of Interest:
Fort Leonard Wood (4 miles south on Interstate 44 Spur)
This U.S. Army installation is named for General Leonard Wood. Wood was an assistant surgeon in the United States Army before the Spanish-American War. He recruited the "Rough Riders" and commanded them during the Santiago campaign, being promoted to the rank of brigadier-general, and later to that of major-general of volunteers. After the capture of the city, he was made the military governor, and administered affairs so satisfactorily that in 1899 he was appointed governor-general of Cuba, and in 1901 a brigadier-general in the regular army.[xx]
On December 3rd, 1940, military and state officials broke ground for what was known as the Seventh Corps Area Training Center. In early January of 1941, the War Department designated the installation as Fort Leonard Wood. His last position of service was as Governor General of the Philippine Islands, which Spain had ceded to the U.S. after the Spanish-American War. General Wood held this position until his death in 1927.
Waynesville (3.3 miles west on Interstate 44 Spur on Interstate 44 Business)
Waynesville’s county court has been in existence for over a hundred years. G. W. Gibson “squatted” on the town site early in 1831 when the nearby spring was a watering place on the Kickapoo Trace, later known as the Old Wire Road. In 1835, James A. Bates opened a store that served also as a temporary courthouse. More people moved in, and in 1839 the town was platted. Harvey Wood secured the post office and named it for “Mad Anthony” Wayne. About the time Pulaski County was organized, the “ill-famed Counterfeit Bank of Niangua” set itself up with a president, cashier, clerks, and a “grave board of directors.” The enterprise, described by Wetmore in his Gazetteer of the State of Missouri (1837) flourished until "Mistress Missouri Amanda Jemina Skidmore," widow of a director who had been denied his share of the profits, "sharpened her fingernails afresh, and with the extreme violence of female passion, declared a war of extermination against the counterfeiters.” With her assistance the United States Marshal broke up the ring.
During the American Civil War, the town and county supported the Confederacy. The courthouse flew the Confederate flag until Union troops marched down the Old Wire Road and took over the town on June 7th, 1862. A fort was built at as base on the Union line between Rolla and Lebanon.
Point of Interest:
Waynesville Fort (Fort Street)
On June 7th, 1862, Union Forces (the 13th Missouri Militia) under Colonel Sigel, marched into Waynesville. They assumed control of several counties and built a fort here on this spot overlooking the town to guard the road and telegraph wires between St. Louis and Springfield, supply route to the Army of the West, for the duration of the Civil War.
From Waynesville, the travel route follows Missouri Highway 17 south.
Junction with Missouri Highway P (6.8 miles south of Waynesville on MO 17)
At this junction, the travel route turns northwest on Missouri Highway P to Interstate 44.
Side Trip to Turkey Ridge (Missouri Highway P North, Missouri Highway W North)
Turkey Ridge (2.3 miles north on MO P, 3.5 miles north on MO W near Raven Lane)
On the ridge is Poor Man’s Chance, developed by E. A. Steckel, who, after being pronounced an incurable cripple, was given 80 acres here by a friend. Steckel, in gathering native ferns for eastern markets, regained his health. In gratitude, he divided his land into ten-acre plots, which he sold to poor farmers at a nominal price. A community of neat houses and probable orchards was the result.
Junction with Missouri Highway AB (2 miles west of MO P on MO 17)
The travel route continues on the old route of U.S. Highway 66 west on Missouri Highway AB.
Junction with Missouri Highway 133 (Exit 145) (6.3 miles west of MO 17 on Missouri Highway AB)
This route now follows Heartwood Road, which parallels the interstate along its south side.
Junction with Missouri Highway N (4.7 miles west of MO 133 on Heartwood Road)
The route becomes Missouri Highway N west from this intersection for a short distance.
Junction with Glacier Point Road (1.1 miles west of Heartwood Road on MO N)
Glacier Point Road becomes the route’s host at this junction.
Junction with Missouri Highway F (4.8 miles west of Missouri Highway T on Glacier Point Road)
The travel route turns north for a short distance on Missouri Highway F to cross to the north side of Interstate 44.
Junction with Pecos Drive (0.5 mile north of Glacier Point Road on MO F)
The travel route follows Pecos Drive west into Lebanon.
Junction with Interstate 44 Business (5.2 miles west of Missouri Highway F on Pecos Drive/E. Route 66)
Interstate 44 Business hosts the travel route west from this junction.
Lebanon (1 mile west of E. Route 66 on Interstate 44 Business at MO 5)
Although Jesse Ballew is said to have been the first man to cross the hills and settle in the vicinity, supposedly in 1820, Lebanon had its beginning when Laclede County was formed October 1st, 1849. During the American Civil War, the community gained strategic importance through its location on the military road between St. Louis and Springfield, the line of march for both armies. It was occupied alternately by the North and the South. At the end of the war, the town's badly disrupted economy was further demoralized by the coming of the railroad in 1868 and the relocation of the town. It is said that South Pacific Railroad officials, denied free land and a depot in town, built their station a mile from the village center. Lebanon picked itself up and moved to the new site. As Harold Bell Wright says in The Calling of Dan Matthews, the residents "left the beautiful, well drained site chosen by those who cleared
the wilderness and stretched themselves along the sacred right of way.”
Lebanon has grown and thrived on the mud flat, with a depot, yards, section houses and water tanks dominating her business district. It was in Lebanon, as pastor of the First Christian Church, that Harold Bell Wrights, the novelist, began his literary career.
Points of Interest:
Richard Parks Bland Statue (2nd Street and Adams Street)
This memorial commemorates Laclede’s most distinguished citizen. Bland was born in Hartford, Kentucky, on August 19th, 1835, and came to Missouri from Nevada in 1865. After practicing law for four years in Rolla, he moved to Lebanon. In 1872, he was elected to Congress, where he so distinguished himself that he was returned to office twelve times. He suffered political defeat in his district only once, in 1894. Called "Silver Dick" for his 16-to-1 free-coinage stand in 1877, he was co-author of the unsatisfactory Bland-Allison Act. In 1890, Bland renewed his fight for unrestricted coinage of silver. In 1896, he was the leading candidate for the Democratic presidential nomination until William Jennings Bryan unleashed his oratory at the national convention, On June 15th, 1899, Bland died at his farm near Lebanon.
Joseph W. McClurg Memorial (Lebanon Cemetery)
Joseph W. McClurg, pioneer builder and merchant, began his political career as deputy sheriff of St. Louis County at the age of 20. Emerging from the first year of the Civil War with the rank of Colonel, he was elected to Congress in 1862 and served three terms. As governor (1868-70), he was largely responsible for the establishment of the Missouri School of Mines and Metallurgy, the agricultural college at the University of Missouri, and the State Normal schools at Kirksville and Warrensburg. McClurg died in 1900.
Side Trip to Bennett Spring State Park (Missouri Highway 64 West, Missouri Highway 64A West)
Bennett Spring State Park (11.3 miles west on MO 64, 1.5 miles west on MO 64A)
This state park includes the former hamlet of Brice, settled by James Brice in 1837. Bennett’s Mill, a three-story red frame gristmill on the stream's bank, is the "Gordon's Mill" of Harold Bell Wright's The Calling of Dan Matthews. The old miller was a friend of Wright's, and the author spent much of his time here while writing the book. The Niangua River and the small pool above the darn are two of the best fishing spots in Missouri.
Junction with Missouri Highway W (2 miles west of Lebanon on Interstate 44 Business)
The travel route turns west on Missouri Highway W at this intersection at Interstate 44.
Junction with Missouri Highway C (9.4 miles west of Interstate 44 Business on MO W)
The travel route crosses Interstate 44 here to Philipsburg.
Junction with Missouri Highway CC (0.4 mile south of MO W on MO C)
The old route of U.S. Highway 66 is now designated as Missouri Highway CC, Newport Road, at this point west from Philipsburg.
Marshfield (18.6 miles west of Philipsburg on MO CC at MO 38)
Marshfield was named in honor of the Massachusetts home of Daniel Webster. The business district is built about the two-story, brown-brick Webster County courthouse, an imposing structure erected in 1870, with twin cupolas and an arched passageway through the center.
The Flannagan family, who arrived in the early 1830’s, are said to have been the first white settlers within the present limits of Marshfield. The town was not surveyed until 1856. During the American Civil War, the village suffered numerous raids. In 1878 and 1880, it was visited by tornadoes which killed 87 persons, injured 200, and removed the second story of the courthouse.
Between Marshfield and Strafford, the highway passes from the highlands into the Old Plains or Springfield Plateau. The land is gently rolling and adapted to cultivation. Peculiarly isolated in pioneer days because of its distance from large streams and the difficult country to the east, its history is more meager than that of other border sections. Prior to the War of 1812, it was known as the Osage Country. Sometime during or immediately after the war, a band of Kickapoo Indians moved into the area, causing it to be known as Kickapoo Prairie.
From Marshfield, the travel route follows Missouri Highway OO (Washington Street) west along the south side of Interstate 44.
Stafford (12.5 miles west of Marshfield on Missouri Highway OO)
This is a crossroads hamlet located on land that was once a Kickapoo Indian reservation. By the Treaty of Edwardsville, Illinois (1819), the Kickapoo Indians ceded lands in Illinois and Indiana to the United States in exchange for these lands in southwest Missouri. In 1832, by the Treaty of Castor Hill, St. Louis County, this was again exchanged for lands west of the Missouri State Line.
Junction with Missouri Highway 125 (1.3 miles west of Stafford on Missouri Highway OO)
Side Trip to Danforth House and Cemetery (Missouri Highway 125 South, Farm Road 112 West, Farm Road 213 South)
Danforth House (2.2 miles south on MO 125, 0.8 mile west on FR 112, 1.3 miles south on FR 213)
This residence was erected in 1839 by Josiah Danforth. On the lawn is a millstone shipped from France to Natchez, by way of New Orleans, and then across the river and overland by wagon. The brick from which the house was constructed was fired on site by slaves. On an opposite hill is the site of the plantation slave quarters and graveyard.
Danforth Cemetery (2.2 miles south on MO 125, 0.8 mile west on FR 112, 1.4 miles south on FR 213 at FR 116)
A marker was erected here to mark the site of the Danforth Presbyterian Church. The congregation was organized in September of 1837. The church was erected in 1890 and burned in 1985.
Junction with Missouri Highway 144 (2.9 miles west of MO 125 on Missouri Highway OO)
The travel route gains the Missouri Highway 144 designation as it enters Springfield.
Junction with Interstate 44 Business (4.5 miles west of Missouri Highway OO on MO 144)
The travel route now follows Interstate 44 Business west through Springfield on Glenstone Avenue and Chestnut Street/Expressway.
(4.5 miles west of MO 144 on Interstate 44 Business at Missouri Highway 13)
The first attempt to establish a permanent settlement in the Springfield area was made by Thomas Patterson, who brought his family up the James River in 1821 and purchased the claim of the John P. Pettijohn family. When 500 Delaware Indians arrived the next year, asserting that the government had given them southwestern Missouri for a reservation, one of the white settlers was sent to St. Louis to ascertain which claim was correct. The Indians were upheld, and a Delaware and a Kickapoo village are said to have been built on or near the present site of Springfield. Subsequently, all the wh|te settlers abandoned the area except James Wilson, who moved in with the Indians, marrying first one then another of the Indian women. When the Delaware left the locality, he sent his third Indian wife with them, and returned to St. Louis where he married a white woman, and purchased farm implements. He then returned to develop a farm on the creek which now bears his name.
In 1830, the Government began moving all Indian tribes westward, and a rather slow migration of white families into the region began. Meanwhile, John Polk Campbell and his brother, Madison, had left Tennessee to search for a neighbor's runaway son and to verify reports of the Ozark country. Finding the boy near Fayetteville, Arkansas, they came northward to the site of Springfield, then known as Kickapoo Prairie, and staked claims by cutting a blaze and their names on a tree near a spring approximately 400 yards northeast of the present Public Square. When Campbell and his brother-in-law, Joseph Miller, returned with their families in February of 1830, they found the William Fulbright family and A. J. Burnett on the land. Burnett's cabin was near the spring on Campbell's claim, but he yielded possession when the Campbells showed their names and marks on the tree. The site was well chosen, since the spring was excellent, and important early trails were nearby. Within a few months, a settlement grew up.
In 1833, Greene County was organized; Campbell was made county clerk, and the county seat established in his log cabin. Two years later, Campbell and his wife deeded 50 acres between what are now Jefferson and Campbell Avenues and Pershing and Mill Streets to the county for a town site. The sale of lots provided funds to erect a courthouse on the Square, which Campbell had platted with the streets converging in the center, in conformity with one he had seen in Tennessee. This unorthodox plan aroused comment, which Campbell dismissed by asserting; "Well, that's the way they made 'em where I
Traditions vary as to the origin of the town s name. One account relates that Springfield was named for the former home of one of the early settlers. Another states that Campbell chose this name because there was a field on the hill, and a spring under it. The town was incorporated in 1838, and reincorporated in 1846, a year prior to receiving its charter. Since southwestern Missouri was too isolated by surrounding hills to develop along with the rest of the State, Springfield grew slowly. It was, however, strategically located at the intersection of the region's two most important roads, so that when heavy migration did begin, expansion was rapid. The majority of the settlers who began coming in 1850 were stockbreeders looking for good grazing and grain producing lands. By 1859, Springfield, with a population of 2,500, controlled the trade of the area. The Government land office for that quarter of the State had been established there in 1835 and the town was a depot for the Butterfield Stage Line.
When the American Civil War began, Springfield's population was predominantly in favor of the South. The town's key location and commercial prosperity made it a military objective for both the Union and Confederate armies throughout the war. In the Battle of Wilson's Creek, which was fought 11 miles south of town on August 10th, 1861, General Nathaniel Lyon was killed, and the Southern army won a costly victory of doubtful military value. The Confederates subsequently held Springfield until they were driven out in February of 1862 by the Union forces, which retained possession, despite numerous counterattacks, until the end of the war.
Charles Butler Hickok, better known as Wild Bill, served at the Union headquarters in Springfield as a scout and spy. After the war, he remained here. He struck up a friendship with Dave Tutt, a former
Confederate soldier and a professional gambler, but after a time the two quarreled. On July 21st, 1865, they met on the Square, and Wild Bill shot Tutt through the heart at a distance of 75 yards. He was tried, defended by John S. Phelps, later governor of Missouri (1876-1880), and acquitted. The following year he was appointed deputy United States Marshal at Fort Riley, Kansas. In 1876, he was shot and killed by Jack McCall at Deadwood, South Dakota.
In 1870, when Springfield had grown to a town of 5,555 people, a bitter fight developed over the extension of the Atlantic & Pacific Railroad (later a part of the Frisco system) to within a short distance of the city. Springfield wanted the railroad to pass through the town, but when the line was laid out it followed the high divide between the Missouri and White River basins, and consequently missed the Square by one-and-a-half miles. A group of land speculators, United States Congressman Sempronius H. Boyd, Charles E. Harwood, and John W. Lisenby were quick to seize the possibility for new profit. They persuaded Dr. Edwin T. Robberson, who owned the land north of town through which the railroad would pass, to sell them a controlling interest, so that they might plat a new town. Springfield citizens immediately retaliated by organizing a company to compel the railroad to come through the town. Delegations were sent to St. Louis and to the Boston offices of the railroad. The speculators promised the railroad a 40-acre tract for shops, a 200-foot strip for yards, and 200 acres for a town site, a half interest in which would go to the railroad company, if the line followed the original survey. Several railroad officials, including Andrew Pierce, later president of the company, came to Springfield, and a general meeting was held. Pierce offered to bring the railroad through the town in exchange for a $25,000 bonus and a depot on Central Street. The majority of the citizens objected. General
C. B. Holland informed Pierce that since the charter called for a railroad to Springfield, "not to a patch of black jack brush more than a mile away," the town would not pay the railroad a cent. Pierce then jumped up, pounded on the table, and shouted, "I'll very soon show you where I’ll build!" Immediately afterward the Ozark Land Company was organized, with Pierce as president, and the new town was deeded to this company. Springfield had lost the fight.
For a time, the swift rise of North Springfield alarmed the residents of the older town, but the benefits of the railroad soon overflowed to the original city, increasing both its population and Its commerce. Drury College was founded "between the towns” in 1873, and shortly thereafter, a post office was established in the same neighborhood. In 1881, when the Kansas City, Fort Scott, & Memphis Railroad was completed, additional shops were established in North Springfield, but trackage was laid through the older town. Gradually, the two expanding communities met; in 1887 they were consolidated.
Aided by the railroads, Springfield's industries flourished and the population quadrupled. The development of fruit and vegetable production on the fertile limestone soils of the surrounding plateau, and the establishment of the Southwest Missouri State Teachers College in 1905, gave Springfield a second Impetus for growth. Between 1900 and 1910, the population increased more than 50 per cent.
Points of Interest:
John Polk Campbell Home (2400 S. Scenic Avenue)
This two-story white frame structure was built in 1851. It is the oldest building in Springfield. Last of the many houses built by the "founder of Springfield," it was intended by Campbell to be similar to his earlier home in Columbia, Tennessee; but he went to Oklahoma (then the Cherokee Nation) before the structure was finished, leaving the plans with a builder who had never seen the original. The contractor succeeded in reproducing the interior, but could not achieve an accurate copy of the outside. In 1861, Union troops used the house as headquarters. Later, it served at a Confederate hospital, and as a home for Union soldiers. It has been extensively altered, and moved from its original location, about 300 feet to the northwest, on Jefferson Avenue.
Many stories of Campbell’s vigorous personality have survived. In 1833, the year the first church was built, Campbell laid out a one-mile race track In the southeast part of the present city, then a prairie. Two years later, he was "strongly drawn to religious matters” but refused to join his wife's church because, owing to some personal grudge, he “did not wish to go to heaven with Parson Joel Haden." He found a more congenial companion in another church, and soon after destroyed his race track.
Site of General Nicholas Smith’s Tavern (222 Boonville Avenue)
The tavern, whose dates of erection and demolition are uncertain, faced the Warsaw Road,
Springfield's earliest outlet, and was used as a station on the Butterfield Stage Line, which carried the first overland mail from Missouri to San Francisco in 1858. The arrival of the first stage was celebrated at the tavern with a banquet, speeches, and fireworks.
Drury College (East Benton Avenue and Central Street)
Cannon used in Civil War operations flank the front approaches to Burnham Hall, the administration building, and at the rear a low mound outlines the now effaced rifle pits of the Union Army. The college was organized on March 26th, 1873, as Springfield College. A few months later, a gift by
Samuel Fletcher Drury of Olivet, Michigan, resulted in its reorganization under its present name, which memorializes Albert Fletcher Drury, son of the school's benefactor, who died in 1863. The college was founded and has been largely maintained by Congregationalists, but is non-denominational in character.
Site of the Springfield Wagon and Trailer Company (Chestnut Street and Sherman Avenue)
The largest wagon factory west of the Mississippi River, this site consisted of a group of one- and two-story brick buildings with a ground area of 12 acres.
Missouri State University (Grand Street and National Avenue)
Academic Hall was erected in 1905, and a year later the college was opened as a State normal school. The name of Southwest Missouri State Teachers College was adopted in 1919. The current name was adopted in 2005.
Junction with U.S. Highway 160 (2 miles west of Springfield on Interstate 44 Business)
Side Trip to Wilson’s Creek National Battlefield Park (U.S. Highway 160 East, Missouri Highway FF South, Farm Road 182 West)
Wilson’s Creek National Battlefield Park (4.6 miles east on U.S. 160, straight 2.5 miles south on MO FF, 2.7 miles west on Farm Road 182)
The battlefield is dotted with a number of small knolls, and takes its name from the creek that flows through the small valley approximately 500 yards to the east. The Battle of Wilson’s Creek, perhaps the most important fought In Missouri, occurred on the morning of August 10th, 1861, between Union troops under General Nathaniel Lyon and an army of the Missouri State Guard under General Sterling Price, co-operating with a Confederate force from Arkansas under General McCulloch. The previous night, Lyon, with about 5,000 men, had sent General Franz Sigel to form a semicircle around the 12,000 Confederates encamped on Wilson's Creek. He planned that Sigel should attack on the flank and rear while he advanced on the front. But at daylight, the Confederates routed Sigel, and the remaining Union force was unable to withstand the superior forces. Lyon fought doggedly, but was killed during a last desperate charge. His army then retreated toward Rolla, leaving the field to Price. Union casualties were approximately 1,139; Confederate losses, 1,245. On a rock-strewn clearing on the summit of a ridge, a metal flagpole and limestone slab mark where Lyon was killed.
Point of Interest:
The Ray House is the only park structure on the original site that dates back to the Battle of Wilson's Creek. Postmaster and farmer John Ray built it in the 1850's. For ten years, it served as the Wilson's Creek Post Office, a stopping place on the old Wire Road that connected Springfield, Missouri, with Fort Smith, Arkansas. In 1861, twelve people were living here; John and Roxanna Ray, their nine children, and a mail carrier. Their slave "Aunt Rhoda" and her four children occupied a small cabin to the rear of the house. On August 10th, 1861, they found themselves in the path of war. The Ray house served as a hospital during and after the battle.
The Butterfield Overland Stagecoach stopped here on its way to Elk Horn Tavern, Pea Ridge, Arkansas. It then turned west to San Francisco. The Old Wire Road is still very visible in front of the house.
Junction with Interstate 44 (Exit 72) (2.2 miles west of U.S. 160 on Interstate 44 Business)
The travel route changes its designation to Missouri Highway 266 at this interchange.
Junction with Missouri Highway F (10.9 miles west of Interstate 44 on MO 266)
Side Trip to Ash Grove (Missouri Highway F North)
Ash Grove (9 miles north on MO F)
This farm trading center was settled and named by Colonel Nathan Boone, the youngest son of Daniel Boone.
Point of Interest:
Colonel Nathan Boone Home (1.8 miles north on Missouri Highway V)
This cabin was built by Colonel Boone in 1837 when he moved his family to Greene County. Near the cabin is the family cemetery, containing the graves of Nathan Boone and his wife, Olive Bibber Boone.
Junction with Missouri Highway 96 (4.9 miles west of Missouri Highway F on MO 266)
The travel route follows Missouri Highway 96 west from this intersection. A portion of the old Route 66 continues to run west for another 1.5 miles through Paris Spring before ending at this highway.
Carthage (34.8 miles west of MO 266 on MO 96 at MO 571)
U.S. Highway 66 intersected with U.S. Highway 71 at Carthage. Missouri Highway 571 identifies the earlier route of U.S. Highway 71 through the town.
Henry Piercey is said to have built the first house in Carthage; George Hornback opened the first store. The town, which was selected as the seat of Jasper County, was platted in 1842 and named for the ancient commercial center of northern Africa. Twenty-two years later, Confederate guerrillas burned the courthouse, the business section, and most of the residences. After the American Civil War, a lead and zinc mining boom in the Joplin area brought the town a share of prosperity. When the marble quarries were opened in the 1880's, its economic base was firmly established. The importance of dairying in the region steadily increased, largely as a result of the "Missouri Dairy Club” plan, originated by E. G. Bennett, and first organized at Carthage in 1916, when 105 head of high-grade Holstein heifers were purchased to improve local herds. Under the plan, this purebred cattle gradually replaced the original scrub stock.
In the latter part of the nineteenth century, Carthage was known throughout the Nation as the home of two widely publicized women, Belle Starr and Annie Baxter. Belle Starr (1846-1889) was born Belle Shirley, the daughter of Judge John Shirley, a Carthage resident of wealth and standing, and a Southern sympathizer. When Edward, Belle's brother, joined Quantrill’s band, his sister gave him regular information as to the movement of Union troops. She was an excellent rider and pistol shot, and after Edward was killed she herself became a member of Quantrill’s bushwhackers. In 1866, Judge Shirley moved to Texas, where Belle eloped with Jim Reed, one of the old Quantrill gang. Reed was shot by a friend who hoped to gain the reward offered for his capture, but Belle frustrated this plan by refusing to identify the body as her husband's. Later, she married Sam Starr, a Cherokee, and with him established a ranch on the Canadian River in Indian Territory. The ranch became a notorious bandit hideout, and the headquarters for Belle's band of eight men who rode under her orders. It was here that she was shot by Edgar Watson, wanted in Florida for murder.
Mrs. Annie Baxter enjoyed fame of an entirely different nature. She was clerk of Jasper County. Elected in 1890, she was prevented from taking up her duties on the grounds that women did not have the right to hold office. Mrs. Baxter carried the case to the State Supreme Court, where she won a favorable decision. Her resolution in fighting for her rights brought such widespread attention that she was made a colonel on the governor's staff.
North of Carthage, on July 5th, 1861, a Union force of 1,100 infantry, with 8 pieces of artillery, commanded by Colonel Franz Sigel, attacked 4,000 Missouri State Guardsmen, armed with 7 pieces of artillery, and 2,000 unarmed recruits under the command of General Claiborne F. Jackson. The Union column had been sent from Springfield to intercept the Confederate forces, which were moving south to join General Ben McCulloch's troops near the Arkansas State Line. Finding his command outnumbered, Colonel Sigel began an orderly retreat to the south, engaging in a succession of rear-guard skirmishes until he reached Carthage; here he moved eastward. When darkness halted the fighting, he marched his men all night and escaped. The Union losses were 13 killed and 31 wounded, 5 of the latter being taken prisoner. The State Guard's loss was 35 killed, 125 wounded, and 45 captured.
Side Trip to Oronogo (Missouri Highway 96 West, Grant Street South)
Oronogo (9.1 miles west on MO 96, 0.8 mile south on Grant Street)
This is the home of the Oronogo Circle Mine, famed for the production of over $30,000,000 worth of lead and zinc ore during the late 1800’s. The initial purchaser of the site, who bought the land before ore was discovered, operated by lease at a reported $9,000,000 profit. He then sold his title to another firm, which also leased the building and mining rights for a substantial fee. Since the 1890’s, the original $50 land purchase made a dozen or more millionaires.
From the junction of Missouri Highway 96 and Missouri Highway 571, the travel route travels south to Oak Street.
Junction with Oak Street (0.2 mile south of MO 96 on MO 571)
The travel route turns west on Oak Street along the earlier route of U.S. Highway 66.
Junction with Old 66 Boulevard (1.6 miles west of MO 571 on Oak Street)
The travel route turns west on Old 66 Boulevard at this intersection.
Junction with Pine Street (5.8 miles west of Oak Street on Old 66 Boulevard/Highway)
The route of U.S. Highway 66 turns south here to Carterville.
Carterville (1.3 miles south of Old 66 Highway on Pine Street at Lewis Street)
Carterville was surveyed in August of 1875, shortly after John Webb had discovered lead in the vicinity and W.A. Daughterty had erected the first house. The following year, a hotel was built, and in 1877 the town was incorporated. The First World War demand for zinc caused a boom in Carterville as it did in Webb City and other towns of the district. Laborers, professional men, salesmen, and adventurers poured in. New dwellings and business houses were erected, streetcar lines and additional railroad tracks were laid. When the war ended, production fell off, and, one by one, the mines shut down. Most of the miners moved away.
From Carterville, the travel route turns west on Lewis Street.
Webb City (1.5 miles west of Carterville on Lewis Street/Missouri Highway HH at Main Street)
In contrast to Carterville, checked the rapid decline that set in at the death of its principal industry by developing new sources of income. The T-shaped business district retains at least a semblance of its former activity. Until 1873, the site of Webb City was part of the fertile acres belonging to John C. Webb, whose corn and wheat farm consisted of a quarter-section bounded on the east by the Carter farm. In the summer of 1873, as Webb was following his team over the fields, his plowshare hit a hard, half-submerged chunk of lead. Webb put the specimen aside until fall when his corn had been harvested. That winter, he showed his discovery to W.A. Daugherty, who immediately became his partner. The winter's work brought little success, however, because of water in the mine. After the second year, Webb became discouraged, and sold his interest to C. P. Ashcraft, an experienced miner, who promptly dynamited the shaft. The explosion threw lead in all directions, and opened the greatest mining era Missouri has known. Some of the miners and promoters who flocked to the area settled to the east, establishing Carterville on Mr. Carter's farm; others settled to the west, on Webb's land. In July of 1875, Webb platted the town of Webb City. In the 1880's, discovery of commercial uses for zinc expanded local mineral production. A large semicircle of mines half surrounded the town; the population doubled almost overnight. Between 1894 and 1904, the mines produced approximately $23,000,000 in mineral wealth, yet did not reach their peak until 1917 and 1918, when crews worked night and day filling First World War orders. At the end of the war, Webb City turned its attention to agriculture, and textile and processing plants were opened.
Junction with U.S. Highway 71 Business (0.3 miles south of Broadway Street on Main Street)
The travel route turns south on U.S. Highway 71 Business here.
Junction with Missouri Highway 171 (0.6 mile south of Main Street on U.S. 71 Business)
Missouri Highway 171 follows the earlier route of U.S. Highway 66 west to Missouri Highway 43.
Junction with Missouri Highway 43 (2 miles west of U.S. 71 Business on MO 171)
The travel route turns south on Missouri Highway 43 to Joplin.
(4 miles south of MO 171 on MO 43 at MO 66)
Joplin's story revolves around the mining first of lead, then of zinc. However, it was not lead but land that attracted the first settlers to the area. In 1838, John C. Cox, a Tennessean, settled on Turkey Creek, near the end of what is now Mineral Avenue. One or two years later, the Reverend Harris G. Joplin, a young Methodist minister from Greene County, Missouri, staked out an 80-acre tract, on which, near a spring which still flows, he built a cabin just east of the creek that now bears his name. By 1841, a settlement had grown up around the two cabins and Cox had opened a store. Commissioned postmaster, he set up in his store the community's first post office, called the Blytheville Post Office in honor of Billy Blythe, a wealthy and popular Cherokee who lived on Shoal Creek. Church services were held in Reverend Joplin's cabin until he returned in 1844 to Greene County, where he died three years later. The discovery of lead in the immediate vicinity of Joplin was accidental, despite the fact that the almost pure deposits were so close to the surface that they were sometimes exposed by flooding creeks or hard rains. About 1849, David Campbell, a miner from Neosho, visited his friend, William Tingle, on Turkey Creek at the mouth of Leadville Hollow. Noticing what he thought to be an abandoned Indian-Spanish excavation, Campbell investigated. When the first digging produced more than a hundred pounds of galena, Campbell and Tingle developed the mine. Pig lead from it was hauled overland to Boonville and sold by Tingle's slave, Pete. From there, it was taken by steamboat to St. Louis. In 1850, the firm known as Tingle & McKee advertised that they had a good mine and were in the process of building a log furnace.
During the year of the Tingle-Campbell strike, a African-American boy belonging to Judge Cox turned up several large pieces of ore on Joplin Creek, near the Campbell mine, while digging for fishing worms. "Cox's Mines" developed, and soon other strikes were made in the Joplin Creek area. Further hope of immediate development, however, was shattered by the American Civil War. No major engagements occurred in the vicinity, but Jasper and nearby counties became a marching and recruiting ground for the contending armies.
Foraging parties discouraged mining enterprise by taking whatever they found, including smelted lead to use for bullets. When the war ended, the richness of deposits in the vicinity attracted national attention. Old and new mining companies began operations, and miners and prospectors poured into the region. Land was offered for lease on a royalty basis of 10 per cent of the ore recovered. Necessary equipment consisted of a pick and shovel, a windlass and ore bucket, a hand drill, and some blasting powder. Here was the poor man's chance for fortune, and a fever of small mining operations broke out.
For the most part, those who migrated to the Joplin and other Tri-State mining camps had little in common with the Bret Harte characters who crowded the West in the gold rush days. Although the mining camps drew their share of adventurers, most of the settlers were of English and Scotch-Irish descent, "hill folks" from the nearby Ozarks who came with their wives and children. Even in the “wide open" early days, family life was the dominant factor in Joplin and the other mining camps of the area. Newly arrived European immigrants have played no role in the Tri-State mining^ fields.
The development of the area has been characterized by successful individual enterprise and a lack of labor disputes. In 1870, the Granby Company, then the largest in the area, offered a prize of $500 to the miner or company of miners who produced the largest amount of ore within a given period. E. R. Moffet and John B. Sergeant, employees of the company, won the prize. Quitting their jobs, they leased a piece of land from Judge Cox along Joplin Creek and spent most of the prize money for powder and tools. They then sank the first shaft in the valley, and having struck a rich pocket of lead ore, built smelting furnaces on the present site of the Union Depot. A few years later, when Captain E. O. Bartlett invented a process for making sublimed white lead, Moffet and Sergeant purchased the patent. With this monopoly, and the expanding prosperity of the mining field, they developed their Lone Elm Mining and Smelting Company into one of the largest in the district.
Within a year after Moffet's and Sergeant s strike, 500 men were mining lead in the Joplin Creek valley, and intense rivalry sprang up among the various companies. On July 12th, 1871, Patrick Murphy of Carthage organized the Murphysburg Town Company, which purchased a tract of 40 acres west of Joplin Creek and platted the town of Murphysburg. A few weeks later, Judge Cox retaliated by platting a town site east of Joplin Creek, between Galena and Cox Avenues and Central and Valley Streets, which he named Joplin City in honor of his old friend, the Methodist minister. Rivalry between the two new towns was immediate, and bitter. Saturday night fights became the accepted means of establishing superiority. Between major brawls lead by such characters as "Reckless Bill," "Three Fingered Pete," "Rocky Mountain Bob,” and "Dutch Pete, the bad man from Bitter Creek" the children fought back and forth with stones. The winter of 1871 and 1872 was known as "the reign of terror," and "Dutch Pete" was its monarch. But in the early spring, J. W. Lupton, a miner, licked the armed bully, and other law-abiding citizens were stirred to action. Lupton was made constable. On March 19th, 1872, the county court was petitioned to incorporate the two towns under one charter and name it Union City. This charter had hardly been granted before its legality was questioned, but on March 23rd, 1873, when the combined population was approximately 4,000, the State general assembly passed an act re-incorporating the two towns as the City of Joplin.
Because it was generally regarded as a boom town that would soon exploit its wealth and die, the city at first held small attraction for the railroads. In 1875, however, Moffet and Sergeant organized the Joplin Railroad Company, which, in 1877, completed a 39-mile branch line connecting with the Gulf Railroad at Girard, Kansas. Two years later, this road was purchased by the St. Louis & San Francisco Railroad. In 1882, the Missouri Pacific Railroad extended its tracks to Joplin; four other railroads followed during the next two decades. The railroads not only provided a cheaper method of freighting lead, but made possible the development of the zinc industry. Joplin's growth was immediately stimulated. The potential value of zinc had been pointed out before the American Civil War, but its extraction was difficult, the market price was low in comparison with lead, and freighting charges were high. Miners consequently discarded "black jack as worthless. Eventually, however, a satisfactory means of processing the ore was discovered, and by 1872 Joplin began to ship out zinc. The price rose rapidly from $3 to $15 per ton. In 1880, Jasper County zinc production was double that of lead.
By 1888, the city, with an approximate population of 8,000, was a nationally recognized lead and zinc center. But the town was young, and sudden wealth is a heady wine. Great fortunes were made and lost in "handkerchief-size" plots. Men plunged, either in cards or with mining leases. Miners were paid off in the saloons (the town had 40) on Saturday nights, and spent Sundays nursing heads cracked during drunken brawls. The price of metal fluctuated, and it was sometimes possible for a miner to make more by digging ore himself and selling it to a buyer than by working for the companies. Lead and zinc were widely accepted as money. Small boys gleaned the waste discarded by careless and inefficient mining methods, and turned in the metal for candy. A miner who lacked cash for tickets at the Blackwell Opera House could exchange a wheelbarrow load of ore for family admission. Even groceries could be purchased with lead or zinc. Eventually, of course, the town sobered up. The business men who had control of the city government further developed the reform instituted by Lupton in the seventies, and changes began to take place in the town's commercial life. Wholesale concerns were established.
The smelters moved from the more or less exhausted local mines to the rich deposits which had been discovered south and west of the city, and Joplin settled down to the buying and selling of ore, the processing of metals, and other regional industries. By 1900, Joplin had become the largest town and railroad center of the district, and diversified activities had been introduced.
A strike, called in 1935 by the International Union of Mine, Mill, and Smelter Workers for recognition of the union as an agency of collective bargaining, continued in varying forms until a decision handed down by the National Labor Relations Board on October 28th, 1939, brought the strikers a measure of victory.
Points of Interest:
T.C. Cox Home (North end of Mineral Avenue)
This residence was built in 1867. Near this house, John C. Cox settled in 1838 and built his first log cabin. North of the house is the private cemetery of the Cox family, where the pioneer and several of his children are buried.
Municipal Market (Main Street and Virginia Street)
This structure, with a marquee overhanging the sidewalk on Main Street, is a two-story building of modified Romanesque design built in 1912.
Junge Baking Company (1805 Main Street)
Started as a bread bakery by August and Albert Junge in 1900, this firm began making crackers and cookies in 1904.
Eagle-Picher Lead Company Plant (Perkins Street at Maiden Lane)
This plant, with other units of the Eagle-Picher system, was the outgrowth of the lead furnaces established by O.H. and W.H. Picher in the Joplin district in 1874. The company pioneered in the development of the Picher (Oklahoma) lead and zinc field in 1912. A merger combining the Picher Lead Company with the Eagle White Lead Company of Cincinnati was made in 1916. Other companies were absorbed, starting in 1920, to form the present extensive Eagle-Picher organization.
From Joplin, the travel route follows Missouri Highway 66 west to the Kansas Line and Galena.
Kansas State Line (5.9 miles west of Joplin on Missouri Highway 66)
A & P Food Store Building, 38.65470886, -90.29488504
Adams-Wilhite Store, 37.71957967, -91.20753214
American Wine Company Plant, 38.64651144, -90.21998918
Anheuser Busch Brewery, 38.59651113, -90.20973027
Antioch Baptist Church, 38.65809917, -90.23911595
Arlington , 37.92047261, -91.97101751
Ash Grove , 37.31524272, -93.58464971
Bell Telephone Building, 38.6290133, -90.19456291
Bellefontaine Cemetery, 38.68980801, -90.23489273
Bennett Spring State Park, 37.72597956, -92.8568589
Blind Girls Home, 38.66084576, -90.27005768
Brentwood, 38.61771882, -90.34836948
Calvary Cemetery, 38.69422722, -90.23851955
Campbell House, 38.63158071, -90.20137012
Carterville , 37.14907105, -94.43787011
Carthage, 37.17863894, -94.31386802
Chain of Rocks Bridge, 38.76028061, -90.17577279
Chatillon-DeMenil Mansion, 38.59284639, -90.21611369
Christ Church Cathedral, 38.6309284, -90.19872689
Church of St. Francis Borgia , 38.5611102, -91.01451099
Colonel Nathan Boone Home , 37.3410301, -93.58540786
Compton Hill Water Tower, 38.61503363, -90.23933435
Concordia Theological Seminary, 38.6358701, -90.30891836
Cuba , 38.06264641, -91.40351759
Danforth Cemetery , 37.23643941, -93.15529718
Danforth House , 37.23747077, -93.15470979
Delmar Rail Station, 38.65513802, -90.29439056
Dent-Grant House, 38.61965179, -90.19115222
Devil’s Elbow , 37.84802821, -92.06241228
Dillard Mill, 37.71761258, -91.20714965
Dillard Mill State Historic Site , 37.71957967, -91.20753214
Dorris Motor Car Co. Building, 38.63591194, -90.24685967
Drury College , 37.21734903, -93.28759112
E.W. Bishop House , 37.9500405, -91.77419878
Eads Bridge, 38.62900233, -90.18057227
Eagle-Picher Lead Company Plant , 37.09539942, -94.53060358
Eugene Field House, 38.62032795, -90.19204009
Eureka, 38.50287943, -90.62796327
Forest Park, 38.63965058, -90.26556027
Fort Leonard Wood , 37.770649, -92.1170333
Fox Theatre, 38.63857269, -90.23185599
Franz Schwarzer Zither Factory , 38.55808102, -91.00841846
Frazier Monument , 38.5601813, -91.00878729
General William Selby Harney Mansion, 38.20435918, -91.16390772
Grant’s Farm, 38.55081034, -90.35308909
Gray Summit, 38.48931126, -90.81765128
J.C. Penney Warehouse Bldg, 38.6248827, -90.2022475
James Harrison House, 37.92047261, -91.97101751
Jefferson Barracks, 39.49996066, -90.28689098
Jefferson National Expansion Mo, 38.62452853, -90.18520308
Jewel Box, 38.63380909, -90.28054702
John Polk Campbell Home , 37.17253958, -93.3317278
John Woodward Johnson House, 38.62560773, -90.191118
Joplin , 37.08401008, -94.51346664
Joseph W. McClurg Memorial , 37.69184227, -92.66771047
Junge Baking Company , 37.07163036, -94.51406087
Kirkwood, 38.58342791, -90.40626216
Kirkwood, 38.58342785, -90.40626216
Lafayette Park, 38.61565948, -90.21703172
Leasburg , 38.09195817, -91.2970486
Lebanon , 37.68066125, -92.663667
Lemp Brewing Co. Factory, 38.59215975, -90.21847463
Lemp Mansion, 38.59349012, -90.21603143
Liberty Hall , 38.55872988, -91.01119152
Louis Wehrman House , 38.55832007, -91.01143741
Majestic Hotel, 38.62840176, -90.19539475
Maplewood, 38.61278057, -90.32251036
Marshfield , 37.33724959, -92.90630947
Maryville College of the Sacred, 38.57972932, -90.23524106
Meramec Cavern , 38.24391963, -91.09070175
Meramec Springs State Park , 37.95394054, -91.53290869
Meramec State Park, 38.20775378, -91.09671915
Merchants Exchange, 38.62604821, -90.18740237
Mineral Museum , 37.95311067, -91.77158965
Missouri Pacific Building, 38.62956047, -90.19893253
Missouri School of Mines , 37.95311067, -91.77158965
Missouri State University , 37.19648963, -93.27621885
Municipal Bridge, 38.61462593, -90.18400741
National Candy Company Factory, 38.58750343, -90.25886178
Negro Masonic Hall, 38.64741325, -90.22753453
Newburg, 37.9138405, -91.90324838
North St. Louis Water Tower, 38.67053664, -90.20845306
Oakgrove Roadside Park, 38.11852078, -91.3147866
Old Arsenal, 38.59376872, -90.20904732
Old Courthouse, 38.62610972, -90.18906212
Old Dillard Cemetery, 37.72009877, -91.2044927
Old Mill Lodge, 37.71957967, -91.20753214
Old National Hotel, 38.62526894, -90.18748272
Old Orchard, 38.69422722, -90.23851955
Old Rock House, 38.62485981, -90.18376195
Oronogo, 37.1883822, -94.4685923
Orpheum Theater, 38.63022566, -90.19277012
Pacific , 38.4840281, -90.7414332
Phelps County Courthouse , 37.94564186, -91.77354991
Portuguese Point , 37.90777187, -92.09391311
Possum Lodge , 37.86097825, -92.07575846
Ray House, 37.10696976, -93.39808992
Richard Parks Bland Statue , 37.68224927, -92.66398802
Robert E. Lee Hotel, 38.6307621, -90.20588756
Rolla , 37.95153973, -91.76973867
Rosati , 38.02655911, -91.53060009
Route 66 State Park , 38.50563882, -90.58078715
Saint Francis de Sales Church, 38.60398293, -90.22579134
Samuel Cupples House, 38.63670588, -90.2357713
Scott Joplin House, 38.63707066, -90.21414042
Shawneetown Ford , 38.41832852, -90.90901189
Shelley House, 38.66702557, -90.24420381
Site of First Dillard Schoolhouse, 37.71957967, -91.20753214
Site of Fort Wyman , 37.93870922, -91.77716992
Site of General Nicholas Smith’s Tavern , 37.20962067, -93.29233127
Site of Laclede’s Village, 38.6241324, -90.18408978
Site of Pierre Chouteau House, 38.6291635, -90.18347263
Site of Spanish Government Hous, 38.62496853, -90.18764746
Site of the Old Custom House, 38.62722981, -90.18684912
Site of the Springfield Wagon and Trailer Company , 37.21503018, -93.28117757
Springfield, 37.20978801, -93.29224248
St. Clair , 38.34528989, -90.98091329
St. Francis Xavier’s Church, 38.63715112, -90.23291433
St. James , 37.99796794, -91.61480266
St. Louis University, 38.63585293, -90.23325765
St. Stanislaus Kostka Church, 38.64204884, -90.20562196
Stafford , 37.2684969, -93.11708228
Stanton, 38.2744779, -91.10535934
State Federal Soldiers Home, 38.0032989, -91.61806749
Statler Hotel, 38.63082647, -90.19208527
Sugar Loaf Mound, 38.5751009, -90.23128104
Sullivan , 38.21005897, -91.15871678
T.C. Cox Home , 37.09697036, -94.50583049
The Old Cathedral, 38.62410843, -90.18708134
Tower Grove Park, 38.60496998, -90.24187458
Town of Bassora , 38.55200898, -91.00208005
Turkey Ridge , 37.81949168, -92.32596878
Union Station, 38.6292994, -90.20636988
Vichy , 38.11123296, -91.76036765
Wainwright Building, 38.62694299, -90.19176006
Washington , 38.55273981, -91.00145167
Washington Hotel Building , 38.55926947, -91.01072024
Washington University, 38.64757693, -90.30100894
Waynesville , 37.8285007, -92.1996581
Waynesville Fort, 37.82710734, -92.20109927
Webb City, 37.14631848, -94.46383166
Webber Homestead , 37.94617803, -91.77966976
Webster Groves, 38.59261107, -90.35655201
Webster University, 38.59147036, -90.34604037
Wilson’s Creek National Battlefield Park, 37.10554908, -93.40056245
Wisdom Mill, 37.71957967, -91.20753214
[i] Gateway Arch Facts; Gateway Arch Riverfront; http://www.gatewayarch.com/Arch/info/arch.fact.aspx
[ii] Stiritz, Mary M.; "National Register of Historic Places Inventory-Nomination: Majestic Hotel / DeSoto Hotel"; Missouri Department of Natural Resources; http://www.dnr.mo.gov/shpo/nps-nr/84002653.pdf. August 1st, 1983.
[iii] S.G. Adams Building; BuiltStLouis; http://www.builtstlouis.net/opos/sgadams.html
[iv] History of the Roberts Orpheum; The Roberts Orpheum Theater; http://www.robertsorpheum.com/about.php
[v] Mo-Pac’s first 125 Years; Missouri Pacific Historical Society; http://www.mopac.org/history_mp.asp
[vi] Andrea Gagen, Planning and Urban Design, Cultural Resources Office; Nomination to the National Register for the Robert E. Lee Hotel; October 23, 2006.
[vii] Joplin, Scott, Residence; National Historic Landmarks Program, National Park Service; http://tps.cr.nps.gov/nhl/detail.cfm?ResourceId=1706&ResourceType=Building
[viii] Church History; Saint Stanislaus Kostka Parish; http://www.stanislauskostka.com/church_history_en.html
[ix] Shelley House; We Show Overcome, Historic Places of the Civil Rights Movement, National Park Service; http://www.nps.gov/nr/travel/civilrights/mo1.htm
[x] Opening Night; The Fabulous Fox; http://www.fabulousfox.com/opening_night.aspx
[xi] Visitors Guide to the Samuel Cupples House; greatriverroad.com; http://www.greatriverroad.com/stlouis/cupples.htm
[xii] Blind Girls Home-National Register of Historic Places
Inventory Nomination Form; National Park Service, 1984.
[xiii] History of the Jewel Box; Official Website of the City of St. Louis; http://stlouis.missouri.org/citygov/parks/jewelbox/history.html
[xiv] Compton Hill Reservoir Park; Official Web Site of the City of St. Louis; http://stlouis.missouri.org/citygov/parks/parks_div/compton.html
[xv] Traditions for Tomorrow; http://www.traditionfortomorrow.com/
[xvi] The Lemp Mansion; The Lemp Mansion Restaurant and Inn; http://www.lempmansion.com/history.html
[xvii] Brief History; Chatillon-DeMenil Mansion; http://www.demenil.org/history.htm
[xviii] Donald Roussin & Kevin Kious, “William J. Lemp Brewing Company: A Tale of Triumph and Tragedy in St. Louis, Missouri”; American Breweriana Journal, March and April, 1999.
[xix] Marc Lourdes; “Osage tribe purchases historic Sugarloaf Mound in St. Louis”; St. Louis Post-Dispatch
Saturday, August 1st, 2009.